Retaining wall on permafrost soil (versions)
SUBSTANCE: retaining wall according to the first version is made of tubular sheet piles. At least some piles are equipped with a seasonal cooling device of any available type. Cooling devices are so arranged in the sheet pile to provide for contact of their upper part with atmospheric air. The retaining wall according to the second version comprises seasonal cooling devices made in the form of an air circulation pipe. The cooling devices are placed inside the inner cavity of tubular sheet piles and are installed coaxially or with displacement relative to the axis of the tubular sheet pile. The air circulation pipe is connected in the upper part to atmosphere with the help of a covered hole. The lower part of the pipe is brought near the permafrost soil of the base.
EFFECT: environmental safety, reduced costs, increased reliability of design and lower labour intensiveness of construction.
10 cl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely to the retaining walls on permafrost soil, and can be used in the construction of retaining walls sea and river berths in the Far North.
Famous tongue-and-groove retaining wall of the tubular sheet piles, the so-called trabsport, including steel tubular piles connected with sheet locks welded on the outer surfaces of the pipes (RU # 106264, 2011) .
Specified known retaining wall is characterized by a high load capacity, due to which it can be used in the construction of high-loaded port facilities. The technology of construction of such retaining walls are well developed. However, in the conditions of permafrost scored in frozen ground steel tubular piles can in the warmer months to raise the temperature of the soil on average by about 0.1 degree per year, which can lead to the thawing of frozen soil, and as a result, deformation and loss of bearing capacity of retaining walls.
Therefore, during the construction of hydraulic structures on "permafrost" take measures to protect the ground from thawing using various types of cooling devices that prolong the frozen condition of the soil in summer, becoming the public using the seasonal cooling devices.
An effective way of maintaining or enhancing the frozen state of the soil at the bases of buildings is the use of low external air temperature with the help of stabilizers, also known as ternoway or seasonal cooling devices.
Design of thermal stabilizers soil is a gravity-oriented heat pipe, in which the evaporation-condensation heat transfer process using a vapor boiling refrigerant such as HFC, propane, ammonia, etc., the so-called liquid SDA (see, for example, www newfrost. EN ). In these devices, the liquid refrigerant in the lower part of ternoway in contact with frozen ground, having a temperature not lower than minus 6 degrees, steam, vapours rise up and again condense under the influence of a much lower winter temperatures of atmospheric air. The heat transfer process automatically stops when the outdoor temperature becomes equal to the temperature of the frozen ground. Also known seasonal cooling device of the liquid-vapor and air types (see, for example, the book Gurevich and V.B. have been other Port hydraulic structures. M, Transport, 1992, str, 246 ).
Known retaining wall quay promenade on permafrost gr is NTE, containing sheet piles Larsen 5 and seasonal cooling devices liquid type (ternoway)installed before Groovy piles from the waters in a pre-drilled for them well. The lower end of each ternoway with the lower heat exchanger buried in the frozen ground, and the top is above the water level in the water area and protected from damage metal bumper device (see , p. 249-250, RIS). Specified known retaining wall rather time-consuming in construction, because after driving sheet piling wall is necessary to make drilling for placement of seasonal cooling devices, and set the bumper device to protect them from exposure to moor vessels. Also used in this design liquid seasonal cooling devices is not enough environmentally friendly, as in the case of seal failure and leakage of the coolant, which apply freezing or boiling liquids may be harmed the environment.
Thus, the present invention is the creation of a retaining wall, which would have a high load capacity, reliability and durability when working on permafrost soil.
The technical result is a reduction compared with the prototype of the labour section is Denia retaining wall with the reliable protection of the applicable seasonal cooling devices from mechanical damage and destruction, as well as the serviceability of the retaining wall and the elimination of environmental pollution.
The problem is solved in the present invention due to the fact that the retaining wall for berthing quays on permafrost soils, including a wall of sheet piles and seasonal cooling devices are shipped with the bottom end in the frozen ground, according to the invention, sheet piles are made tubular, and seasonal cooling devices are installed vertically in the internal cavities of at least part of the above mentioned tubular sheet piles with providing contact their upper ends with the outer atmospheric air.
