Method of determining water content in hydrocarbon fuel and apparatus for realising said method
SUBSTANCE: fuel or air stream is passed at a constant rate through a water separator consisting of multiple cells arranged in series one after the other, formed by a coagulator and a separating grid, and water obtained from separation on a porous partition wall is removed into a settling tank. Pressure in front and behind the partition wall is constantly or periodically measured; information on the pressure measurements is transmitted to an analytical recording unit; hydraulic resistance of the porous partition wall is calculated based on the pressure difference; the obtained data are then used to determine the amount of water retained by the porous polyvinyl formal of the coagulator; based on the obtained calibration data on change in hydraulic resistance of the porous partition wall depending on water content in the coagulator and in the fuel stream, and based on said data, the amount of water contained in the fuel is determined. An apparatus for realising the method is also described.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability, easy determination.
8 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to methods and means of determining water content in the stream of hydrocarbon liquid or gaseous fuels, or in the air stream and can be used in the petrochemical and refining industries, as well as in the systems of centralized refueling aircraft.
Known for cleaner fuels, including from water by filter - separators (SU, inventors ' certificates№539587, №971415, №1057068), the elements are made with the filter, coagulating, drainage and water-repellent layers, and as a coagulating material layers are fibrous glass. Known filters, separators, dehydrators, include the case in which there are three coaxial element, filter, coagulating and separating, after filtering partition are riser walls, in which the process of coagulation of droplets (consolidation of small water droplets) occurs in fiberglass packages of different density and different diameters of the optical fibers. Fiberglass packets are sequentially (3-5 layers) to enable a consistent increase of the pore size of the partitions. The process of coagulation occurs due to the transition of water microdrops of medium fuel on the surface the optical fibers and education in the aqueous film, which flows along the current fuel from one package to another with increasing film thickness and total volume of water. When you exit the last batch of water from a water film forms large drops, which the following layers are delayed-separated into individual coated with Teflon mesh (separator) and under the action of gravity deposited in the lower settling zone of the separator.
These devices are designed for the Department of water, but do not provide the possibility of determining the quantity of fuel.
There are other ways to clean fuel (EN, No. 2050928, 1995; WO 2012024013, 23.02.2012).
Known methods of determining water content in fuel by optical means (FR 2902190, 2007; WO 2011027099, 2011). In particular, in the method according to WO 2011027099 used polymer optical fibers that are sensitive to the presence of water and change their optical properties in the presence of water in the liquid fuel. Optical fibers can be made from permeable plastic and may have a separating grating, the refractive index of which varies depending on the nature of the reflection or transmission and is recorded by the detector. The permeability of the material of the optical fibers allows water to penetrate into the fibers and thereby affect its refractive index or geometry and, consequently, to modify the characteristics are reflected in the texts or transmission, which is judged on the amount of water in the fuel.
There is a method of rapid control of water content in oils and fuels by determining the breakdown voltage generated in the test substance with electrodes hemispherical shape and comparing the obtained values with the previously obtained dependence of breakdown voltage on the quantity of water, and pre-dried, multi-layered porous strip of porous paper impregnated with fuel or oil, remove the air, set between electrodes placed on the center of the strip at a distance equal to its thickness and creates tension with constant speed before occurrence of electrical breakdown (patent RU 2006847, 1994).
A known method of controlling the water content of diesel fuel, implemented by a device that contains a sensor, installed at the bottom of the filter, between the housing and the sensor cover is installed the coarse grid, which contains a chemical reagent. In the axial hole of the cover is installed tube of transparent material and in its lower part there are the led and photodiode, installed In the housing, a second tube of transparent material, in the upper part where the led and the photoresistor. Diesel fuel enters the filter, and when the water level reaches the top end of the first tube, water enters the cavity of the sensor, and in contact with the chemical reagent is a chemical reaction with the release of hydrogen. Changes in luminous flux due to the presence of hydrogen is captured by the photodiode, the signal of which is processed and generates a signal of limiting the level of water in the filter (SU 1814694, 1993).
The above-described analogs of the complex and, in addition, require in addition that determines the water content in the fuel, installation of filter-separators to remove water and return to its original state.
