SUBSTANCE: drag head includes a drilling machine with a control system and a penetrator, which is fixed on a space lander. Heat insulated containers for soil sample excavation are fixed on the penetrator. The drilling machine is equipped with a temperature sensor of a penetrator tip, which is connected to the control system of the drilling machine.
EFFECT: invention allows improving quality of obtained soil samples.
4 cl, 6 dwg
The invention relates to space technology, namely to devices for sampling of soil (for example, frozen blocks of ice, etc. and can be used in the study of planets, comets and other heavenly bodies.
Known groundsamine device containing a drilling rig with a control system and a penetrator mounted on space landing module, and attached to the penetrator containers for collection of soil samples (see JP patent 6056100, CL B64G 1/66, publ. 01.03.1994). A disadvantage of the known devices is the inability to obtain a sample in its natural state and maintain its temperature until delivery from the well to research the device, due to the lack of control and maintain the required temperature range of the penetrator, and accordingly, the containers with the soil.
The objective of the invention is to eliminate specified. the drawback. The technical result consists in increasing the quality of the obtained soil samples. The problem is solved and the technical result is achieved by the fact that in gruntsgabalam device containing a drilling rig with a control system and a penetrator mounted on space landing module, and attached to the penetrator containers for sampling of soil, containers made of thermally insulated, and brown the second unit is equipped with temperature sensor tip of the penetrator, connected to the control system of the rig. The drilling rig is preferably equipped with a passive thermal control system that includes a heat pipe in the heat pipe, the evaporation zone which is connected to the tip of the penetrator. Passive thermal control system it is expedient to provide a low temperature termoacumuladores operating mode of the phase transition. Groundsamine the device may be equipped with multiple insulated containers that are located at different levels along the penetrator, and each container is equipped with independent rotary mechanism for opening/closing.
Figure 1 presents a General view of the space of the lander with the proposed gruntsgabalam device at the time of soil collection;
figure 2 - the same at the time of unloading of the substrate;
figure 3 shows a longitudinal section of the proposed suction head; it;
figure 4 shows the location of the elements of thermal control system;
figure 5 - cross section a-a in figure 3;
figure 6 shows the fastening of the container to the penetrator with a rotary mechanism for opening/closing.
Offer groundsamine device is attached to the manipulator 1 space lander 2 and contains a drilling rig control system (position not defined) and penet what ATOR 3. The tip 4 of the penetrator 3 is connected with piezoelectricity ultrasonic transducer 5 via the link to increase the amplitude of the 6, two-half-wave spacer 7 and the hub 8. The fastening device to the manipulator 1 is carried out through a ¾ wave stud 9 having a channel for passage of command and signal cables 10, and the transition element 11. The rig is equipped with a temperature sensor 12 of the tip 4 of the penetrator 3 connected to the control system of the rig. The temperature of the penetrator 3 is maintained at the required level using a passive thermal control system that includes a heat pipe in the form of low-temperature heat pipe 13, the evaporation zone which is connected to the handpiece 4. Passive thermal control system is also equipped with a low temperature termoacumuladores 14 with a substance having a temperature of phase transition from solid to liquid and back) at the required level.
At different levels along the penetrator 3 fixed insulated containers 15 for sampling of soil, each of which is equipped with independent rotary mechanism for opening/closing. The body of each container 15 is made of a thin sheet of stainless steel in the shape of the glass, lower the bottom of which is open, and the top has lugs from the outside to secure it n is the penetrator 3. The design of the container 15 is thermally insulated walls to keep the temperature of the retrieved soil. This insulation is provided by the execution of the walls of two layers of thin-walled stainless steel (0.1-0.5 mm) with a gap between them of not less than 1 mm (thermal insulation).
The rotary mechanism of opening/closing includes an axle 16 which is fixed to the container 15. The axis 16 is installed torsion spring 17, the aim of which is to ensure tight closing (turning and pressing the open bottom of the container 15 to the body of the penetrator 3. To rotate the container 15 to facilitate sampling of the soil and its discharge is used electromagnetic mechanism 18 mounted in the upper part of the container 15 and triggered by the operator's command.