Seasonal cooling devices in the proposed retaining wall can be any known in the prior art type, for example a liquid, is installed with the software contact their upper part with atmospheric air, while the lower end of each of them shipped in frozen ground,
The solution of this problem is also due to the fact that the retaining wall, mainly for berthing structures on permafrost soils, including sheet piles and seasonal cooling devices according to the invention the sheet piles are made tubular, and seasonal cooling devices placed in the internal cavities of at least part of the tubular is potovyh piles, each of these seasonal cooling devices made in the form of air-circulating pipe installed vertically with a gap relative to the walls of the tubular spotboy piles and communicating at the top with the atmosphere through overlapping holes, and its lower end close to the frozen ground.
In the proposed retaining wall mentioned air-circulating pipe may be installed aligned or offset relative to the axis of the tubular spotboy piles into the side of a dirt backfill berthing facilities and fixed by means of clamps mounted on its outer surface at least on end parts.
Clips air-circulating pipes can be made in the form of ribs or eccentric bushings, i.e. bushings with eccentric holes.
The lower end of the air-circulating pipes can be made closed, i.e. it can be muted.
The annular space between the walls of the air-circulating pipe and tube spotboy piles, at least partially, can be filled with insulation.
In the upper part of the retaining wall at the site of contact with water as insulation specified in the annular space can be used in concrete, mainly lightweight concrete.
In the proposed retaining wall to soo the communication with the atmosphere, each air-circulating pipe may be connected by a pipe with the communication channel structures equipped with a device that opens or overlapping access of atmospheric air.
Air-circulating pipe, and the pins and the socket can be made of polyethylene of high strength.
Execution of piling in the retaining wall according to the invention a tubular, i.e. made of pipes mainly large diameter, interconnected by using a sheet of castles, the so-called trabsport, greatly increases the carrying capacity of the proposed retaining wall. This opens up the possibility of building a reliable high-load port facilities in the mouths of the Siberian rivers in the zone of permafrost.
In this case, due to the placement of seasonal cooling devices (SDA) in the inner spaces of the supporting tubular sheet piles are excluded drilling their wells and the installation of protective covers, as in the proposed retaining wall SDA protected by the tubular body itself spotboy piles. Thus, the complexity of construction of the proposed retaining wall is significantly reduced, the construction is simplified, the reliability is increased.
The number of tubular sheet piles supplied SDA, for each retaining wall is determined by calculation, based on the temperature and climatic conditions. SDA can be installed optionally, each of the first pile or through one pile, or in a few piles.
In the embodiment of the present invention, in which the seasonal cooling devices in the retaining wall is made in the form of air-circulating pipe communicated with the atmosphere, in the winter, when the temperature of the air for a long time reaches minus 40 degrees Celsius, is a natural ventilation of the soil, which is optionally cooled by flowing through an open channel of frosty air. In the summer, at temperatures higher than the temperature of the frozen soil, the message with the atmosphere of a stop, for example, by setting the dummy or blocking the crane, which can be equipped with pipe air-circulating pipes or shared communication channel berthing facilities, informing the inner cavity of the air-circulating pipe with atmospheric air. This prolongs the frozen condition of the soil, which is not time to thaw during the short summer period.
The advantage of the proposed retaining wall from trabsport with built-seasonal cooling devices, air type is also something that is completely eliminated pollution as during the construction of the wall and its work throughout the life of the jetty. The proposed retaining wall with seasonal cooling unit air type requires m is the minimum of service, consisting of only opening overlying devices for communication air-circulating pipe to the atmosphere in winter, canning seasonal cooling unit in the summer by closing these devices.
In the event of displacement of the air-circulating pipe in the side of a dirt backfill area for more freezing of the soil is also shifted in the direction of filling, because the offset reduces thermal insulation layer. This solution is used to eliminate the freezing ice around the pile side of the water area that may interfere with the berthing of vessels to the retaining wall to the jetty.
