Method of railway track reconstruction
SUBSTANCE: method of railway track reconstruction includes cutting of ledges on a slope of an earth bed, laying of gabions on them. The lower ledge is made with width equal to the width of some gabions, the width of subsequent ledges is equal to 1/3 of the width of the lower ledge, the height of all ledges, including the lower ledge, is equal to the height of a row of gabions. The produced gabion wall comprises N+1 rows of gabions. Besides, N rows of gabions are placed to the level of the main platform of the earth bed, and the upper N-first row of gabions simultaneously rests against the previous row of gabions and the main platform of the earth bed and supports the ballast prism.
EFFECT: reinforcement of a railway track earth bed, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the construction of Railways, namely the embankment.
There is a method of strengthening the primary site of the roadbed side powder (Prokudin IV, Grachev, I.A., spike A.F. Organization reorganization of the Railways under high-speed trains: the textbook for high schools W.-D. transp./ Ed. by I.V. Prokudin. - M.: Routing, 2005. - Page 287-295). The disadvantages of this design are a large amount of draining soil adding additional allotment of land, a large amount of earthworks.
Closest to the proposed technical solution is (LIC No. 22/43. Technical guidance on the use of gabions for the reinforcement of subgrade: approved by the Department of ways and structures 30.12.1997, - M.: 1998) reinforcement of subgrade gabion wall. The disadvantage of this design is the necessity of adding a large amount draining soil
The purpose of the invention is improving the sustainability of the railway track.
The objective is achieved by strengthening the roadbed of the railway track.
Summary of the invention according to claim 1 is that the bottom ledge perform a width equal to the width of the row of gabions, width successive ledges equal to 1/3 the width of the lower ledge, the height of all the ledges, including the lower ledge, equal to the height of several gabion data Gaby the bedroom wall contains N+1 rows of gabions, and N rows of gabions are placed to the level of the primary site of the subgrade, and the upper N-the first row of gabions at the same time relies on the previous row of gabions and the main area of the roadbed and ballast back the prism, and the invention according to claim 2 is that the cut is the same ledges along the entire height of the slope of the subgrade and the base of the subgrade perform the ditch for laying mattress Reno, Reno mattress relies rows of gabions so that the line passing through the tabs stacked gabions, corresponds to the line of slope of the subgrade, and the upper surface of the last row of gabions is located at the level of the primary site of the subgrade and forms the side of the roadbed.
Figure 1 and 2 presents the scheme of the proposed methods of reconstruction of the railway track containing the rail and tie bars 1, the axis of path 2, 3 prism ballast, subgrade 4, the shoulder of the ballast section 5, the side of the roadbed 6 slope 7 subgrade 4, the rows of gabions 8 installed on the ledges 9, ledges 9, sliced on the slope 7 subgrade 4, the main area of the roadbed 10, the top row of gabions 11, a drain 12, a mattress Reno 13, line 14 passing through the projections of the rows of gabions.
The proposed method of reconstruction of the railway ASU is coming as follows.
During operation of the geometrical parameters of the subgrade changed and no longer meet the requirements of normative documents. So, for example, may be a challenge curb subgrade, to increase the steepness of the slopes. In addition, the introduction of high-speed traffic, increase turnover leads to the conversion of the main elements of the railway track, including the strengthening of the subgrade. Existing methods of reinforcement of the subgrade is quite effective, but require significant investment, time-consuming, require additional styling draining soil and additional land acquisition.
Offer options for reconstruction of the roadbed of the railway track allow, using known techniques and materials to solve problems associated with changes in the geometrical dimensions of the subgrade during operation.
The implementation of the method according to option 1 (figure 1) allows to stabilize the prism ballast. For this purpose in the upper part of the subgrade 4 on its slope 7 cut ledges 9, the width of the lower ledge equal to the width of the row of gabions and the width of the subsequent ledges 9 is equal to 1/3 the width of the lower ledge. Gabions are manufactured in several sizes, so the ledges 9 are cut height corresponding to the height of the selected gabio the RC. On the ledges 9 are placed rows of gabions 8. The number of rows of gabions shall be determined by calculation. The rows of gabions 8 stack offset relative to each other by 1/3 of the width of the row. Received gabion wall contains N+1 rows of gabions, and N rows of gabions are placed to the level of primary site 10 subgrade 4, and the upper N-the first row of gabions 11 simultaneously relies on 2/3 of the width of the row to the previous row of gabions 8 and 1/3 of the width of the number to the main site 10 subgrade 4, and holds the prism ballast 3.
