Retaining wall on permafrost soil (versions)

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: retaining wall according to the first version is made of tubular sheet piles. At least some piles are equipped with a seasonal cooling device of any available type. Cooling devices are so arranged in the sheet pile to provide for contact of their upper part with atmospheric air. The retaining wall according to the second version comprises seasonal cooling devices made in the form of an air circulation pipe. The cooling devices are placed inside the inner cavity of tubular sheet piles and are installed coaxially or with displacement relative to the axis of the tubular sheet pile. The air circulation pipe is connected in the upper part to atmosphere with the help of a covered hole. The lower part of the pipe is brought near the permafrost soil of the base.

EFFECT: environmental safety, reduced costs, increased reliability of design and lower labour intensiveness of construction.

10 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely to the retaining walls on permafrost soil, and can be used in the construction of retaining walls sea and river berths in the Far North.

Famous tongue-and-groove retaining wall of the tubular sheet piles, the so-called trabsport, including steel tubular piles connected with sheet locks welded on the outer surfaces of the pipes (RU # 106264, 2011) [1].

Specified known retaining wall is characterized by a high load capacity, due to which it can be used in the construction of high-loaded port facilities. The technology of construction of such retaining walls are well developed. However, in the conditions of permafrost scored in frozen ground steel tubular piles can in the warmer months to raise the temperature of the soil on average by about 0.1 degree per year, which can lead to the thawing of frozen soil, and as a result, deformation and loss of bearing capacity of retaining walls.

Therefore, during the construction of hydraulic structures on "permafrost" take measures to protect the ground from thawing using various types of cooling devices that prolong the frozen condition of the soil in summer, becoming the public using the seasonal cooling devices.

An effective way of maintaining or enhancing the frozen state of the soil at the bases of buildings is the use of low external air temperature with the help of stabilizers, also known as ternoway or seasonal cooling devices.

Design of thermal stabilizers soil is a gravity-oriented heat pipe, in which the evaporation-condensation heat transfer process using a vapor boiling refrigerant such as HFC, propane, ammonia, etc., the so-called liquid SDA (see, for example, www newfrost. EN [2]). In these devices, the liquid refrigerant in the lower part of ternoway in contact with frozen ground, having a temperature not lower than minus 6 degrees, steam, vapours rise up and again condense under the influence of a much lower winter temperatures of atmospheric air. The heat transfer process automatically stops when the outdoor temperature becomes equal to the temperature of the frozen ground. Also known seasonal cooling device of the liquid-vapor and air types (see, for example, the book Gurevich and V.B. have been other Port hydraulic structures. M, Transport, 1992, str, 246 [3]).

Known retaining wall quay promenade on permafrost gr is NTE, containing sheet piles Larsen 5 and seasonal cooling devices liquid type (ternoway)installed before Groovy piles from the waters in a pre-drilled for them well. The lower end of each ternoway with the lower heat exchanger buried in the frozen ground, and the top is above the water level in the water area and protected from damage metal bumper device (see [3], p. 249-250, RIS). Specified known retaining wall rather time-consuming in construction, because after driving sheet piling wall is necessary to make drilling for placement of seasonal cooling devices, and set the bumper device to protect them from exposure to moor vessels. Also used in this design liquid seasonal cooling devices is not enough environmentally friendly, as in the case of seal failure and leakage of the coolant, which apply freezing or boiling liquids may be harmed the environment.

Thus, the present invention is the creation of a retaining wall, which would have a high load capacity, reliability and durability when working on permafrost soil.

The technical result is a reduction compared with the prototype of the labour section is Denia retaining wall with the reliable protection of the applicable seasonal cooling devices from mechanical damage and destruction, as well as the serviceability of the retaining wall and the elimination of environmental pollution.

The problem is solved in the present invention due to the fact that the retaining wall for berthing quays on permafrost soils, including a wall of sheet piles and seasonal cooling devices are shipped with the bottom end in the frozen ground, according to the invention, sheet piles are made tubular, and seasonal cooling devices are installed vertically in the internal cavities of at least part of the above mentioned tubular sheet piles with providing contact their upper ends with the outer atmospheric air.

Seasonal cooling devices in the proposed retaining wall can be any known in the prior art type, for example a liquid, is installed with the software contact their upper part with atmospheric air, while the lower end of each of them shipped in frozen ground,

The solution of this problem is also due to the fact that the retaining wall, mainly for berthing structures on permafrost soils, including sheet piles and seasonal cooling devices according to the invention the sheet piles are made tubular, and seasonal cooling devices placed in the internal cavities of at least part of the tubular is potovyh piles, each of these seasonal cooling devices made in the form of air-circulating pipe installed vertically with a gap relative to the walls of the tubular spotboy piles and communicating at the top with the atmosphere through overlapping holes, and its lower end close to the frozen ground.