The closest analogue to the present invention, the method is an automated method of removing water from the fuel system, which is implemented by means of the separator, the sensor of the presence of water, the first and second drain valves, pressure sensor and control system, which is functionally connected with the first and second drain valves, gauge the presence of water and a pressure sensor. The sensor of the presence of water is located in the separator and is used to detect the presence of water. The first and second drain valves are interconnected by a channel. The pressure sensor is located in said channel to determine the level of pressure in it. The control system automatically on the basis of output signals from the sensor to the availability of water and the pressure sensor controls the first and second drain valves to ensure the destruction of the LM the bones from the separator (US 20090248128, 2009).
The disadvantages of this method is its complexity due to the need of installation of the sensor the presence of water directly in the separator and the absence of the possibility of quantitative determination of water content in the fuel.
The closest analogue of the invention, the device is setup, designed for purification of liquid fuel and gas, which includes two filter-separator and two valves, in order to increase the degree of purification, automation of the process of regeneration saariluoma-filter elements and the continuity of the treatment process, the installation further comprises a control unit and its associated vacuum pump, two pressure sensor installed in front of each filter-separator, and two pressure sensor installed after each of the filter-separator and electrically operated spool-type hydraulic directional valves. (EN 2446858, 2010).
The disadvantages of this device include the restriction of its operational capabilities due to the lack of opportunities for quantitative determination of water content in the fuel.
The problem to be solved by a group of inventions is a combination of the cleanup process fuel from water, monitoring water separator and process for determining the water content in the fuel.
For the way the problem is solved for with the em, that let the fuel flow through the separator, consisting of several consecutive riser cells, each of which represents an independent filter separator and comprises porous partition walls formed separating grid, a coagulator of the frame reinforcing material with a filler of porous polyvinylformal and reference grid, with water, the resulting separation in the separator, is directed to a settling tank, in the fuel flow continuously or periodically measure the pressure before each porous wall and the pressure behind it, convey information about the measured stress values on the analytical block the Registrar, is calculated on the basis of the pressure difference of the hydraulic resistance of the porous partitions, then the received data will determine the amount of water retained by the porous partition, previously obtained calibration data about the change in the hydraulic resistance of the porous wall, depending on the content of water in it. The total amount of water for a certain period of time is defined as the total amount of water in the tanks and the amount of water contained in the porous partition walls. Or the total amount of water in a certain volume of fuel for a certain specified period of time of vechicle the t on the basis of the previously obtained calibration data about the change in the hydraulic resistance of the porous wall, depending on the content in the coagulator water. While sifting mesh, preferably coated with Teflon.
For the device the problem is solved due to the fact that the device that contains the filter-separator that includes polyvinylformal, pressure sensors that are installed before the filter-separator and for him, as well as the analytical unit is the logger associated with the pressure sensors, the proposed device operates as a separator, in which case set a consecutive group of filter-separators, each of which is made in the form of a porous wall formed of interconnected separating mesh and coagulator of the frame reinforcing material with a filler of porous polyvinylformal, casing drain channels for output of water in the sump, the pressure sensors associated with the analytical unit Registrar, installed in front of and behind each porous wall. Separating mesh porous wall covered with Teflon. Each porous partition provided with a support grid, connected to the separating mesh and coagulator.
The technical result from the use of the claimed method and device for its implementation is simplified due to the simultaneous separation of water and determination of water content in the fuel on the value of the hydraulic resistance of the porous partition walls, as well as the operating status of the porous septum, providing easier maintenance of the separator, improving the reliability and accuracy of the method due to the simple and reliable information on the amount of water retained by polyvinylformal. The operability of the porous wall is monitored by monitoring the status of polyvinylformal, which is necessary due to the fact that the porous polyvinylformal maintains high efficiency in a hard, not a water-saturated state.