The implementation of the method according to option 2 (figure 2) allows for a normative width curb subgrade. For this purpose in the base of the subgrade 4 cut the gutter 12 for laying the Reno-mattress 13, are mounted on the Reno-mattress 13 rows of gabions 8 of the same size, the height of the ledges 9 corresponds to the height of the rows of gabions 8, line 14 passing through the tabs stacked rows of gabions 8, corresponds to the line of slope subgrade 4, the top row of gabions 8 is positioned so that the upper surface of the last row of gabions 8 is located at the level of primary site 10 subgrade 4 and forms a shoulder 6 subgrade 4.
Thus, the proposed method of reconstruction of the roadbed of the railway track ballast stabilizes the lens and provides the side of the earth Polo is on, it increases the resistance of railway track. It should be noted that both the reconstruction does not include technology additional allotment of land and adding additional draining soil.
1. The method of reconstruction of the railway, including the cutting of terraces on the slope of the roadbed, laying on them gabions, characterized in that the lower ledge perform a width equal to the width of the row of gabions, width successive ledges equal to 1/3 the width of the lower ledge, the height of all the ledges, including the lower ledge, equal to the height of several gabion data gabion wall contains N+1 rows of gabions, and N rows of gabions are placed to the level of the primary site of the subgrade, and the upper N-the first row of gabions at the same time relies on the previous row of gabions and the main area of the roadbed and ballast back the prism.
2. The method of reconstruction of the railway, including the cutting of terraces on the slope of the roadbed, laying on them gabions, characterized in that the cut is the same ledges along the entire height of the slope of the subgrade and the base of the subgrade perform the ditch for laying mattress Reno, Reno mattress relies rows of gabions so that the line passing through the tabs stacked gabions, corresponds to the line of slope of the subgrade and top the I surface of the last row of gabions is the primary site of the subgrade and forms the side of the roadbed.
SUBSTANCE: method to erect narrow-section dams is carried out by pulp supply into an inwashed structure simultaneously from the main and two distributing pulp lines. Distributing pulp lines are arranged in parallel at two sides of the main pulp line for inwash of side prisms from coarse fractions of the inwashed soil and the middle part, being the core of the dam, from fine fractions washed from the end of the main pulp line. Outlet holes in distributing pulp lines are made in their lower part and displaced by 20…30° from the vertical axis towards the main pulp line, being distant from each other at the distance of ℓ=dmain, where dmain - diameter of the main pulp line, and the diameter dv=1/3dd, where dd - diameter of the distributing pulp line providing for inwash of soil along the length of side prisms. Pulp supply from the end of the main pulp line for inwash of the dam core is carried out via a damper made in the form of longitudinal steel rods with the diameter of 10…14 mm from smooth reinforcement steel, rigidly fixed by one side along the upper outer surface in the end part of the main pulp line with arrangement of the rods in parallel to the axis of the flow, with the distance between the rods equal to 1…2 of the rod diameter and made with a protrusion by the value of 1.5…2dmain, and the bend of the end section until complete closure of the vertical projection of the end of the main pulp line. The connection of the distributing pulp lines with the main one is made in the form of a socket coupled with the main pulp line, along the line produced from crossing of two cylinders of identical diameter, equal to dmain, and with the distributing pulp lines - in the form of an oval having the size along the large axis equal to dmain, along the small one - dd. The inlet hole of the socket is protected with an inner lattice made in the form of longitudinal rods from smooth reinforcement steel with the diameter of 10…14 mm, rigidly fixed only at the discharge side with arrangement of the rods from each other at the distance of 0.75dv.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to erect protective dams with simultaneous clearing of river beds from bottom sediments and to prevent flooding of adjacent territories, which improves environmental condition in general.
SUBSTANCE: ground structure on a weak base comprises an embankment, trenches made at its both sides and a reinforcing system in the form of a horseshoe-shaped retaining shell with a vault and supports. The retaining shell is arranged in transverse and longitudinal direction of the ground structure from webs of a synthetic non-woven material (SNM) laid into the embankment and trenches. Webs of the SNM in trenches are filled with soil, forming supports of the horseshoe-shaped retaining shell. The retaining shell is made in the form of a closed shell, its vault is installed in the embankment body and is filled with soil. The volume weight of soil in the horseshoe-shaped retaining shell exceeds the volume weight of embankment soils.