In the proposed retaining wall mentioned air-circulating pipe may be installed aligned or offset relative to the axis of the tubular spotboy piles into the side of a dirt backfill berthing facilities and fixed by means of clamps mounted on its outer surface at least on end parts.

Clips air-circulating pipes can be made in the form of ribs or eccentric bushings, i.e. bushings with eccentric holes.

The lower end of the air-circulating pipes can be made closed, i.e. it can be muted.

The annular space between the walls of the air-circulating pipe and tube spotboy piles, at least partially, can be filled with insulation.

In the upper part of the retaining wall at the site of contact with water as insulation specified in the annular space can be used in concrete, mainly lightweight concrete.

In the proposed retaining wall to soo the communication with the atmosphere, each air-circulating pipe may be connected by a pipe with the communication channel structures equipped with a device that opens or overlapping access of atmospheric air.

Air-circulating pipe, and the pins and the socket can be made of polyethylene of high strength.

Execution of piling in the retaining wall according to the invention a tubular, i.e. made of pipes mainly large diameter, interconnected by using a sheet of castles, the so-called trabsport, greatly increases the carrying capacity of the proposed retaining wall. This opens up the possibility of building a reliable high-load port facilities in the mouths of the Siberian rivers in the zone of permafrost.

In this case, due to the placement of seasonal cooling devices (SDA) in the inner spaces of the supporting tubular sheet piles are excluded drilling their wells and the installation of protective covers, as in the proposed retaining wall SDA protected by the tubular body itself spotboy piles. Thus, the complexity of construction of the proposed retaining wall is significantly reduced, the construction is simplified, the reliability is increased.

The number of tubular sheet piles supplied SDA, for each retaining wall is determined by calculation, based on the temperature and climatic conditions. SDA can be installed optionally, each of the first pile or through one pile, or in a few piles.

In the embodiment of the present invention, in which the seasonal cooling devices in the retaining wall is made in the form of air-circulating pipe communicated with the atmosphere, in the winter, when the temperature of the air for a long time reaches minus 40 degrees Celsius, is a natural ventilation of the soil, which is optionally cooled by flowing through an open channel of frosty air. In the summer, at temperatures higher than the temperature of the frozen soil, the message with the atmosphere of a stop, for example, by setting the dummy or blocking the crane, which can be equipped with pipe air-circulating pipes or shared communication channel berthing facilities, informing the inner cavity of the air-circulating pipe with atmospheric air. This prolongs the frozen condition of the soil, which is not time to thaw during the short summer period.

The advantage of the proposed retaining wall from trabsport with built-seasonal cooling devices, air type is also something that is completely eliminated pollution as during the construction of the wall and its work throughout the life of the jetty. The proposed retaining wall with seasonal cooling unit air type requires m is the minimum of service, consisting of only opening overlying devices for communication air-circulating pipe to the atmosphere in winter, canning seasonal cooling unit in the summer by closing these devices.

In the event of displacement of the air-circulating pipe in the side of a dirt backfill area for more freezing of the soil is also shifted in the direction of filling, because the offset reduces thermal insulation layer. This solution is used to eliminate the freezing ice around the pile side of the water area that may interfere with the berthing of vessels to the retaining wall to the jetty.

Filling the annular gap between the tubular walls spotboy piles and air-circulating pipe a layer of insulation, i.e. insulation, increases the efficiency of seasonal cooling devices, and filling the upper part of the annular gap in the area of the mooring of vessels of lightweight concrete is to increase the strength of the tubular sheet piles in the interaction with the courts. Lightweight concrete in this case also serves as insulation.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, which depict:

- figure 1 is a retaining wall according to the first variant implementation of the invention, the section on spotboy tubular piles placed in her seasonal-ohlord the guide device liquid type;

- figure 2 - retaining wall according to the second variant implementation of the invention, the section on spotboy tubular pile placed in her seasonal cooling unit air type;

- figure 3 - cross section a-a in figure 2;

- 4 - section b-B figure 2.

Retaining wall according to the present invention includes a set of load-bearing tubular sheet pile 1 and the sum of the load-bearing tubular sheet pile 2 mostly the same diameter. Each pile 2, in contrast to the piles 1, provided is placed in the inner cavity of the shell 3 seasonal cooling device of any known from the prior art type: liquid, vapour or air. 1 shows a variant implementation of the invention with a built-seasonal-cooling device 4 liquid type. Each of the piles 1 and 2 are made of large diameter pipe attached to the outer surface of the shell 3 Groovy locks 5, through which the piles are connected. Piles 1 and 2 immersed in permafrost soil at the project depth and United monolithic reinforced concrete cap 6.