The technical result is due to the fact that emulsified in an organic liquid water is absorbed by polyvinylformal contained in a porous septum, forming in its pores larger drops, which move along with the flow of the purified liquid. By the time the larger drops of water opposite the wall surface of the partition most of the drops is in its lower part. Porous, polyvinylformal has two stable aggregate state, the first - glassy, rigid, with fixed pore structure, with adsorption moisture absorbing properties, however, when saturated with water, the material loses its adsorption activity swells the fibers increase in volume of up to 2000% and losing rigidity, supple, i.e. the material is PE is ecodit in the second state. The second elastic porous aggregate state of polyvinylformal have very different properties. High hydrophilicity and adsorption allows to accumulate on the surface and in the cavities of the pore structure of the material a significant amount of water. Due to the high hydrophilicity of flexible polyvinylformal has good coagulation properties (escalates small drops of water). In operation, the porous separator, polyvinylformal to saturation with water is vegasonline properties and rigid porous structure. After saturation with water, the material changes from a glassy to a resilient state, swells and becomes odocoileuus properties. The skeleton of the porous partition walls made of non-woven cloth structure limits the limits of elastic deformation of polyvinylformal and is the limiter changes the size of the diameters of the pore channels, which leads, in spite of the elasticity of saturated water polyvinylformal, the narrowing of the pore channels with the swelling, and the hydraulic resistance to the flow of the fuel increases. The pressure in the fuel flow is recorded by pressure sensors located on both sides of the porous wall. Time-varying pressure difference on both sides of the porous wall is calculated by the control unit functionally associated with sensors Yes the population, on the basis of the pressure difference is determined by the hydraulic resistance of the porous wall. Using predefined properties of porous partitions, namely the change in the hydraulic resistance of the walls depending on the amount of water that determine its content in polyvinylformal that then allows great precision to determine the percentage of water in the fuel, as well as the total quantity of fuel for a certain period of time.
In addition, no water emulsion in the fuel flow includes the drying process of porous polyvinylformal the actual fuel flow and held on the wall of the water goes into the fuel in molecular dissolved state (water content in the fuel is lower than 0.001% (by weight)is removed from the septum, which causes the device to its original state.
The invention is illustrated graphic materials, in which:
- figure 1 shows a separator that implements the claimed method;
- figure 2 shows a process diagram.
Method for determination of water content in the liquid or gazoobraznom hydrocarbon fuel or in the air is that miss (pumped) with a constant flow stream of hydrocarbon fuel (liquid or gaseous) or air flow through the separator, the which is formed of several consecutive riser cells, each of which represents an independent filter separator and comprises porous partition walls formed separating mesh and coagulator of the frame reinforcing material with a filler of porous polyvinylformal and reference grid. Water obtained by separation on a porous septum, is directed to a clarifier. Before each porous partition and it installed the pressure sensor, by means of which constantly or periodically measure the pressure before partition and the pressure behind it.
Data on the measured pressure values are transmitted to the analytical unit, the " Registrar", which, in particular. Can be used a personal computer. On the measured pressure values in the analytical unit of the Registrar calculates the pressure difference for each porous wall and is determined by the received differential pressure change in the hydraulic resistance of the porous wall at a time. Calculation of hydraulic resistance of the porous wall is produced on the basis of the previously obtained calibration data about the change in the hydraulic resistance of all porous partitions depending on the content in the source water fuel.
Using the received data, determine the amount of water held by each of the coagulator Paris the second partition, and on the basis of these data to determine the amount of water contained in the hydrocarbon fuel or air.
The total amount of water in a certain volume of fuel for a specified period of time at a constant flow rate of the hydrocarbon fuel (or air) when pumping through the separator can be defined as the total amount of water in the sump (obtained by measurement) and the amount of water contained in the porous partitions (obtained by calculation).
In addition, the total amount of water in a certain volume of hydrocarbon fuel (or air) when pumping through the separator can be calculated by changing the hydraulic resistance of the porous partition on the basis of the above-mentioned previously obtained calibration data about the change in resistance of the porous partitions depending on the content in the coagulator water.
Through the analytical unit of the Registrar may be defined mathematical dependence of the hydraulic resistance of the porous wall at a time, which is recorded in the analytical unit of the Registrar and from these data, calculate the percentage of water in hydrocarbon fuel (or air).
The separator that implements the claimed method, includes a housing 1 in which is installed and fixed a few after avatele posted by filter-separators in the form of a riser cells, consisting of porous partitions, each of which consists of separating grid 2 (separator), coagulator 3, frame made of a reinforcing material with a filler of porous polyvinylformal, and reference grid 4. All of the elements of the porous partition walls separating grid 2 - coagulator 3 - support grid 4 are connected, for example, a wire (not shown), the wire connects the separating grid 2 with the support grid 4 between which is sandwiched coagulator 3 formed frame reinforcing material with a filler of porous polyvinylformal.