Groundsamine the device operates as follows.
The first step is drilling at the maximum desired depth, for example, at 2 PM In the drilling process control drilling speed and temperature of the tip 4 of the penetrator 3. For example, for the study of water on the moon (in the form of ice) soil temperature at a depth of 0.5 m to 2 m is about minus 120°C. During drilling at a speed of 50 mm/min is heated tip 4. Valid in our case, the maximum temperature during drilling shall not exceed minus 110°C. the purpose of maintaining this level in the present invention is provided by a low-temperature heat pipe 13 and thermoacoustic 14 with a working body type ethanol, having a transition temperature at minus 114.5°C and a specific heat of melting point 108 kJ/kg.
Regulation of drilling speed is determined by the melting time of ethanol under heating from drilling and subsequent cooling of ethanol to minus 120°C. Preliminary assessment showed that depending on the breed of soil option of drilling to a depth of 2 m and without interrupting the drilling process only by reducing the speed of drilling.
After the desired depth of drilling and the shutter speed for establishing the desired temperature, for example, in our case minus 110°C, you can start sampling soil sample.
When drilling the penetrator 3 with special grooves to exit depleted soil, distributes along the drilling channel, the soil is loosened. Soil samples for analysis in the drilled hole are given the command to reverse the penetrator 3 by approximately 50 mm (over the length of the container 15). Then the command is given to the electromagnetic mechanism 18, through which the rotation of one or more of the containers 15, and the movement of the penetrator 3 down in the direction of drilling. In the opened slit in the bottom of the container 15 when the downward movement occurs, the soil samples. Then the command is given to shut off solenoid mechanism 18 and by spring 17 and later under the EMA of the penetrator 3 is closing the holes for soil collection.
Subsequent soil samples from other depths (1.5 m, 1.0 m and 0.5 m) occurs on the similar technology at the expense of consecutive stops when removing the drilling tool from the well.
After removal of the penetrator 3 well manipulator 2 working tool is mounted on the device for receiving ground 19. At the command of the operator turns on the electromagnetic mechanism 18 specific container 15, which rotates the container 15 with the ground and the ground through the open channel due to forces of gravity poured on the ground. In addition provided the attack of the penetrator 3 on the surface of the device for receiving the ground 19 for a complete deterioration of the soil from the container 15.
The use of the proposed device allows to obtain samples of the soil to the required depth with a temperature corresponding to the temperature of the occurrence of the breed, which allows a qualitative study of the composition of the soil in the place of its occurrence and to obtain deep borehole for one drilling.
1. Groundsamine device containing a drilling rig with a control system and a penetrator mounted on space landing module, and attached to the penetrator, at least one container for collection of soil samples, characterized in that the container is made of thermally insulated, and brown the second unit is equipped with temperature sensor tip of the penetrator, connected to the control system of drilling rig.
2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the drilling rig is equipped with a passive thermal control system that includes a heat pipe in the heat pipe, the evaporation zone which is connected to the tip of the penetrator.
3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the passive thermal control system is equipped with a low temperature termoacumuladores operating mode of the phase transition.
4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it has a number of insulated containers that are located at different levels along the penetrator, and each container is equipped with independent rotary mechanism for opening/closing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, veterinary and biology. Sample fixation, decalcification, washing with water, dehydration in alcohol solutions and pouring with paraffin are performed. Sample fixation is performed for 24 hours in alcohol-based molecular fixing agent FineFix, which contains FineFix and 96° alcohol in ratio 1:2.5. Decalcification is carried out for 2-5 days in 5-8% buffered solution of formic acid with daily replacement of decalcifying solution and control of decalcification completeness. Ratio sample:decalcifying solution constitutes 1:20. When decalcification is finished, sample washing with water is performed and sample is re-submerged into alcohol solution of molecular fixing agent FineFix for 6-12 hours before dehydration stage. Set for preparation of bone tissue preparation contains alcohol-based molecular fixing agent FineFix, concentrated solution of decalcifying agent, prepared with ratio 40 g of sodium citrate, 100 ml of 90% solution of formic acid, 300 ml of distilled water, and working solutions for control of decalcification completeness, containing saturated ammonium oxalate solution and 25% water solution of ammonia.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain high-quality preparations suitable for further histological and immunohistological analysis without application of highly toxic components.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: compound for conclusion of histological preparations contains synthetic resin, solvent and auxiliary component. Foamed polyurethane (FPU) is used as resin, xylol is used as solvent and dibutyl phthalate is used as auxiliary component at the following ingredient ratio, wt %: foamed polyurethane 15-20; xylol 79-84; dibutyl phthalate 1.0.