Filling the annular gap between the tubular walls spotboy piles and air-circulating pipe a layer of insulation, i.e. insulation, increases the efficiency of seasonal cooling devices, and filling the upper part of the annular gap in the area of the mooring of vessels of lightweight concrete is to increase the strength of the tubular sheet piles in the interaction with the courts. Lightweight concrete in this case also serves as insulation.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, which depict:
- figure 1 is a retaining wall according to the first variant implementation of the invention, the section on spotboy tubular piles placed in her seasonal-ohlord the guide device liquid type;
- figure 2 - retaining wall according to the second variant implementation of the invention, the section on spotboy tubular pile placed in her seasonal cooling unit air type;
- figure 3 - cross section a-a in figure 2;
- 4 - section b-B figure 2.
Retaining wall according to the present invention includes a set of load-bearing tubular sheet pile 1 and the sum of the load-bearing tubular sheet pile 2 mostly the same diameter. Each pile 2, in contrast to the piles 1, provided is placed in the inner cavity of the shell 3 seasonal cooling device of any known from the prior art type: liquid, vapour or air. 1 shows a variant implementation of the invention with a built-seasonal-cooling device 4 liquid type. Each of the piles 1 and 2 are made of large diameter pipe attached to the outer surface of the shell 3 Groovy locks 5, through which the piles are connected. Piles 1 and 2 immersed in permafrost soil at the project depth and United monolithic reinforced concrete cap 6.
Seasonal cooling device 4 liquid type submerged lower end in the frozen soil in the inner cavity of the housing 3, and its upper end is located above the water level in AK is atarii and in contact with atmospheric air. To ensure access of atmospheric air into the housing 3 pile 2 has at least one hole 7.
Seasonal cooling device of the type indicated above is sealed, they are produced by various manufacturers and are supplied ready to install on site. Placing them inside piles provides them with protection from mechanical damage and water leakage.
Figure 2 shows the seasonal cooling unit 8 air type according to the second variant of implementation of the present invention, made in the form of air-circulating pipe 9 that is installed with a clearance relative to the casing wall 3 pile 2. At the top of each pipe 9 for communication with the atmosphere, welded pipe 10 connecting the inner cavity of the pipe 9 with ventilation channel 11, which may serve precast-monolithic reinforced concrete channel for communications waterworks. The edges of the structures at the ends of the channel 11 is provided overlying device (not shown).
Air-circulating pipe 9 is fixed in the cavity of the housing 3 piles with 2 tension clamps 12, in this case made in the form of longitudinally spaced ribs secured to the outer surface of the air-circulating pipe 9, at least in its upper and lower parts. Air blood circulation to the fair pipe 9 is mounted beforehand on stationary stands or in the factory and delivered to the site fully assembled.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in figure 2, air-circulating pipe 9 are offset relative to the axis of the housing 3 pile 2 in the direction of soil backfill structures due to the fact that the tabs 12 in the form of ribs made gradually decreasing in height in the direction of filling. In case of implementation of retainers in the form of bushings (not shown), the offset is provided by eccentric run-holes, through which air-circulating pipe 9. In figure 2 the dashed line shows the boundary of the frozen soil in the case of eccentric installation of the air-vent pipe 9.
The lower end of the pipe 9 is made in this embodiment, closed, i.e. plugged to prevent it from filling with soil when submerged piles 2.
The annular space between the air-circulating pipe 9 and the housing 3 pile 2 is filled with insulation 13 of foam, polystyrene foam or similar material (figure 3), and in the upper part of the retaining wall in the area of the mooring of vessels insulation in part, from the waters, replaced by lightweight concrete 14 (figure 4).
In the cold season in sub-zero temperatures overlying fixture channel 11 open, cold air enters through the channel 11 and the pipe 10 into the internal cavity of the air-circulating pipe 9 and is being more severe it goes down to the frozen ground, supporting its frozen state. When the air temperature becomes equal to or higher than the temperature of permafrost soil, overlying fixture channel 11 is closed.
In the retaining wall according to the second variant implementation of the invention for the preservation of ground in the frozen state is essentially applied the principle known in hydraulic engineering as the principle of "ventilated underground", without using any special freezing devices, only because of the deep natural ventilation of the soil frosty air in the cold season. This allowed us to create a cost-effective, environmentally-friendly retaining wall, requiring minimal maintenance.