Case 1 is a welded stainless steel construction with means of attaching the porous partitions, provide for their replacement, and drain channels 5, the number of which is not less than the number of porous partition walls, for removal of free water in the sump. Before the first porous partition in the lower part of the body is channel-sampler 6.
Separating mesh coated with Teflon or other hydrophobic material. In each pair coagulator-separator is the process of water separation in the fuel and exhaust it through channels in the body of the separator in the settling zone settling.
The separator also includes an analytical unit-recorder 7, and the associated pressure sensors 8, one of datecompleted in the stream before each porous partition 9, and the other behind it, i.e. the number of pressure sensors is equal to twice the number of porous partitions. Analytical block-recorder 7 records, calculates and stores the current value of the water content of the fuel. In addition, the analytical unit of the Registrar 7 the calculations of the average values of the water content of the fuel during the specified time periods at a constant flow rate of fuel flow through the device.
The pressure sensors are installed in pairs at least, one before and at least one after each of the porous walls.
The coagulator is made of permeable in all directions porous reinforced polymer material with otkrytosti deep structure having a total porosity of at least 50% with the size of elementary then, mostly, 10-200 μm. This material is formed from the frame and filler. The skeleton represents the interconnected filaments or fibers, the diameter of which, mostly, is 5-400 μm. The filler of the porous polyvinylformal fills the space between the said threads or fibers. In the porous reinforced material formed from filaments or fibers of the frame, the space between which is filled with a filler, the frame can be made in an orderly and interconnected fibers (for example, in the form of CE is key), and randomly arranged filaments or fibers (nonwoven fabric) or alternating between the ordered and chaotic yarns and/or fibers (polypropylene and/or polyester and/or polyamide) with a diameter of 5 to 100 microns.
For example, the frame may be a material thickness of 1-80 mm, weighing 40-1300 g/m2, consisting of interconnected filaments or fibers in the form of a metallic or polymeric volumetric meshes, or punched polymeric non-woven material or fabric, or knitted fabric. Porous, polyvinylformal can be obtained, for example, by condensing structure and heat treating a homogenized in water composition, including at least polyvinyl alcohol and aldehyde. In the process of obtaining a porous polyvinylformal can be additionally used structure-forming water-soluble additive, which when the process is complete subject complete the removal of the finished product.
For the coagulator is an additional layer in the form of a reference grid of hydrophobic material, performing the role of the power element contributing to the stability and strength of the pair separator-coagulator in the stream.
Cleaned the fuel or the air passes through sequentially arranged porous wall, cleaned and Postup the em receiver tank. While isolated from the purified product water with mechanical impurities through the tanks come out.
Part of the flow of fuel, such as kerosene, or the entire flow is directed into the separator from left to right, as shown in the drawing. The stream passes through one or several contiguous porous walls of the separator, each of which consists of a coagulant and a separator made in the form of a separating grid, coated with a hydrophobic material such as PTFE.
In the process of passage of the flow through the coagulator, polyvinylformal having strongly developed surface becomes wet, adsorbing and coagulase water from the fuel. Small water droplets are trapped by polyvinylformal, while the lighter hydrocarbon liquid passes through it. These small water droplets coagulate, porous partition starts to produce larger droplets of water (coagulation and coalescence), which delayed separating net, drain down and discharged through drains into the sump. Other contaminants also trapped by the porous partition and disposed in the sump with water.
Thus, in each cell, a pair coagulator-separator is the process of separation of water-in-fuel (dehydration), free water under the force of tgest is deposited on the bottom of the housing, whence it is drained from the separator to the sump.
When saturated porous polyvinylformal water (absorption of water), is reducing its hydraulic resistance due to the transition of polyvinylformal from rigid to elastic state.
The following porous partition the second cell pair coagulator-separator, holds less water, because the amount of fuel is reduced due to the work of the first pair coagulator-separator, the third and subsequent pairs coagulator-separator work similarly. When the output from the last couple coagulator separator fuel flow contains almost no water and other contaminants.
