Method to erect underwater tunnels

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect underwater tunnels, including tunnelling of slopes and drifts, creation of a mine of arched shape, fixation of its walls and fixation of its walls and vault by monolithic reinforced concrete, backlining external hydraulic insulation from bitumen putty, a ramp and a water impermeable lock, water drainage by means of drainage trays, differing by the fact that in order to ensure efficiency of tunnelling works and higher reliability of tunnel hydraulic insulation, its length is divided into sections with open and underground methods of tunnelling. An inclined entry trench is built on an open area with minimum water level in a river by means of open works, in the end of the trench a protective horseshoe-shaped border is erected from reinforced concrete, walls are erected, the arched vault of the tunnel with rigging, on top of which they lay a hydraulic insulation jacket from Typar material and filled with removed soil, the tunnelling of the underwater section of the tunnel is carried out in a regimen of moderation by tunnelling combines in counter headways until they are joined at the design elevation, and water breakthrough in the tunnel is collected in a sump with subsequent pumping by pumps via wells to a surface interception ditch, connected with a water reservoir.

EFFECT: higher reliability of tunnel hydraulic insulation, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity in construction.

1 tbl, 4 dwg

 

Underwater tunnels through the rivers preferred spread when there are floods and powerful floating ice, passing at high water levels, channel instability, and the requirements of nature. These factors are inherent in the Northern rivers, mainly originating in southern latitudes and flowing into the North-Eastern sea. Therefore, this invention relates to underground and underwater structures and can be used in the construction of road and rail tunnels, passable under water bodies, mainly in cryolitozone.

A known method of construction of the underwater tunnels in the dam, including the sinking of the underground mine tunnels, construction of ramps, closed part of the tunnel under water at the dam [grooms DS. the Use of underground space. The textbook. manual for VW s. - M.: Architecture. - 2004. - 296 c. - C.148-156].

The disadvantage of a limited scope, primarily when crossing deep water obstacles, and possible interference and obstructions to navigation.

There is also known a method of construction of the underwater tunnels, buried in the seabed, including the beginning, the driving of the inclined section of the tunnels, then the underwater section and complex equipment tunnel, intakes, pumping station is fastening their walls [grooms DS. The use of underground space. The textbook. manual for VW s. - M.: Architecture. - 2004. - 296 S. - S-153].

The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of construction, the predominant use in a wide watercourse flat and low shores, overcoming small water obstacles and the bed of the watercourse formed by the thickness of the weak soils.

A known method of construction of underwater tunnels, including the driving of horizontal and inclined workings, creating elaborate arched shape or disclosure of openings in parts, fixing the walls and roof of the tunnel monolithic concrete and drainage with drainage trays [Volkov VP Tunnels and subways. - M.: Transport. - 1975. - 542 S. - S-246].

The disadvantage of this method is unreliable design, which does not provide a complete waterproofing of tunnels from penetration of water.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence is the method of construction of the underwater tunnels, including the driving of horizontal and inclined workings, creating elaborate arched shape, lining its walls and roof monolithic concrete, membrane outer waterproofing bituminous mastics, ramp and waterproof shutter, drainage with drainage trays [Volkov VP Tunnels and subways. - M.: Transport. - 1975. - 542 S. - P.70-73].

The disadvantage with the person is the low efficiency of mining operations and the weak reliability of waterproofing of the tunnel in terms of cryolitozone, where are the processes of phase fluctuations in the temperature of the natural environment, accompanied by constant defrosts and freezing of permafrost rocks.

The aim of the invention is to ensure the efficiency of mining operations and increase the reliability of the waterproofing of the tunnel.

This objective is achieved in that according to the method of construction of the underwater tunnels, its length is divided into sections with the open pit and underground drilling, and in the open area to build an inclined entrance trench with a minimum water level in the river equipment public works, at the end of the trench construct horseshoe forms a protective border of reinforced concrete, erecting walls, arched roof of the tunnel with a snap-on top of which is laid waterproofing shirt made of synthetic material Typar and fall asleep excavated soil, sinking underwater tunnel leading to a sparing mode tunnel combines opposing faces to dock them on the project mark, and the slippage of water in the tunnel collect in sump followed by pumping of the pump through the hole on the surface of the Nagorno ditch connected to the reservoir.