1. Retaining wall, mainly for berthing structures on permafrost soils, including a wall of sheet piles and vertically mounted seasonal cooling device, characterized in that the sheet piles are made tubular, and seasonal cooling devices placed in the internal cavities of at least part of the tubular sheet piles to provide the opportunity to contact their upper ends with the outer atmospheric air.
2. Retaining wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the seasonal cooling devices are ecostove type, at their lower ends immersed in the soil.
3. Retaining wall, mainly for berthing structures on permafrost soils, including sheet piles and seasonal cooling device, characterized in that the sheet piles are made tubular, and seasonal cooling devices placed in the internal cavities of at least part of the tubular sheet piles, with each of these seasonal cooling devices made in the form of a vertically installed with a clearance relative to the wall of the tubular spotboy piles air-circulating pipe communicating at the top with the atmosphere through overlapping holes, and its lower end close to the frozen ground.
4. Retaining wall according to claim 3, characterized in that the said air-circulating tube are accurately aligned or offset relative to the axis of the tubular spotboy piles into the side of a dirt backfill structures and fixed by means of clamps mounted on its outer surface at least on end parts.
5. Retaining wall according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the lower end of the air-circulating tube is closed.
6. Retaining wall according to claim 4, characterized in that the catches made in the form of ribs or sleeves.
7. Retaining wall according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the ring is prostranstvo between the walls of the circulation pipe and tube spotboy piles at least partially filled with insulation.
8. Retaining wall according to claim 7, characterized in that the upper part of the retaining wall at the site of contact with water as insulation used lightweight concrete.
9. Retaining wall according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the connection with the atmosphere, each air-circulating pipe connected by a pipe with the communication channel structures, equipped with a device connecting the said channel with the atmosphere or overlapping it.
10. Retaining wall according to claim 9, characterized in that the air-circulating pipe, clamps and the pipe is made of polyethylene of high strength.
SUBSTANCE: tongue and groove joint comprises a tongue and groove ledge with a comb and a tongue and groove grip with a race and a mouth made of rolled sections. The mouth of the tongue and groove grip follows the shape of the comb of the tongue and groove ledge and covers it with the possibility of partial rotation. The tongue and groove grip is made as welded from two rolled sections. Each grip section has a cross section in the form of a hook and comprises a C-shaped section and a rectilinear section coupled with its one edge. At the same time grip sections are facing each other with concave sides of C-shaped areas to form a race for a comb of the tongue and groove ledge. The grip profiles are welded to each other by rectilinear sections or via an intermediate connection element to form a gap between free edges of the C-shaped areas.
EFFECT: simplified technology of grip manufacturing with provision of high strength of a proposed tongue and groove joint.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic engineering boom comprises vertical supports fixed in the bottom soil and made of pipes of larger diameter, and a horizontal wave-breaking element connected to them. Vertical supports are arranged at two sides of the horizontal wave-breaking element and are connected to each other. Inner cavities of the vertical supports are filled with lean concrete. The horizontal wave-breaking element is made of a reinforced concrete pipe of larger diameter, ends of which have concrete plugs with a fastening steel bracket. Vertical supports are connected with the horizontal wave-breaking element by steel chains.
EFFECT: increased extent of wave breaking and extended service life of a structure.
SUBSTANCE: retaining wall comprises front piles, anchor piles, at least one anchor bar and units of fixation of anchor bar ends accordingly to front and anchor piles. Each unit of anchor bar fixation to appropriate front or anchor pile is made in the form of a tongue and groove joint made of two locking elements. One of the specified locking elements is fixed on the pile so that its upper end is arranged above the water level in the water area. The second locking element is connected with the help of a hinged joint with one of ends of the anchor bar and is installed as capable of vertical reciprocal motion relative to the tongue and groove locking element, fixed on the pile. Lengths of the specified locking elements of the unit of fixation of at least one end of the anchor bar are arranged such that possibility is provided for a mobile locking element to move together with the joined end of the anchor bar below the water level in the water area for the specified depth and its fixation in the point located above the water level in the water area.