Registration and comparison of the difference in the current values of the differential pressure on each of the porous walls forming an array of mathematical relationships, which allow us to calculate the analytical unit of the Registrar the current percentage of water in the source passing fuel at the inlet of the intermediate or the last of the porous partition.
To determine the percentage water content of the pre-made calibration of the sensor system, it establishes the relationship between the water content in the fuel and the corresponding readings of the pair of pressure sensors that are installed on opposite sides of each of the porous walls (raznostilevymi). Calibration is a method of pumping several options prepared water fuel emulsion having a known concentration of water and its total volume of the fuel volume.
The total amount of water for a certain period of time can be determined as the sum of the volumes of water in the tank with correction for the water content in the volume of the porous walls of polyvinylformal. In addition, the total amount of water can be calculated based on the current readings of the differential pressure on each of the porous walls for a certain period of time using information obtained from the calibration device based on the total amount of fuel pumped through the device.
When the limit is reached saturation level of polyvinylformal water analytical block the Registrar receives the appropriate signal, indicating that the porous partition (usually the first) is saturated with water and works in the coagulation mode.
Due to the fact that most of the particles collected in the first two porous walls, if necessary, they can be replaced or to carry out the regeneration of the porous partition walls, by switching the flow of fuel to duplicate the separator. After drainage of polyvinylformal contained in a porous partition, its hydraulic resistance increases. Plumage is of orodja returned in original condition and possible reuse.
As a result, when the implementation of the method is the simultaneous separation of water from fuel is determined by its content in the fuel on the value of the hydraulic resistance of several porous partition walls, and evaluates the condition of the porous walls. Maintenance of the separator is simplified and the accuracy of the method increases due to simple and reliable information on the amount of water in the fuel flow. This method and installation for its implementation is also suitable to determine water content in the air.
1. Method for determination of water content in the liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, characterized in that the flow of fuel passed by maintaining a constant flow through the separator, consisting of several consecutive riser cells, each of which represents an independent filter separator and comprises porous partition walls formed separating mesh and coagulator of the frame reinforcing material with a filler of porous polyvinylformal and water, obtained by separation on a porous septum, is directed to a clarifier, while continuously or periodically measure the pressure before each porous wall and the pressure behind it, convey information about the measured values Yes the ing on the analytical unit-Registrar calculated on the basis of changes in the pressure difference of the hydraulic resistance of the porous partitions on time, then the received data will determine the amount of water retained by the coagulator porous partitions, based on the previously obtained calibration data about the change in the hydraulic resistance of the porous wall, depending on the content in the coagulator water, and on the basis of these data to determine the amount of water contained in the fuel.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the total amount of water in a certain volume of fuel for a certain specified period of time is defined as the total amount of water in the sump and the amount of water contained in the porous partitions
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the total amount of water in a certain volume of fuel for a certain specified period of time is calculated on the basis of the previously obtained calibration data about the change in the hydraulic resistance of the porous wall, depending on the content in the coagulator water.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the separating mesh coated with Teflon.
5. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that by means of the analytical unit Registrar define the mathematical dependence of the hydraulic resistance of the porous plumage is ordci time, register and from these data, calculate the percentage of water in the fuel.
6. A device for determining the water content in the liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, in the form of separator, which body has multiple consecutive filter-separators, each of which is made in the form of a porous wall formed of interconnected separating mesh and coagulator of the frame reinforcing material with a filler of porous polyvinylformal, in the case of the separator made of the drain channels for output of water in the sump, at the same time before each porous partition and it installed, at least one pressure sensor associated with the analytical unit-logger.
7. The device according to claim 6, characterized in that the separating mesh coated with Teflon.
8. The device according to claim 6, wherein each porous partition provided with a support grid, connected to the separating mesh and coagulator, the coagulator is located between the separating mesh and the support grid.
SUBSTANCE: amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane (washed resins) is determined according to GOST 1567, and presence of a detergent additive in the motor petrol is determined from the difference in the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane. There are no detergent additives in the motor petrol if there is no difference between the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane. Conversely, if a detergent additive was added to the petrol, there is a considerable difference in the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane.