Seasonal cooling device 4 liquid type submerged lower end in the frozen soil in the inner cavity of the housing 3, and its upper end is located above the water level in AK is atarii and in contact with atmospheric air. To ensure access of atmospheric air into the housing 3 pile 2 has at least one hole 7.

Seasonal cooling device of the type indicated above is sealed, they are produced by various manufacturers and are supplied ready to install on site. Placing them inside piles provides them with protection from mechanical damage and water leakage.

Figure 2 shows the seasonal cooling unit 8 air type according to the second variant of implementation of the present invention, made in the form of air-circulating pipe 9 that is installed with a clearance relative to the casing wall 3 pile 2. At the top of each pipe 9 for communication with the atmosphere, welded pipe 10 connecting the inner cavity of the pipe 9 with ventilation channel 11, which may serve precast-monolithic reinforced concrete channel for communications waterworks. The edges of the structures at the ends of the channel 11 is provided overlying device (not shown).

Air-circulating pipe 9 is fixed in the cavity of the housing 3 piles with 2 tension clamps 12, in this case made in the form of longitudinally spaced ribs secured to the outer surface of the air-circulating pipe 9, at least in its upper and lower parts. Air blood circulation to the fair pipe 9 is mounted beforehand on stationary stands or in the factory and delivered to the site fully assembled.

In the embodiment of the invention shown in figure 2, air-circulating pipe 9 are offset relative to the axis of the housing 3 pile 2 in the direction of soil backfill structures due to the fact that the tabs 12 in the form of ribs made gradually decreasing in height in the direction of filling. In case of implementation of retainers in the form of bushings (not shown), the offset is provided by eccentric run-holes, through which air-circulating pipe 9. In figure 2 the dashed line shows the boundary of the frozen soil in the case of eccentric installation of the air-vent pipe 9.

The lower end of the pipe 9 is made in this embodiment, closed, i.e. plugged to prevent it from filling with soil when submerged piles 2.

The annular space between the air-circulating pipe 9 and the housing 3 pile 2 is filled with insulation 13 of foam, polystyrene foam or similar material (figure 3), and in the upper part of the retaining wall in the area of the mooring of vessels insulation in part, from the waters, replaced by lightweight concrete 14 (figure 4).

In the cold season in sub-zero temperatures overlying fixture channel 11 open, cold air enters through the channel 11 and the pipe 10 into the internal cavity of the air-circulating pipe 9 and is being more severe it goes down to the frozen ground, supporting its frozen state. When the air temperature becomes equal to or higher than the temperature of permafrost soil, overlying fixture channel 11 is closed.

In the retaining wall according to the second variant implementation of the invention for the preservation of ground in the frozen state is essentially applied the principle known in hydraulic engineering as the principle of "ventilated underground", without using any special freezing devices, only because of the deep natural ventilation of the soil frosty air in the cold season. This allowed us to create a cost-effective, environmentally-friendly retaining wall, requiring minimal maintenance.

1. Retaining wall, mainly for berthing structures on permafrost soils, including a wall of sheet piles and vertically mounted seasonal cooling device, characterized in that the sheet piles are made tubular, and seasonal cooling devices placed in the internal cavities of at least part of the tubular sheet piles to provide the opportunity to contact their upper ends with the outer atmospheric air.

2. Retaining wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the seasonal cooling devices are ecostove type, at their lower ends immersed in the soil.

3. Retaining wall, mainly for berthing structures on permafrost soils, including sheet piles and seasonal cooling device, characterized in that the sheet piles are made tubular, and seasonal cooling devices placed in the internal cavities of at least part of the tubular sheet piles, with each of these seasonal cooling devices made in the form of a vertically installed with a clearance relative to the wall of the tubular spotboy piles air-circulating pipe communicating at the top with the atmosphere through overlapping holes, and its lower end close to the frozen ground.

4. Retaining wall according to claim 3, characterized in that the said air-circulating tube are accurately aligned or offset relative to the axis of the tubular spotboy piles into the side of a dirt backfill structures and fixed by means of clamps mounted on its outer surface at least on end parts.

5. Retaining wall according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the lower end of the air-circulating tube is closed.

6. Retaining wall according to claim 4, characterized in that the catches made in the form of ribs or sleeves.

7. Retaining wall according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the ring is prostranstvo between the walls of the circulation pipe and tube spotboy piles at least partially filled with insulation.

8. Retaining wall according to claim 7, characterized in that the upper part of the retaining wall at the site of contact with water as insulation used lightweight concrete.

9. Retaining wall according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the connection with the atmosphere, each air-circulating pipe connected by a pipe with the communication channel structures, equipped with a device connecting the said channel with the atmosphere or overlapping it.

10. Retaining wall according to claim 9, characterized in that the air-circulating pipe, clamps and the pipe is made of polyethylene of high strength.



 

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