EFFECT: possibility to install and fix anchor bars of a retaining wall from a floating facility with elimination of underwater technical works.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall comprises a face wall, elements of which are partially submerged into a base soil, and anchor traction rods arranged in a soil fill, every of which is arranged in the form of a flexible tape. Each flexible tape is made of a polymer material and comprises steel wires pulled along the flexible tape from its one end to the other, and the surface of the flexible tape at its both sides is structured with transverse ribs made of polymer, which increase intensity of soil and flexible tape interaction. Each flexible tape is connected to the face wall at its rear side by means of coverage of a cylindrical element on the face wall to form one or two free ends of the flexible tape, every of which with selected weakness is jammed in the stable part of the soil fill. The surface of the steel wire may be structured by irregularities.
EFFECT: reduced volumes of works in manufacturing of anchor traction rods, increased reinforcing effect at soil, which reduces pressure of soil fill at a face wall.
8 cl, 9 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: device is installed on a discharge slope 5 of a sand beach perpendicularly to an arriving wave. The device comprises a cylindrical shell 1 and paired retaining walls. The cylindrical shell 1 is arranged from a fabric material and is filled with water 6. Closed strips 2 of fabric material are put onto the cylindrical shell 1 with the interval along its length. The diametre of the closed strip 2 is selected with account of the possibility to form two retaining walls of the specified height. Paired retaining walls are arranged at the opposite sides of the cylindrical shell 1 on the inner surface of closed strips 2. Retaining walls are made of bags 9 filled with beach soil. Sides of closed strip 2 parts are made with aprons 3. Retaining walls are pressed at sides with the help of aprons 3 and ties 4.
EFFECT: higher reliability of device fixation on a discharge slope of a beach.
SUBSTANCE: protective gasket 1 of a geomembrane 19 comprises a geogrid 2 from a polymer material and geotextile 3 and 4 attached to it at both sides. Cells 5 of the geogrid 2 are formed with imposed crossing bars 6 and 7. Bars 6 and 7 are arranged relative to the thickness δgr of the geogrid 2 in two levels and are fixed in units of crossing with each other 8. The thickness δg of the gasket 1 is determined by height in the cross section of bars 6 and 7 and thickness of geotextile 3 and 4. Cells 5 are filled with a polymer foam 9, which hardens. Cells 5 may also be filled with a polyurethane foam or foam from polyvinyl chloride nanocomposites.
EFFECT: higher reliability of geomembrane protection against piercing.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device is installed on an upstream slope 1 of a sand beach 2, inclined towards the horizon at the angle α. The device comprises a protective shell 3 and two support shells 4 and 5. Shells 3, 4 and 5 are arranged from fabric materials in the form of clinders and are fixed to each other. The protective shell 3 is filled with water 7 and air 8. The support shells 4 and 5 are arranged with a length of circumference equal to half of length of the shell 3 circumference and are filled with water by a half of the cylindrical volume.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to increase reliability of shell fixation on an upstream beach slope.
SUBSTANCE: shell of large diametre comprises a cylindrical shell ring arranged as capable of placement on an earth foundation and equipped with a support element. The support element is arranged in the form of at least one support ring rigidly fixed with the external surface of the shell above its lower edge. The plane of the support ring is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the shell. The support ring is fixed with stiffening ribs, preferably gussets, perpendicular edges of which are rigidly fixed with the shell surface and the appropriate side of the support ring. The support ring width is determined from the expression m=F/(2π R σ0), where m - support ring width, m; F - vertical rated load onto the earth foundation transferred by the shell, kg; R - external radius of the cylindrical shell; σ0 - bearing capacity of the foundation material, kg/m2. The distance from the support ring to the lower edge of the cylindrical shell depends on properties of soils of the foundation and is determined by the ratio 1/10 H÷1/40 H, where H - height of the shell taken within the limits from 1 to 20 m. The cylindrical shell, support ring and stiffening ribs are made of metal. Stiffening ribs may be arranged both from the side of ring surface, the opposite surface perceiving the earth back pressure and at both sides of the support ring.