EFFECT: high reliability of determination.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of inspecting explosive substances and forensic identification preparations. The method of labelling an explosive substance involves adding a labelling composition to the explosive substance, said composition containing identifiers, the number of which is equal to the number of properties to the labelled. The identifiers used are a mixture of polyorganosiloxanes with different molecular chain lengths, wherein each property matches an identifier in form of a polyorganosiloxane with a corresponding molecular chain length and corresponding "exit time" (retention) on a chromatogram. Thus a "chemical barcode" is formed in the explosive substance, which is read from the chromatrogram based on the principle of the presence or absence of a component at a certain time of its "exit" (retention). The method is suitable for labelling mixed and separate explosive substances, as well as components thereof, for example inorganic oxidants, particularly ammonia nitrate.
EFFECT: method provides high reliability of identifying an explosive substance with a simple process of determining its code.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining resins washed with n-heptane in gasoline before and after adding the analysed additive according to GOST 1567, wherein the gasoline used contains washed resins in amount of at least 5 mg per 100 ml gasoline (e.g. secondary gasoline - catalytic and thermal cracking, viscosity breaking, coking, polymerisation etc, usually with high content of olefin hydrocarbons). The analysed additive is added in amount of 0.03-0.1 wt %. Presence of detergent properties in the analysed additive is determined from the difference in the amount of washed resins in the gasoline before and after adding the analysed additive.
EFFECT: high reliability of determination.
SUBSTANCE: method involves measuring the reaction force of gasification products when burning a sample of solid fuel, armoured on the side surface, wherein the reaction force and time for complete combustion of the sample of solid fuel placed in a constant volume explosion apparatus are measured, at pressure in the range of (0.5-1.5)MPa, generated by an inert gas, e.g. nitrogen or argon, wherein the volume of the explosion apparatus and the mass of the sample are in a given ratio, and the value of the unit pulse of is determined using a calculation formula.
EFFECT: enabling determination of a unit pulse using small fuel samples in laboratory conditions without using large stand equipment and explosion-proof boxes.
SUBSTANCE: method, which is meant for establishing safe application and combat applicability of artillery munitions, involves sample collection by applying filter paper to liquid droplets on the surface of ballistit powder, followed by dissolving the collected sample in acetone or water heated to 80°C, with addition of 10% potassium hydroxide solution after dissolving in acetone or copper hydroxide after dissolving in water and with evaluation of the result from the colour of the solutions in red-violet colour in the first case or light-blue colour in the second case.
EFFECT: rapid confirmation of detection.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: in process of method realisation on the basis of quality parameters of field coal determined at the stage of exploration and process testing, the lower calorific value of this field coals is determined for any condition of fuel according to the specified formula, a curve of coal lower calorific value dependence on moisture and ash content is built, and efficient determination of coal lower calorific value is carried out by readings of operating moisture and ash content with the help of the curve.
EFFECT: simplification and increase of determination efficiency.
3 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: content of monomethyl aniline in motor gasoline is determined using an indicator test agent from colour transition thereof after coming into contact with a sample of the analysed gasoline. The indicator used is 4-methoxybenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate which is deposited on a solid support. The indicator test agent used is either reagent test paper, the solid-phase support-base used being rapid test paper, wherein content of monomethyl aniline is determined from change in colour of the paper from white to pink, light-red, red or maroon, or an indicator tube, the solid-phase filler-base used being silicon dioxide, and content of monomethyl aniline is determined from the length of the dark-red coloured area of the tube.
EFFECT: high reliability and accuracy and simple analysis.
2 cl, 5 ex, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a fraction of polymethyl-substituted C18-C36 alkanes of formula: , where n=4-10 by reacting molten atactic polypropylene with atmospheric oxygen at 150-250°C for 1-6 hours with air flow rate of 0.6-1.9 l/min∙kg using secondary low-molecular oxidation products as raw material. The method is characterised by that first, low-molecular products are fractionated collection of the basic fraction at 200-310°C followed by catalytic hydrofining from impurities of alkenes in gas phase or oxidation of alkenes at 100°C with aqueous solution of KMnO4 with weight ratio of the fraction to KMnO4 of 2.5-3.0:1.0, followed by freezing the organic layer at minus 20°C and separating the crystalline water-containing precipitate. The invention also relates to use of said fraction as a chemical marker for hydrocarbon fuels.
EFFECT: disclosed marker has a low cost and high concealment.