EFFECT: reduction of cost of embedding medium and improving quality of histological preparation at maintaining fabrics colour.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: plastic deformation is created on edges of a specimen. The following is used for creation of plastic deformations: local heating, rolling and combination of those methods of action; as a result, in the centre of the specimen a zone with uniform distribution of stress components appears, the signs and levels of which depend on the nature of action and can be found as per the measurement results of the specimen before and after the action.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of measurement results of mechanical stresses in steel structures.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for preparing biological tissue sample for histopathological examination wherein the biological tissue samples are sequentially processed in a fixative solution which is presented by 10% formalin buffered by sodium phosphates; the intermediate processing takes place at room temperature. Then, the biological tissue samples are washed with water. That is followed by dehydration in more than one portions of isopropanol. The samples are cleared in two portions of the intermediates containing isopropanol and mineral oil with the first portion of the intermediate containing five portions of isopropanol and one portion of mineral oil, and with the second portion containing two portions of isopropanol and one portion of mineral oil. The intermediate processing is followed by immersing the biological tissue samples into mineral oil for clearing. The biological tissue samples are impregnated with melted paraffin added with 5% of bee wax, 0.8% of dimethyl sulphoxide and 0.5% of butyl rubber.
EFFECT: reducing labour content and time for preparing the high-quality section of the histopathological examinations with the either laboratory facilities: manual and automatic lines, in any tissue processors due to the high quality biological tissue samples having been prepared.
SUBSTANCE: first, a specimen of rectangular shape is made; a bevelled cut is made on the specimen at an angle of 15-25° from lower base to upper one, thus taking specimen length as the base. Then, surface of the bevelled cut of the specimen is ground and an austenisation mode is performed in oxidation atmosphere by etching gas. The specimen is cooled in water or in the air; then, a microslice or a series of microslices is prepared on surface of small base of the specimen, thus grinding the layers parallel to large base of the specimen. Depth of decoration zone is measured by etching gas on microslice by means of a microscope; then, the investigated surface of microslice is etched with alcohol solution of nitric acid till boundaries of austenitic grains are determined; determined boundaries of austenitic grains are studied; depth of selective determination zone of boundaries of austenitic grains is determined, and the defined etching picture is photographed. As per investigation results of microslice surface, structural state of the specimen is evaluated step by step: first, decoration zone of structure by oxidation with etching gas, then, selective etching zone of actual boundaries of austenite grains, and finally, zone of simultaneous detection of boundaries and intra-grain structure of the investigated steel; then, full depth of penetration of etching gas to the investigated material is determined by summing depths of decoration zone with etching gas and zone of selective detection of boundaries of austenite grains at etching of microslice and multiplication of the obtained value by cosine of inclination angle of bevelled cut to the large base.
EFFECT: simpler detection of boundaries of actual austenite grain; providing complex evaluation of structural state of hardened steel with possibility of multiple layer-by-layer investigation of slices by simultaneous fixation of oxidation zone of the investigated steel, zone of selective detection of boundaries of actual austenite grain and zone of intra-grain structure on slice surface.