EFFECT: invention provides for stability of thin soil-filled shells of large diametre.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes designing anti-tsunami devices, their manufacturing and installation along a shore line at least in 5 rows. The first row with the height of one third of the expected or rated tsunami wave is installed frontally to sea at the distance of water level making 10-15 golden sections from 1 m. Then in 100-150 golden sections from 1 m the second row of these devices is installed with height of 2/3 of the expected or rated tsunami wave. The third row is installed at the distance of 150-180 golden sections from 1 m and height of 1/3 of the expected or rated tsunami wave. Then the fourth row is installed at the distance of 180-200 golden sections from 1 m and height of 2/3 of the expected or rated tsunami wave. The fifth row is installed at the distance of 200-230 golden sections from 1 m relative to the fourth one with height of 1/3 of the expected or rated tsunami wave. Besides, each subsequent row relative to the previous one is arranged in staggered order.
EFFECT: lower shock force of a tsunami wave.
SUBSTANCE: breakwater comprises pneumatic, hydraulic and floating wave absorbers. A floating wave absorber is arranged in the form of a pontoon with an adjacent inclined platform and with a frontal wall permeable from the inside. The frontal wall comprises latticed segments with inner valves. Besides, under impact of waves the floating wave absorber is a supercharger and an accumulator of air and pressure for two other wave absorbers joined by pipelines with the pontoon. Pipelines are equipped with available systems of automatic feed of specified working media to them in volumes depending on wave parameters.
EFFECT: breakwater is self-aligned along with wave passage, efficiency of its wave absorbers is automatically aligned in compliance with parameters of sea disturbance, which provides for operation of a breakwater in optimal mode under preservation of normal conditions for an ecosystem in a protected water of area.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in rows. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. In particular cases net may have different shapes of its cross-section, namely trapezoidal with expanded base, stepped with decreasing steps width in upward direction, T-shaped with shoulder oriented downwards and forming foundation or L-shaped.
EFFECT: increased load bearing capacity, reduced cost for foundation building.
5 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in layers. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Wall is covered with concrete from one side. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. Wall may be reinforced with reinforcing cage from another side. In particular cases net may have cross-section of stepped shape with decreasing steps width in upward direction or L-shaped cross-section.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced cost for foundation building, increased service life.
5 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly river and sea structures adapted for artificial change of river flow and to protect river bank against erosion.
SUBSTANCE: device is formed as retaining wall consisting of vertical vessels and filled with ground filling. Wall is formed of vertical reinforced concrete tetrahedral pipes serially arranged in overlapped manner. Pipe diagonal lines are at an angle to flow direction so that broken contour is created in plane. The broken contour restricts river-bed downstream thereof. Lower pipe ends are embedded in ground past the depth of river bottom erosion area.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced material consumption and labor inputs for device building and operation.
FIELD: industrial and civil building, particularly to erect retaining and wharfage walls in ground.
SUBSTANCE: sheet piling comprises pile row driven in ground and connected one to another by locks, as well as land ties, metal distribution belt to connect land ties to wall and anchor ground protective panel. Distribution belt is composite and comprises anchor fastening units for land ties fastening located in the piles. Anchor unit is formed in each pile and made as tubular metal frame fixedly secured to each pile and as composite embedded support secured to frame and pile. Embedded support may be installed in front pile part (from water area side) or in rear pile part (from shore side). When embedded support is arranged in front pile part the embedded support is made as traverse and two guiding metal beams forming T-shaped figure in plane. When embedded support is arranged in rear pile part the embedded support is made as figured T-shaped box-like holder. Pile with anchor unit arranged inside the pile is at least partly concreted.
EFFECT: increased strength and stability of sheet piling, increased protection against corrosion and mechanical damage.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and reclamation construction, particularly bank consolidation structures to protect river banks, dam slopes and other structures.