EFFECT: provision of a reliable and durable earth structure on a weak base in process of permanent operation without drying of weak soils in area of any length.
SUBSTANCE: embankment includes an embankment body in the form of filled soil and a cooling system installed in the embankment in the form of a panel with channels arranged inside. The panel with channels may be arranged in the form of a net. Holes of channels arranged at the edges of the panel are connected with a transverse air intake tube. The cooling system is arranged as follows: in the form of a row of bays made of spirally wound panels or nets with channels and installed across the axis of the road route. The cooling system may be arranged as combined of at least two layers, in which the lower one comprises bays, and the upper one - from panels with channels or tubes. Inside bays there are central tubes installed.
EFFECT: possibility to use in erection of transport structures on frozen soils, both in summer and winter periods of the year.
6 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: embankment includes soil filled layerwise in horizontal layers with compaction with at least one laid flexible reinforcing element, which in the cross section of the embankment crosses the separation border between the stable central part of the non-reinforced embankment and its unstable near-slope part, and perceives stretching forces at the side of the soil. Within the stable central part of the embankment the reinforcing element is laid to form a horizontal section, and within the unstable near-slope part the reinforcing element is laid to form a sloping section. Transition of the reinforcing element from the horizontal section to its inclined section is made as the reinforcing element crosses the separation border and with formation of the curvilinear section of the reinforcing element, and the inclined reinforcing section creates with the horizon an angle β, which meets the requirement α/2≥β>3°, where α - sharp angle between the embankment slope and the horizon in the range of the height of the inclined section of the reinforcing element.
EFFECT: invention provides for retention of an unstable near-slope part of an embankment from collapse with flexible reinforcing elements without its initial displacement and without reduction of reinforced embankment stability along its deep sliding surfaces.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention may be preferably used to erect high (more than 3 m) road embankments on collapsing soils as frozen soils thaw, in earthquake zones where high-temperature (-0.5…-1.5°C) unstable permafrost propagates of interrupted and island nature, under conditions of existing global warming, with optimal use of natural (ecological) mechanisms of permafrost formation and reinforcement. The earthwork contains an embankment and peripheral rock layers joined to each other with an underlying layer of rocky ground contacting with air in slope areas that are water impermeable at the bottom. On the surface of the soil base there is a layer of water-saturated, water-retaining material. In the peripheral rock layers there are air holes arranged that contact with the lower part of a connecting rock layer made in the bottom part from larger rock pieces or trapezoidal gabions (in the form of truncated pyramid) on a partial geotextile layer, submerged into the layer of the water-saturated, water-retaining material. The device is realised by the method of earthwork erection on permafrost soils with base reinforcement in the areas of permafrost propagation.
EFFECT: higher resistance and strength of the earthwork base on permafrost.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: earthwork structure on weak base comprises earthfills, shells intended for drainage of earthfill base and arranged on high side and lower side of earthfill, every of which is erected from draining soil, besides each shell in zone of weak soils in longitudinal direction is arranged as convex with transverse alternating section of trapezoidal shape. Shells are arranged with various weights, besides shell with smaller weight is arranged on high side of earthfill and with larger weight - on lower side of earthfill. In each shell a transverse trapezoidal section with maximum area is arranged in area of maximum setting, and trapezoidal section with minimum area - in zone of stable soils, and larger base of cross section is arranged on solids of near-foot zone of earthfill.
EFFECT: increased service life and bearing capacity of earthfill, provision of continuous moisture drain from zone with weak soils in longitudinal and transverse direction.
SUBSTANCE: earthfill for arrangement of technological road on weak foundation comprises layer of loose material, synthetic webs, enveloping slopes, retaining case with reinforcing layer, bandage tapes made of synthetic material with width of 0.1-1.0 m, which are arranged perpendicularly to earthfill axis and envelope retaining case and synthetic webs, which envelope slopes in a horseshoe manner, besides synthetic web used to envelope slopes in a horseshoe manner is represented by web of "Geofabric" type, loose material used is represented by earthfill of mineral cohesive soils, and reinforcing layer represents solid web arranged along width of earthfill foundation made of synthetic nets with width of 0.1-1.0 m with conventional module of deformation of at least 4·102kN/m, which are laid and joined as a carpet.
