Method to create high and ultrahigh pressures and device for its realisation

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of development of high and ultrahigh static pressures in high volumes and may be used to test various units and assemblies of promising aviation hydraulic systems of high pressure, and also to investigate properties of new structural materials and creation of stable crystalline structures. The method to develop high and ultrahigh pressures includes filling of a compression chamber with water and its cooling below the temperature of phase transition, at the same time cooling of the compression chamber is carried out in sections, starting with the extreme one, besides, cooling of each subsequent section is carried out after freezing of he previous one. The device for creation of high and ultrahigh pressures comprises a body, a working chamber and channels for circulation of a coolant. The body is made in the form of two or more coaxial cylinders inserted one into another with gaps filled by water and closed with plugs at ends. At the same time the channels for circulation of coolant are made as circular and installed on the body as capable of thermal contact.

EFFECT: simplified device design.

3 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of creation of high and ultra-high static pressures in large volumes and can be used for testing various components and assemblies of potential aircraft hydraulic systems high pressure, to study the health and durability of moving non-metallic seals, as well as to study the properties of new structural materials and create a stable crystalline structures. This device is compact, simple in operation, explosion and fire safety and does not require expensive equipment.

A method of obtaining high pressure in the working chamber, including the filling of the compression chamber with water and cooling it below the phase transition temperature (website: Scientific-technical portal NTPO.COM review of technologies for production of artificial diamonds). A device for implementing this method is a press high pressure in the casing which is inserted the slave cylinder. In this cylinder is provided by drilling for the circulation of refrigerant and openings for supplying water under pressure. First, after installing the cylinder in the press high-pressure water is pumped under pressure from the 2-3 thousand atmospheres. Then is the refrigerant and water is frozen to a temperature of minus 12 degrees Celsius. If e is ω there is an increase in pressure in the working cylinder to 20 thousand atmospheres due to the expansion of ice. The disadvantage of this method and device used for its implementation, is a small volume of the working chamber and the use of complex and expensive equipment

The purpose of the invention is the increase of volume of the working chamber and simplify the design of the device.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of creating high and ultrahigh pressures, including water filling of the compression chamber and cooling it below the temperature of the phase transition, according to the present invention the cooling of the compression chamber is controlled areas, starting from the last, and cooling of each subsequent segment is made after freezing the previous one.

Uses a combination of the following essential features:

1) use multi-layer power body consisting of coaxial cylinders, and the pressure in the working chamber is created by the amount of excess pressure in the cylinders that are inserted into each other by gaps;

2) cylinders made of different lengths. Their length stepwise decrease from the inner cylinder to the outer. This is due to the need to provide hydrostatic support (see paragraph 5);

3) the inner cylinder (he is working the camera) and the gaps between the cylinders filled with water and closed with the ends of the plugs;

4) the outer surfaces of the cylinders are in Ter is practical contact with the annular channel, intended for the circulation of refrigerant;

5) with the aim of creating a high pressure is gradual freezing of water and the growth of ice jams in the direction from the end face of the multilayer power body inside, in this case, for example, freezing of the water in the second cylinder (II section) begins after the formation of ice plugs in the first cylinder (I division). Such an order freezing the water associated with the need to create a hydrostatic support, with each cylinder holds not absolute pressure, and excess. For example, the first (inner) cylinder holds not the absolute pressure p1and the excess pressure is equal to p1-R2(see figure 3).

However, unlike the prototype:

1) preliminary pressure is 2-3 thousand atmospheres is carried out automatically by the expansion of ice in the early stages of freezing and does not require an additional source of high pressure;

2) does not require the use of the high-pressure (since a further increase in pressure in the working chamber is carried out by gradual freezing of water), which greatly simplifies the design and, consequently, reduces the cost of the device.

Brief description of drawings

The invention is illustrated in the drawings, in which identical or similar elements have the same reference position.

Fig shows the phase of pressure increase in the cylinder tube.

Figure 2 shows the hydrostatic support pressure in the working chamber.