2 cl, 5 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of a compound for detection of availability of a vegetated explosive substance on the surface of combustible cartridge cases, combustible cylinders, from which missiles are made for tank guns. To confirm availability of the defect of combustible cartridge cases and combustible cylinders it is proposed to analyse observed crystals for determination of their qualitative composition.
EFFECT: method improvement.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: weighed portion of the explosive of a predetermined mass is initiated, and the medium pressure level is recorded in the point remote from the test sample of the explosive at a predetermined distance.
EFFECT: improvement of certain characteristics, such as improvement of accuracy of evaluating the properties of explosives, reducing the required amount of explosives for testing, and simplification of the test procedure.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filtration of process fluids by tubular filtration elements that have inner fine-pore layer secured at outer coarse-pore layer used for gas cleaning and separation. Proposed method consists in forcing acid solution flow through tubular element inner space at pressure that ensures interaction of acid solution with fine-pore layer of tubular element. Hydraulic resistance created by aforesaid outer coarse-pore layer to acid solution flow on dipping the element in water. After processing said inner space by acid solution said space is washed by deaerated water to dry filtration element. Permeability of filtration element of nickel-based material by forcing the flow of 0.3÷0.5%-solution of nitric acid or sulfuric acid through filtration element inner space at the pressure of 1.15×105÷1.25×105 Pa at 18-20°C is increased from (0.28÷0.33)×10-3 to (0.43÷0.53)×10-3 for time whereat loss in mass of fine-pore layer makes 4÷10 g per m2 of porous surface.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of filtration.
4 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices intended for removing effluents of suspensions, superfluous and harmful impurities in industry, agriculture, etc. Sorption filter comprises case 1 filled with sorbent and electrodes 8, 9 to separate sorbent layers in case 1 and to create electrochemical current sources. Sorbent is selected from the group of polarising dielectrics and is fitted in, at least, two sealed vessels 6, 7 arranged in case 1 in the form of helix while electrodes 8, 9 represent an insoluble material. Sealed vessels 6, 7 may represents bags sewn be vertical interrupted stitches. Note here that vessel thickness as-filled makes 20-40 mm. Electrodes may be made of stainless steels, preferably, chrome-nickel steels and composed of grate of high-alloyed stainless steels with mesh of 1.0-5.0 mm in clear and wire diameter of 0.5-1.5 mm. Positive-potential electrode 8 may be made from elastic graphite sheet reinforced by stainless steel or from minced graphite arranged in sealed band sewn by vertical interrupted stitches. Bags 6, 7 may be filled with silica gel and/or haydite or diatomite.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of cleaning.
10 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filtration and may be used in whatever industry for filtration and filtration elements recovery in natural water treatment, in chemical, petrochemical industries, metallurgy, etc. Filter comprises cylindrical case, filtration elements and flushing means composed of flushing fluid feed pipe with distribution chamber arranged at its top part. Guide tubes with perforated tubes extending there through are welded to distribution chamber generatrix and spaced apart regularly in circumference. Perforations represent lines of radial jet forming holes extending along every tube while central line of said holes is located in normal to every tubular filtration element with external filtration surface representing a slotted grating shaped to cylindrical helix of high-precision V-shape section.
EFFECT: improved operating performances and filter recovery, lower costs.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filters intended for cleaning liquid oil products and gases of mechanical and biological impurities. Unit for cleaning initial products consists of housing with top and bottom chambers and hollow cover tightly secured from above. Branch pipes with gates are arranged on hollow cover, housing top and bottom sides, and bottom. Coalescing filter elements are secured at hollow cover bottom while pressure gages are arranged in hollow cover branch pipe and housing top outlet branch pipe. When pressure gages readings indicate difference exceeding 0.05 MPa, hence, clogging of filter elements, proposed plant terminates feed to stock to be cleaned to cleaning said elements by counter flow. Dirt resulted from cleaning is discharged from bottom branch pipe.
EFFECT: simple design, ease of installation.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed separator allows separating, at least, one component from mix of multiple chemical particles. Separator comprise membrane structure comprising multiple pores arranged in matrix material to allow mass transfer from membrane first surface to second membrane surface. Matrix material features heat conductivity approximating to, at least, 10 W/m/K while functional material is arranged in, at least, portion of multiple pores. Functional material may promote selective transfer of, at least, one kind of particles through membrane structure from first surface to second one.