In the proposed method, the new features in comparison with the prototype are:

to create a new technological scheme of construction of underwater tunnels using combinations of Pozen the x and open mine workings;

- the use of the new principle of construction of slope tunnels by sinking deep entrance of the trench with the construction end of the horseshoe-shaped fringe of reinforced concrete;

- use for permafrost conditions of the new waterproofing material typer in tunnel construction, resistant to phase fluctuations of the ambient temperature after opening permafrost rocks;

to create a new scheme slippage of water from the tunnel through the drain pan, sump, well, Nagorno ditch and pond.

All these new features eliminate the drawbacks of the existing methods of building underwater tunnels under water bodies and provide the following enhanced positive properties:

- the use of combinations of surface and underground workings reduces the time of construction of the underwater tunnels;

- the use of the inclined trench with a protective u-shaped border of the concrete reduces the total cost of construction of tunnels and protects them from flooding when the water level rises in the river;

- protection of the tunnel from percolating water with waterproof jacket made of synthetic material typer provides reliable design in permafrost conditions;

- a new scheme of removal slippage of water from the tunnel reduces the cost of pumping due to exclusion is expensive special schemes sanitation;

- the use of wells and the Nagorno ditches in the scheme of drainage improves the ecological situation in the region due to the discharge of unpolluted water in the river network.

The method is illustrated in the drawings. Figure 1 - location map of the underwater tunnel in the plan; figure 2 is a cross section of an underwater tunnel; figure 3 - longitudinal profile of the underwater tunnel; figure 4 calculation scheme for determining the scope of works for the construction of an underwater tunnel.

The method is as follows.

The undersea tunnel 1 start at the minimum water level 2 in the river 3 (figure 1). Pass from the opposite banks of the river entrance of the trench 4, excavated the soil is warehoused in the dumps 5 on Board of the trench. At the end of the entry trench erected u-shape forms a protective border 6 of the concrete above the maximum water level 7 on the river. Moreover, the driving of the entrance of the trench 4 are using the techniques of surface mining - excavators or trucks hauling rock trucks on the side of the trench. After drilling and forming the entrance of the trench erect wall 8 and an arched roof of the tunnel 9 are made of reinforced concrete (figure 2), after which on top of its stack waterproof jacket made of synthetic material Typar 10 and fall asleep excavated spoil 5, restoring the original surface relief 11 (figure 3). Prog is the corporate governance of the underwater section of the tunnel are two opposing faces 12 using the techniques of underground works - tunneling machines. In the process of drilling a subsea tunnel create zumpfe 13 for collecting leaking into the tunnel of water that flows down the drain tray 14. Water from jumptv 13 is pumped by the pump through the hole 15 in the hill ditch 16, where it is poured by gravity into the river system.

Technical essence and benefits of the new technical solutions disclosed in the example of the sinking underwater tunnels across the river in extreme climate cryolitozone North.

Initial data for calculation are as follows:

- the width of the river, Wp=3 km;

- the cross-sectional area road tunnels, St=83,25 m2(see below);

- the angle of the tunnels on a slope, αt=6°=10°/°°;

the cost of excavation of 1 m3rocks in an open way, withabout=3,41 $ /m3;

- the cost of strbody 1 m3rocks underground, withp=10,23$./m3;

the cost of preexcavation 1 m3rock based, withe=0,2·sabout=0.7$./m3.

The calculation scheme for determining the scope of works for the construction of an underwater tunnel is shown in figure 4.