7 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for sampling and precise comprehensive assessment of pollution of air samples (from air supplied into a system of aircraft pilot cabin conditioning), sampled from a compressor of a gas turbine aviation engine (GTE) during its bench testing, and further gas chromatographic analysis of samples for content of hazardous admixtures. A laboratory complex for sampling and gas chromatographic analysis of air samples includes a complex of air sampling 6 with a unit of samplers 7 and a control panel 8, a complex for gas chromatographic analysis of air samples 3 with a control panel 4, a package 9 for transportation of adsorption packets 10 and a container 11 for storage of concentrators 12. The laboratory complex is also equipped with plants for supply of gases 5, pumping of calibrating gas mixture 2 and definition of working volumes of a vacuumised part of the item 1. At the same time the plant for supply of gases 5 is simultaneously connected with the plant for pumping of the calibrating gas mixture 2 and with the complex of gas chromatographic analysis of air samples 3, and the plant for definition of working volumes of the vacuumised part of the item 1 is connected with the complex of air sampling 6.
EFFECT: improved operational properties, provision of sampling and precise comprehensive assessment, total error of measurement of pollution of air samples from a GTE compressor under bench testing, higher quality of indirect control of oil seals used in supports of the GTE compressor rotor.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sampler relates to a sampling device in liquid and fluid condition, namely, to samplers for semi-automatic sampling along the entire height of the reservoir with oil products. The sectional sampler comprises a sampling column, a system of three-way valve control in the form of connecting traction rods and yokes connected into a parallelogram. Sections of sampling pipes are assembled by means of their installation into bores of three-way valves and are fixed by captive nuts with a seal. Besides, a worm gear is installed on the axis connected to a master yoke.
EFFECT: higher operational characteristics and service life of a sampler due to reduction of labour intensiveness of its assembly during installation and repair.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to pathomorphological diagnostics. To predict five-year long survival of patients with invasive breast cancer index of dispersion of tissue structures is determined as difference between maximal and minimal values of number of cancer structures and/or fractions of parenchymal or stromal component in microscopy at small magnification (100x) divided by quantity of vision fields in which said values were counted. If index of dispersion of tissue structures is lower than 1.6, five-year long survival of patient can be predicted with 95% probability, if its value is higher than 2.3, prediction of five-year long survival is unfavourable.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to predict five-year long survival in patients with invasive breast cancer.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device includes sampling tube mounted in pipeline perpendicular to flow movement and provided with slot-like inlet from side of flow movement. Slots in inlet are made horizontally along the height of pipeline and are directed toward liquid flow. Depth of slots changes from small near pipeline walls to largest near pipeline axis. Opposite to inlet in sampling tube there made is a vertical slot.
EFFECT: increasing sample uniformity and improving accuracy of sample composition determination.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves analysis of an image of mixture surface and determination of coefficient of its non-homogeneity. The investigated mixture is uniformly distributed on a smooth surface and divided into necessary number of portions; digital images of their surfaces with build-up of brightness histograms are obtained. Then, each portion is divided into equal number of parts (probes) with build-up of their brightness histograms. Mixture non-homogeneity coefficient is calculated by comparing digital images of parts (probes) of a piston with an image of the whole portion of the investigated mixture as per brightness histograms.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity, increasing speed and accuracy of determination of quality of mixture of components that differ as to colour.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of the main and auxiliary shafts with a drilling rig from a shelter building, installation of sealing and heat-insulating ramps in shaft collars. One of the auxiliary shafts is erected in the form of a microscope, drilled from an exploratory well by means of its expansion from an inner mine tunnel until reaching the surface of an nonterrestrial object and used as a saving shaft, which on the surface via a gate chamber contacts with a landing complex of a spacecraft. In the saving shaft in the area of its connection with the inner mine tunnel there is a sealing heat-insulation ramp installed, drilled solids are distributed into a crater of the nonterrestrial object.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to carry out salvage operations and to ensure the necessary ventilation in mines and pits, and also to establish a connection between the shafts on the nonterrestrial object surface.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering. Proposed device comprises pipeline 5, assembly to transfer container via pipeline and assembly to prepare and load container. The latter comprises rotary support 8 arranged on fixed support 7, bush 18 to accommodate container 17 and container cover 18. Transfer assembly comprises housing 19 accommodating gas-tight sleeve 20 representing, in initial position, a flat tape. Sleeve open end is tightly jointed with housing 19. Space 22 is communicated via air line 11 and start-and-shut-ff valve 12 with compressed gas source 10. Bush 16 has spring-loaded flange 24 and is locked by pyro cotter 27. Cover 18 is locked by pyro cotter 28. Support 8 is also locked by pyro cotter and provided with spring pusher 31 with rod 32 to displace transfer assembly, together with bush 16 and container 17, to under cover 18. Pyro cotter 27 operated, container 17 is closed by cover 18. Pyro cotter 28 and valve 12 operated, sleeve 20, straightening under gas pressure, displaces container 17 along pipeline 5. Delivery of container into autolander from any direction.