EFFECT: stable earthfill of technological road arranged on weak swampy foundation in process of construction mechanisms operation under conditions of limited working area.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in an embankment on the frozen ground including a trench, a convex layer of a frost protection material in a solid enclosure, ice-rich soil and a drainage soil layer, according to the invention, an embankment base and ramps are made of discrete impenetrable solid elements. In the base, they are layered all the way down the trench, and in the ramps - full-height embankment. The gaps between said discrete solid elements are filled with a frost-free material. In the layered discrete impenetrable solid elements of the base, there are air gaps, while the ramps are covered with antifiltration sheets. The air gaps can be discrete and located in mutually perpendicular directions, or in the form of pits staggered in the base. The discrete solid elements are appropriate to be filled with ice-rich soil produced of, e.g. trenching.
EFFECT: higher stability of the embankment ensured by higher degree of frost-bound soil condition, and reinforcement of separate areas of an embankment body, prevention of continuous water saturation, ground filtration and liquefaction in ice thawing.
4 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for erection of embankment on frozen soils includes laying of heat insulation layer onto foundation, filling of embankment layer from highly icy soil, with further filling of upper draining layer of soil. According to invention, prior to installation of heat insulation layer, transverse slots are cut in embankment foundation and filled with non-heaving material, then internal long strip is filled from highly icy soil, long vertical filtering webs are installed, then long extreme strips are filled together with upper draining layer, afterwards conditioning is carried out, as well as further dehydration of embankment.
EFFECT: reduced costs and efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method for strengthening of slopes includes foundation pit excavation and horizontal reinforcement of ground as foundation pit is excavated through landslip border. Ground reinforcement is done in layers by means of impression of flat slot makers into wall of natural ground with armature and further discharge injection of hardening solution. Slot maker is also described.
EFFECT: expansion of application field with improved reliability of foundation pit walls reinforcement and bearing capacity of its upper platform.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for building railroad embankments in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: groove includes ballast prism, support massif contacting with groove slopes by side massif walls and arranged under ballast prism, heat insulation layer laid on groove slopes and protective layer located above heat insulation one. Support body comprises upper part of hU height formed of fractional rock and lower part of hL height made of non-drainage ground. Protective layer is made of drainage ground. Support massif height h0, upper part height hU and lower part hL height are determined from corresponding relations.
EFFECT: prevention of road bed deformation during embankment erection.
FIELD: building, particularly for building high filtering embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises drainage groove body built on natural ground surface and approach embankment parts adjoining to drainage groove from both sides. Approach embankment parts include systems for permafrost ground cooling arranged on surfaces thereof formed, for instance, as rock fills arranged on embankment slopes. Drainage groove body consists of filtering mass crossing embankment body at an angle to longitudinal axis thereof, upper part located directly above filtering mass, and two intermediate embankment parts of variable heights disposed between filtering mass together with upper part of drainage groove body and both approach embankment parts. Filtering mass has trapezoidal cross-section. Ends of filtering mass, upper part and intermediate ones are located in planes of approach embankment part slopes. Filtering mass body is formed of filtering ground. Upper drainage slot part and intermediate parts are made of embankment ground.
EFFECT: possibility of regular embankment operation in permafrost areas.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting ground road embankment in permafrost territory.
SUBSTANCE: berm located on transversal ground grade and directly adjoining upper embankment slope is formed of fractional rock ground. Berm comprises side antifiltering lock located in embankment body on natural ground surface near berm, lower antifiltering lock arranged below natural ground surface at contact area with lower berm surface and side antifiltering lock. Upper berm surface is located above maximum level hn of surface longitudinal water flow in bottom area of upper embankment slope. Berm body may be partly deepened in natural ground surface.
EFFECT: prevention of embankment ground erosion, filtering through embankment body in transversal direction and thaw of embankment foundation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for road building and embankment repair, for forming platforms for buildings and creating islands and dams in shallow water zones.
SUBSTANCE: embankment erected on soil includes embankment base, embankment body and outer side slopes. Embankment base is made of clay and shaped as lodgment having side breastworks located above flood water level.
EFFECT: increased embankment stability, prevention of impounding thereof with flood water.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting road embankments in areas with high-temperature permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: earth structure comprises road bed body and rock layer exposed to air in peripheral zones. Lateral parts of peripheral zones in are water-impermeable from below. Rock layers are connected one to another by underlying rock layer.