The calculations are performed in the following sequence:

1. The total length of the underwater tunnel, Lt,

Lt=Lg+2Ln,

where Lg, Ln- proper is about the length of the horizontal and inclined sections of the tunnels, km, Lg=Wp=3 km:

Ln=Ng·αt,

Hgthe depth of the tunnel, m;

Hg=hb+hp+hC,

hbthe height of the river, m, hb=20 m; hpthe average depth of the river, m; hp=8 m; hCthe tunnel from the bottom of the river, m; hC=14 m;

Ln=Ng·αt=(20+8+14)·10=420 m,

where Lt=3000+2·420=3840 m

2. Substantiation of the parameters of road tunnels.

As an example, adopted a two-lane road tunnel, the cross-sectional area which according to the normative data in the literature [Volkov VP Tunnels and subways. - M.: Transport. - 1975. - 542 S. - P.63-65] is calculated by the formula:

St=Wt·Ht,

where Wt- width two-lane road tunnel, m;

Ht- the average height of the tunnel, m

Wt8 m + 8 m + 1 m + 1 m + 0.25 m + 0.25 m = 18,5 m,

where 8 m - width of the roadway in the same direction, m;

1 m - width utility sidewalk, m;

1 m - gap between cars with two-way direction, m;

0.25 m - width of the protective strip on both sides of the roadway, m

The average height of the tunnel, Nt=4.5 m, then

St=Wt·Ht=18,5·4,5=83,25 m2.

3. The volume of the sinking of the submarine tunnel - Vg,

Vg=LgSt=3000 m·83,25 m 2= 249750 m3.

4. The volume of the sinking of the inclined section of the tunnel - Vn,

Vn=Vbut+VTM,

where Vbut- the volume of the sinking of the inclined section of the tunnel, running in an open way, m3;

VTM- the volume of the sinking of the inclined section of the tunnel that runs underground, m3.

The open method is passed the tunnel in the form of an entrance of the trench to the depth of the water level in the river.

Then the volume of its sinking will be equal to:

Vbut=Lbut·hb/2·WTr,

where Lbut- the length of the entrance of the trench, m;

WTr- the width of the entrance of the trench, m, WTr=30 m

Lbut=hb·αt=20·10=200 m

Vbut=200·20/2·30=60000 m3.

The length of the inclined underground tunnel - LTM,

LTM=Ln-Lbut=420-200=220 m

The volume of the sinking of the inclined underground tunnel,

VTM=2·LTM·St=2·220·83,24=36626 m3.

Therefore,

Vn=Vbut+VTM=60000+36626=96626 m3.

5. The cost of tunnel excavation - CFri:

CFri=Con+CPP,

where Con- the costs of boring section of the tunnel, running in an open way, $.;

CPP- the costs of boring section of the tunnel that runs underground JV the way $

Con=Cabout·Von=3,41·60000=204600$.

CPP=Cp·VPP=10,23·36626=374684$.

where Cp≃C·Cabout=3,41·3=10,23$./m3,

where, CFri=204600+374684=579284$.

6. The cost of construction of the tunnel lining.

Adopted the design of the lining of reinforced concrete, the main parameters which according to literature [Volkov VP Tunnels and subways. - M.: Transport. - 1975. - 542 S. - P.69-77] was:

the thickness of the lining of concrete, m=0.6 m;

- concrete volume 1 POG. m lining, ΔV=8.9 m3.

Then the total flow of concrete Qbfor the construction of underwater tunnels with a length Lt=3840 m are equal,

Qb=Lt·ΔV+ΔQ,

where ΔQ is the amount of concrete to complete the roadway tunnel thickness ∆ H=0.15 m, m3;

ΔQ= ∆ H·Wt·Lt=0,15·18,5·3840 m = 10656 m3,

Qb=3840·8,9+10656=44832 m3.

The cost of laying concrete Cbwill be:

Cb=Cb·Qb=Qb·44832=4,53 million.

where Cbthe cost of laying 1 m of concrete,$,

Withb=101$./m3(3032 rubles/m3according to the JSC "acoutrement").