EFFECT: higher versatility of proposed device.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly to methods of building of isolated sealed mines, grooves and mountain-drilling rooms, used for shelter of people, and also for introduction of exploration work and field development of minerals in geological material of nonterrestrial objects. Building method of mines and grooves on nonterrestrial objects includes opening of top horizons by one of shanks, opening of bottom horizon through main shank and delivering of rock from deepening of each shank and horizon by adjacent shank. Structure of main and auxiliary shanks is implemented by boring machine with headstock from building structure - shelter, connected to spacecraft. After spudding of one or other shank on its mouth there are installed sealing and heat insulating shelves. There is continued construction at the outset of auxiliary shank, opening top horizon, then it is continued construction of main shank, top horizon connects both shanks. Delivery of rock from passing of each shank and horizon is implemented by adjacent shank through building structure - shelter and chamber gate by means of carriage bogie. Top horizon is continued to construct up to inlet to lip of nonterrestrial object, outlet of horizon is equipped by chamber gate.
EFFECT: invention provides safe of drilling activities implementation and to reduce material expenses.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to processing lunar soil and production of helium-3 (He3) on the Moon, including its back side. The complex of facilities for production of (He3) from the lunar soil consists of a source of micro-waves of super-high frequency installed on the lunar surface, and also of control equipment. The source of micro-waves of super-high frequency radiates waves onto a section of lunar soil surface covered with transparent for radiation elastic pressurised jacket; further He is withdrawn from the zone covered with the jacket, is liquefied and collected. The control equipment is installed in points of libration (Lagrange points) of system the Earth-the Moon and is designed to re-translate a control signal to the back side of the Moon.
EFFECT: simplification of process and equipment for production of helium-3 (He3), and also possibility to produce helium-3 (He3) not only on visible side of the Moon, but on its back side.
SUBSTANCE: complex of development tools fro obtaining He3 from lunar soil includes draft gear, drag head, transporter, and receiving and processing unit. Draft gear is made in the form of two similar devices with removable ground traction boosters attached symmetrically at the opposite sides of the draft gear. Receiving and processing unit is placed beyond excavation zone. Receiving tool comprises a number of lunar soil banks obtained by soil casting from excavation zone to the processing unit. At that, the complex includes receiver-emitter device mounted at the draft gear for preliminary soil heating.
EFFECT: improved equipment operation efficiency and energy savings.
FIELD: apparatus for obtaining or removing undisturbed cores in tubular core lifter, particularly during vertical, inclined or horizontal well drilling.
SUBSTANCE: core holder comprises body, core engagement member and support ring with inclined end surface. Core engagement member is bush with parallel ends and inner inclined surface, which is located on support ring by larger base so that the bush may perform radial, axial and annular movement relative support ring. Angle α of cone generator is more or equal to angle β of end ring surface inclination. Magnet is installed in support ring part characterized by the least height. Core holder has orifice. Magnet and orifice are in common line, which is parallel to axial core holder line. In the case of vertical well drilling the bush is rotated on support ring by gravity force application. In the case of inclined or horizontal well drilling the bush is rotated under the action of magnet and flushing liquid jet to engage core just as washer installed in skewed position on cylindrical body engages the core.
EFFECT: increased reliability of core holding during well drilling.