Figure 3 is a multilayer device power casing in section, and graphics schematic dependencies pressure in the working chamber and in the gaps between the cylinders.

Figure 4 represents a section along a-a in figure 3.

Figure 5 represents a section along b-b In figure 3.

Consider first the way to create high pressure in the cylinder tube. Figure 1 shows the phase of pressure increase in the cylinder tube through a stepwise advance of the zone of freezing water from the edge of the tube inside it and increase the ice tube.

Thick-walled steel pipe 1 is completely filled with water and sealed on both sides with 2 plugs. In the working chamber 3 is placed in the test sample 4. Annular channels 5 are designed for circulation of the refrigerant. On one side of the pipe (left drawing) freezing of water by the refrigerant in the annular channels 5 creates an ice plug 6. Initially, the pressure in the working chamber is atmospheric p01=pand. On the other side of the pipe (on the right in the drawing) in the section of annular channels, starting with extreme served refrigerant. The water in the area of the first section (in this case, each section consists of two annular channels) crystallizes, turning into ice, which expands inside the pipe. The expansion in the right prevents the plug 2. The pressure in the working chamber 3 increases and becomes equal to R02. After the formation of the ice tube 7 in the area of the first section of the refrigerant is fed to the second section. Further, the pressure in the working chamber 3 is restrained ice caps 6 and 7. During freezing of water in the region of the second section is a mixture of water and ice 8 until complete crystallization expands inside the pipe, ice tube increases and the pressure increases to a value of p03. Then, the refrigerant is supplied to the third section, etc. the graph shows the schematic dependence of the pressure in the pipe along its length. To keep the pressure in the working chamber and prevent the destruction of necessary external support. Support is provided by the use of multiple actuators, inserted into each other with clearances. In the gaps between the cylinders are pressure increasing from the periphery to the center (figure 2). Each cylinder holds pressure, and the pressure in the working chamber is equal to the sum of excess pressure.

Creating high pressure in the working chamber and in the gaps between the cylinders is as follows.

Figure 3 shows a multilayer power enclosure formed by coaxial cylinders of different lengths inserted into each other with clearances. The gaps between the cylinders and the working chamber (Central cylinder is filled with water. Freezing water begins with the filing of the refrigerant in extreme (right drawing) section. In the process of crystallization of the formed ice tube extends into the cylinder and the pressure in the working chamber increases. After the formation of ice plugs in the area of the outer units, the refrigerant is supplied in the next section, etc. After the formation of ice jams on the first segment begins a gradual freezing of the second segment, carried out in this way. In this case, the pressure in the gap between the first and second cylinders increases. After the formation of ice jams on the second site in this way is to freeze the third plot, etc. Sizes of sections (length of the cylinder) is selected so that the freezing of the second segment begins when reaching inside the first cylinder design pressure. Freezing of the next segment starts when the design pressure in the second cylinder, etc. First (inner) cylinder when this holds not the absolute pressure p1and the excess pressure is equal to p1-R2(see figure 3), the second cylinder holds not the absolute pressure p2and the excess pressure is equal to p2-R3,etc. this is the hydrostatic support. As an example, three-layer case. The graphs schematically shown according to pressure the Central cylinder (he is working the camera) and in the gaps between the cylinders along the length of the pipe. Figure 4 and figure 5 are cross-sections along a-a and b-b In figure 3.

1. The way to create high and ultrahigh pressures, including water filling of the working chamber, cooling it below the temperature of the phase transition, characterized in that the cooling of the working chamber is made of land, starting from the last, and cooling of each subsequent segment is made after freezing the previous one.

2. Device for creating high and ultrahigh pressures, consisting of a body, the working chamber and channels for circulation of refrigerant, characterized in that the casing is made in two or more coaxial cylinders that are inserted into each other with clearances, while the inner cylinder and the gaps between the cylinders filled with water and closed with the ends of the plugs, the channels for the circulation of the refrigerant is made annular and mounted on the housing with the possibility of thermal contact.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the length of the cylinder speed is reduced from the inner cylinder to the outer.



 

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