Method and device for production of helical springs

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be sued for making helical springs for rolling stock. Proposed method comprises hearing of the bar, coiling the spring at heating temperature, quenching of the spring, its tempering and upsetting, grinding of spring ends, blasting and controlling of spring parameters. Spring parameters and those of production process are set. Prior to coiling, heated bar is reduced to spring end shape approximating to that of spring nonworking coils to roll said bar axially. Quenching is carried out using mechanical effects applied to ambient medium while spring parameters are controlled continuously at every production step by comparison with preset magnitudes and process parameters and corrected by appropriate program. Cyclic fatigue is controlled at arbitrarily selected springs prior to grinding their ends and after blasting. Invention covers also the device to implement abode described method. Stable performances of springs in production and correction.

EFFECT: higher quality.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, in particular to methods of manufacture of springs of different designs, and can be used, for example, for the manufacture of coil springs rolling stock of railway transport.

In operation the spring is subjected to constant deformation loads, vertical and horizontal vibrations.

Therefore, they presented a number of special requirements. They should provide high resistance to deformation and to be resistant to cyclic loads. The stability of these characteristics in the process ensures the reliability of the springs. Among the methods of their manufacture distinguish between hot and cold coiling. While the profile of the wire used for the winding of the springs may vary. In addition, the reliability of the springs affect the quality parameters of workpieces, used for winding. The proper selection of material, and the optimal process conditions in the process of obtaining products. This is also an important control parameters of the springs in the process of their production and make appropriate adjustments at all stages of manufacture. To perform the manufacturing requirements proposed a series of solutions aimed at improving the technology of the manufacture of springs. They found atragene is in some of the described methods and devices intended for production of different types of springs.

Thus, the known method of manufacturing a compression spring comprising winding the spring of the pre-hardened wire, its subsequent heat treatment, polishing the ends of thermocalc and blast hardening, in which thermocalc produce after blast of cold working at a temperature of 200-250°C (.RU No. 2208056, C21D 9/02, from 08. 02.2001). It is assumed that the order of operations reduces the scattering geometry and strength characteristics of springs. In addition, it becomes unnecessary operation vacation after blast of cold working. This solution applies to cold wound springs, able to work in high temperatures, and provides a test of endurance and creep only for comparative tests.

Implemented this method in a device containing a spring-coiling machine, oven for a vacation site for grinding the ends of the springs, the device for cumcontrol, apparatus for washing, shot blasting machine, a furnace for heat shrinkage, the second unit for washing, press for three precipitation, machine for machining chamfers and site phosphating. Device control parameters of the workpieces and the springs after manufacture is not provided. In the above solution line for cold spring coiling is used only visual the control, that is not enough for the exception in the spring of defects that occur during subsequent loads in real conditions of use of the product. Means for cyclic tests in line not included. No devices to test the parameters of the springs in the manufacturing process does not allow you to make appropriate adjustments in the course of their proizvodstva.

There is also known a method of manufacturing a compression spring, which includes the winding of the spring from the ground or patented wire with a pitch greater than the ready springs, heat treatment, shot blasting work hardening and the pressing spring by precipitation axial load value (10÷300)F3where F3- spring force at maximum deformation. Thus, before winding the springs produce high-temperature thermomechanical processing of wire. This increase operational properties of springs (U.S. Pat. RU # 2346778, B21F 35/00, from 30.05.2007). The described method applies to cold wound springs and does not include the adjustment of process parameters in the manufacturing process subsequent spring. The device for implementing the method as above and is characterized by the same lack of measurement nodes for a more thorough control technology parameters and products. Therefore, corrective effects on the manufacturing process according to the results of measurements of the parameter is in the springs also not provided.