SUBSTANCE: flexible retaining wall has prismatic structure and includes stone, net and trusses of stable triangular shape. Flexible retaining wall cross-section defines triangular trusses composed of spacing members. Each spacing member is formed of protective concrete in which wire is embedded. The spacing members are united in triangle assemblies by twisting spacing member wire ends around transversal reinforcement bars so that triangular prism nodes are created. Triangular prism is provided with one reinforced concrete face formed of net and concrete and located from upstream prism side. Triangular prism interior is filled with stone. The triangular prism is laid in longitudinal river direction and abut river bottom by one face thereof. Upper wall slope may be vertical or extend at an angle to horizon line. Flexible apron is pivotally connected to the wall in upper pool.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of river bank protection against erosion and extended service life of the structure.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to protect sand beaches from washing away by surf. Method to prevent washing away of sand beaches includes placing of obstacles in form of closed cylinder in zone of action of incoming wave which reciprocates by rolling in zone of action of wave, thus compacting the soil. Energy of wave is used for this purpose at uprush and gravity force of obstacle at backrush. Length of closed cylinder corresponds to length of protected section of beach. Method is implanted using device consisting of shell made of cloth in form of cylinder and filled with liquid and air. Shell is made for rolling and is installed in zone of action of incoming wave.
EFFECT: protection of sand beach from washing away using energy of surf.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to erect embankments, piers, retaining walls and similar structures, preferably in distant northern territories.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic structure comprises blocks mounted on previously prepared base. The blocks are grouped in row and placed one upon another to form face wall composed of several block layers. Each block comprises face wall member and anchoring unloading device connected with each other. The anchoring unloading device reinforces backfill ground and is made of container previously used for shipping purposes. The container comprises box-like metal case with framed bottom, two side walls, end wall closing the first container end and door connected to the second container end. Face wall member is fastened to one container end. The container is filled with backfill ground. Face wall member has height equal to that of container and width equal to that of container or exceeding container width so that side cantilever parts projecting out of container end are created. In the case of erection of pier structure including two face walls one container end is fastened to one face wall member and another container end is connected to another face wall member.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption, labor inputs and simplified hydraulic structure erection, as well as decreased hydraulic structure influence on water pool ecology during structure usage.
6 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, industrial and civil water-resources and land development.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises buried cantilever retaining wall arranged along outer boundary of territory to be protected at design depth below normal water level. Device also has deep-laid gravity drain system located from the side of territory to be protected in parallel to cantilever retaining wall. Retaining wall top is on maximal water level determined with taking into consideration wave height. Gravity drain system comprises deep-laid fissure drainage and vertical drain wells. Each drain well is connected to corresponding well, which diverts drain water. Gravity drain system may be also formed as deep-laid fissure drainage and perforated vertical inverted drain wells.
EFFECT: reduced ground water level and hydrostatic pressure acting to cantilever retaining wall from the side of territory to be protected, provision of drain flow removal, improved ecological conditions and increased seismic stability of shore protection devices.
FIELD: building of constructions in hydraulic engineering, in particular, of dike-type shore-protecting constructions.
SUBSTANCE: dike head block has lower and upper horizontal faces, rear vertical face, front and lateral inclined faces. Stair-type permeable-design wave suppressor is positioned at front face of dike head block, said suppressor being made in the form of flight of stairs with flared cells between stairs. Head block of dike may be also used for going down into water and for climbing of swimmers onto dike at health resorts.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and improved wave suppressing properties of dike head block.
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to erect berths, wharfs and retaining walls used for shore consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes wall members of groove-and-tongue type. The wall members are to be connected by means of interlock means. Each interlock means consists of male and female members made of rolled-steel channel profiles. The male and female members are provided with extensions having round cross-sections. Male member flanges face wall member carrying the male member. Female member flanges face from wall member carrying the female member. The extensions are rigidly connected to inner side surfaces of female member flanges and to outer side surfaces of male member flanges. The extensions have cross-sectional diameters equal to 0.6-0.9 of average space between female member flange surface and outer side surface of male member flange opposite thereto in plan view. Summary clear opening defined by male member and extensions formed on outer side surfaces of both flanges thereof is less than distance between inner surfaces of female member flanges in plan view and is greater than minimal distance between confronting outer surfaces of extensions formed on inner female member surfaces.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced costs of wall erection, improved wall reliability due to wall member unification and due to provision of interlock means impermeability to ground.
20 cl, 8 dwg