EFFECT: increased resistance and operational reliability of earth structure, particularly erected on permafrost ground in summer period.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing road embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body laid on natural ground surface, ballast section formed on the main embankment area and heat insulation layer. Road embankment has side auxiliary ground bodies with heights of not less than 0.3 m and Bb widths located within the boundaries of the main embankment area, slopes thereof and on horizontal area of natural ground surface at embankment slope base from ballast section sides. Heat insulation layer with Rh thermal resistance is located on leveling layer of dry frozen sand immediately under side auxiliary ground body. Bb is determined from specified condition.
EFFECT: increased stability and durability of embankment built on permafrost ground under heavy drift-snow transport conditions, simplified perennial technology of building thereof and extended range or local permafrost ground application.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing road embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body, ballast section formed on the main embankment area and heat insulation layer. Road embankment has side auxiliary ground bodies having hb heights and Bb widths located from ballast section sides within the boundaries of the main embankment area on natural ground surface at embankment slope base. Embankment body includes three layers, namely lower layer having hl height, medium layer having hm height and upper one having hu height. Upper layer is made of drainage soil. Heat insulation layer having Rh thermal resistance is located on leveling layer of dry frozen sand immediately under side auxiliary ground body. Heat insulation layer extends from its bottom to medium layer top surface and then over the top surface to vertical plane passing through the edge of main embankment area. Auxiliary ground body hb height is defined to increase convenience of mechanized embankment forming and is equal to 0.3 - 0.7 m in separate areas thereof. Main embankment dimensions are determined from predetermined conditions.
EFFECT: increased embankment stability and durability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect road embankments.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment ground, retaining wall and support structure. Embankment ground is divided with flat geonet webs into several layers. The retaining wall is also divided into layers similar to ground layers and covered with single geonet webs. Each retaining wall layer has vertical through slots filled with macroporous draining material. Flat geonet webs are inserted between hollow layers of retaining wall. Vertical cavities of adjacent retaining wall layers in height direction are superposed in plan view. Length L of ground layers reinforced with flat geonet webs beginning from inner retaining wall surface is determined from a given equation. Road embankment erection method involves forming retaining wall base; laying road embankment ground layers alternated with flat geonet webs; erecting retaining wall comprising several layers and constructing support structure. Base is initially created and then lower erection wall layer is erected on the base, wherein the retaining wall is provided with vertical cavities having heights corresponding to ground layer heights. The vertical cavities are filled with coarse material for 2/3 of volume thereof and then embankment ground layer is poured and compacted. Embankment ground is leveled and coarse material is added in the cavities. The coarse material is leveled and geonet web is placed onto the coarse material within the bounds of retaining wall and embankment ground layer. Next layers are formed in similar manner. Reinforced concrete block for retaining wall forming comprises device, which cooperates with ambient ground. The device comprises one or several vertical through cavities to be filled with granular coarse material. Depression in concrete is formed in lower block surface in front of erection loop.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption and erection time, increased service life, stability and operational reliability.
9 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct road embankments on permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body composed of two stacked layers and ballast prism arranged on base platform. Each layer is formed as trapeze with larger base facing downwards. Lower base of upper layer trapeze has dimension c equal to that of upper base of lower layer trapeze. Lower base of upper layer trapeze mates upper base of lower layer trapeze. Upper layer has side slope less than that of lower layer. Main embankment parameters are determined from corresponding relations.
EFFECT: provision of embankment stability due to permafrost temperature reduction in embankment base.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: road building.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to strengthen weak base, increase strength and load-bearing capacity of roadbed. Proposed construction includes earth roadbed with shoulders and slopes, support longitudinal trench filled with material arranged in earth roadbed with geosynthetic material placed over top of trench. Longitudinal trench arranged along axis of earth roadbed or several longitudinal trenches are made with width of 0.6-10 at depth of 1.2-2.6 m filled with friction material, and geosynthetic material with minimum breaking strength of 15kN/m in longitudinal direction and of ≥ 20 kN/m in cross direction is placed over top of trench with back lapping into embankment providing formation of semiholders from two sides of earth roadbed.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of road, increased time between repairs owing to elimination or reduction of sagging of earth roadbed base.
2 cl, 2 ex, 4 dwg