The cost of waterproofing by covering the tunnel lining by " Typar " estimated cost 1 m2film equal 1,43 $ /m3(43 us $ /m2). The use of " Typar " as a reinforcing fabric crepitans increases the reliability of waterproofing not only due to its inherent properties, but buy more positive qualities:

- typer does not rot and does not decompose;

- has a high resistance to tear and puncture, chemical resistance and filtration properties;

- increases the time the health structures;

- does not absorb water and perform a reinforcing function;

- provides a barrier to the penetration of small particles in design, and the deposition of a large number of them on the surface creates an impenetrable film;

- increases the durability of the waterproofing when installing it together with bitumen emulsion.

7. The calculation of the cost of the floor tunnel " Typar " as follows. Consumption " Typar " 1 POG. m generation Rtwill be:

Pt=2SHt+2Ht=2·18,5+2·4,5=46 m

The entire length of the tunnel LT consumption " Typar " Σtequal to:

Σt=Pt·Lt=46·3840=176640 m2.

Then the costs of the tunnel " Typar " will equal:

Ctt·t,

where Ct- 1 m2film Typar,t=1,43 $ /m2(43 rubles/m2).

Ct=176640·1,43=252595$.

The total cost of construction of the tunnel lining - Cthen,

Cthen=Cb+Ct=4530000+252595=4782595$.

The total cost of the construction of the tunnel:

Ctone=CFri+Cb+Ct=579284+4530000+252595=5361879 is all.=are 5.36 million.

Ctone=are 5.36 million. = 178,7 million rubles

The expected economic efficiency from the introduction of underwater tunnels calculated in accordance with a bridge. According to source [Androsov A.D., Semenov V.A., Zakharov, Y. Feasibility of construction of underground tunnels under the river Lena. - M.: Moscow state mining University. - 2006. - "GON No. 2. - S-179] the cost of 1 km of the bridge with two-way traffic will be 0.5 billion rubles, Then the cost of the bridge length of 3 km will be equal to:

Withm=3,0 0,5=1,5 billion rubles = $ 50 million.

Therefore, the expected reduction in capital costs from the introduction of an underwater tunnel - e, will be:

E=Cm-Ct=50,0 and 5.36=44,6 million.

Table 1 shows the comparative technical and economic indicators of the implementation of the recommended option of building a tunnel under the waters in cryolitozone.

Table 1
Main technical and economic indicators of the construction of an underwater tunnel in comparison with bridge crossings
№№ p/pIndicesThe traditional option (bridge)The recommended option (tunnel)
The width of the river, km3,03,0
2The length of the bridge, km3,0-
3The tunnel length, km-3,84
4The cost of sinking a two-lane road tunnel, thous.397,056
5The cost of construction of the tunnel lining concrete, thous.4782,6
6The costs of tunnel waterproofing material (tipar), thous.252,595
7The total cost of the construction of the tunnel, million.are 5.36
8The cost of building a two-lane road bridge, million.50,0
9The expected reduction in capital costs from the introduction of an underwater tunnel, million.44,6

Therefore, the expected reduction in capital costs from the introduction of the underwater tunnel was 44.6 million, i.e. a 1 km length of the tunnel compared to a bridge provides a reduction of capital costs of 11.61 million. The calculations have not taken into account operating costs, since they are practically the same in both cases and will not have a significant impact on reducing the efficiency of tunnel transitions.

The method of construction of the underwater tunnels, including the driving of horizontal and inclined workings, creating elaborate arched shape, lining its walls and roof monolithic concrete, membrane outer waterproofing bituminous mastics, ramp and waterproof shutter, drainage with drainage trays, characterized in that, to ensure the efficiency of mining operations and increase the reliability of the waterproofing of the tunnel, its length is divided into sections with the open pit and underground drilling, and in the open area to build an inclined entrance trench with a minimum water level in the river equipment public works, at the end of the trench construct podkovoobraznoj the th forms a protective border of reinforced concrete, erect walls, arched roof of the tunnel with a snap-on top of which is laid waterproofing shirt made of synthetic material Typar and fall asleep excavated soil, sinking underwater tunnel leading to a sparing mode tunnel combines opposing faces to dock them on the project mark, and the slippage of water in the tunnel is collected in the sump with the subsequent pumping of the pump through the hole on the surface of the Nagorno ditch connected to the reservoir.



 

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