EFFECT: higher heat conductivity.
11 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water cleaning of impurities and microorganisms by filtration with the help of sorbents. Filtration element comprises perforated carcass with filtration layered material arranged on its every side. Water cleaning filter comprises chamber having inlet and water flow outlet, filter first stage arranged in chamber communicated with inlet. Filter first stage comprises filtration element with material that removes microorganisms, second stage communicated with outlet. Filter second stage comprises extra sorbent material and is placed into position to allow water to flow through first stage before second stage. Filter incorporates filtration element in its whatever version.
EFFECT: higher cleaning efficiency, simple design.
32 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption filter and may be used for water treatment in industrial water supply systems. Sorption filter comprises housing with sorbent, and electrodes to separate layers of said sorbent. Said electrodes make electrochemical current sources and are made up of aluminium perforated plates with negative potential and graphite perforated plates with positive potential. Activated carbon is arranged between said electrodes. Quantity of electrochemical current sources exceeds unity. Filtration is carried out at 5-11 m/h rate. Quantity of consecutively arranged current sources makes 2 to 5 and distance between aforesaid electrodes equals 187-241 mm.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: filter comprises two identical parts 1 and 2 with tapered holes 4 widening toward filter inner part. Filter parts are interconnected to form inner chamber. Each part has a skirt of half of circumference outer side and is made rod clad mix.
EFFECT: higher quality of metal cleaning, reduced costs.
FIELD: process engineering, transportation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydrate loose materials and doubles for unloading them. It is intended for coal, mining and other industries. The proposed device comprises a housing, bottom with gate furnished with water offtake chute and spring-loaded driven actuator mounted vertically along the housing axis. The housing inner and outer walls consist of three rows of vertical rods, crosswise beams, ties and filtration screen fastened, wave-shapely, on rods of outer and central rows. Inner row rods are arranged with a spacing making at least half the maximum size of loose material slump, while central row rods are arranged on appropriate diametric line of inner row rods with the gap between them making the size required for mounting inner-row ties and filtration screen attachment. Inner-row rods are mounted in gaps between central-row rods and serve for wave-shaped attachment of filtration screen.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and throughput, easier servicing.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for filtering. The device includes horizontal filtering zones arranged one above the other. At least one central distributing pipe, one common non-filtering channel and one common filtering channel adjoin the above filtering zones. There is a filtering layer on a filtering element, which is formed by at least one auxiliary filtering agent. The above mentioned filtering layer separates the area where filtrate is accumulated and sedimentation cavity. The device also includes circular receiving channel provided for each filtering element and covering the central axis of the filter. The said circular receiving channel fits into the sedimentation cavity with its outlet along the periphery and at the longest radial distance from the central filter axis. At the smallest distance from the central filter axis, the above channel is provided with at least one inlet connected to the non-filtrate channel for non-filtrate. Non-filtrate channel outlet is surrounded by the said filtering zones and provided in the area of the central filter axis. Each filtering element and/or group of filtering elements is provided with at least one liquid-operated valve being in the filtrate drain. Each filtering element and/or group of filtering elements is provided with at least one liquid-operated valve, being in the supply pipeline for rinsing liquid. The pipeline is equipped with remount-mount nozzles.
EFFECT: qualitative cleaning and rinsing.
13 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry, particularly to perform gas-dynamic well survey.
SUBSTANCE: method involves attaching filtering cylinders to filtering pack frame between swirler and end thereof by connecting fluoroplastic filtering cylinders one to another, to swirler and to filtering pack end with rings having annular grooves cut around ring perimeters, wherein the grooves have trapezoid cross-sections and adapted to receive filtering cylinder edges, each extreme ring is provided with one groove formed in one ring end and is air-tightly connected to swirler of filtering pack end by opposite ring end, central rings have two grooves located on opposite ends thereof; connecting aerodynamic shroud to filtering unit and compressing the ready filtering unit with fastening bolt to provide firm air-tight connection between rings and filtering cylinders.
EFFECT: increased filtering unit strength and service life due to improved gas filtration and reduced labor inputs for filtering unit assemblage.