Famous hot spring making, namely, that the workpiece is heated to a temperature of austenization are determined, podslushivaet 50-100 C, but not below the quenching temperature, and at this temperature are bending and winding of the helix on the mandrel, providing a uniform pitch of all of the coils and the preload reference coils when the message mandrel rotationally postupatelnoe movement with the help of the tracing device. Wound spiral quenched in per capita device sprayer or in the bath with circulating a cooling medium (A.S. No. 528989, B21F 3/04, from 31.01.1975). Podstugivaniya at 50-100°C is necessary to equalize the temperature over the cross section of the rod, preventing recrystallization and growth processes in austenitic grain, as well as to reduce thermal stresses. Vacation is performed at 380±10°C. is Implemented this way in the unit for coiling springs, containing a node of the heating unit to supply nativeimage material to a spring-coiling machine, and the quenching bath below the mandrel with nalivaeva spring (A.S. No. 816634, B21F 3/04 B21F 35/00, B21D 11/06 from 14.04.1977). Drive axial movement is implemented in the form of a drive screw and nut that provides a continuous sequential progress of the mandrel. The change in the velocity of the mandrel at the beginning and end of the winding process, form the working coils. Further development of the designs went on n the ti direct lowering wound on a mandrel of a spring into a bath of quenching medium (U.S. Pat. RU # 2057611, B21F 3/04, from 14.05.1993). In the combined unit time of the operation of winding, quenching and removal of products. It also runs continuously-serial input frame with spring into the quenching medium. Nozzle supporting tools or other equipment for inkjet or other mixing medium in the quenching bath is not provided. Note that there is also a reverse approach to cooling mode when in continuous-sequential movement relative to the hardened parts in the form of a shaft are devices for the cooling medium (sprayers), located at intervals relative to each other (U.S. Pat. RU # 2201460, C21D 1/06, C21D 1/56, from 04.05.2000). For the above method of manufacturing springs as a disadvantage is the lack of control of the temperature before quenching the entire spring. In addition, the parameters are fixed, and therefore the deviation is not corrected test results. It is not possible to make the lack of Assembly of the respective control devices and the inability to use, based on their feedback.

Specified last in the way that the defect is partially missing in the decision on strengthening wire that can be used in the future for cold coiling. Here the wire is heated, compressed, subjected to a full tempering and quenching (A.S. No. 1447465, VS 3/14, SV/00, from 13.07.1987). When this measured diameter, the control of mechanical properties, in particular tensile strength, is the detection and temperature control wire and coolant during hardening. Data were obtained for the tensile strength are compared in the computer with previously specified parameters (setpoint) and adjusts process parameters (temperature, speed drawing, coolant flow). However, this method can only be attributed to one of the stages of preparation blanks for spring coiling, and not to the finished process.

Complete the winding process, with partial control and adjustment of winding described in some units for the manufacture of springs (.US No. 3641794, B21F 3/00; B21F 3/00, B21B 37/00; B21D 55/00; B21F 11/00, from 15.02.1972; .US No. 5875664, B21F 3/00, B21B 37/02; B21B 37/08; B21F 3/02, from 02.03.1999; U.S. Pat. US No. 6836964, B21F 3/02, B21F 3/10, from 21.02.2002). However, the first of these technical solutions monitors and adjusts only the length of the spring. In the second case compares the three-dimensional image produced spring is incorporated in the main computer of the image and makes the appropriate adjustments in the event of deviations in geometry or hardness. The methods include cold wrapped and do not provide for preparatory operations for billets.

Closest to the proposed is the procedure and device for winding springs to the technical nature of the solution, including heating of the workpieces, wrapped, hardening, tempering, blast processing, upsetting, control efforts and sorting (U.S. Pat. RU # 2005572, B21F 3/00, from 16.04.1992).

When control efforts, the spring is compressed and the probe measurement efforts at a given deformation. The following assumes mechanical end treatment and surface treatment. However, the method implemented here, does not include a definition of the limit of fatigue strength produced by springs, and limited individual power settings. Repeatedly compresses "turns on" and after that determined power settings. Them sort of springs. Adjustment of process parameters on test results, not reported. Implemented this method in automatic lines for the manufacture of coil springs that contains the nodes for the above operations described in the above-mentioned source. Improvements made here relate mainly to the construction site by checking the parameters are made of springs. Unit test on cyclic fatigue is not contained. Prepare the ends of the rod before the wound is not provided.

Thus, there is a need to introduce some additional steps described in the method of manufacturing springs and development for this superior nodes of the mouth of the STS, that would provide controlled within certain limits the production process of the springs.

The challenge which seeks the invention is improved method and apparatus for manufacturing spring products by optimizing the manufacturing conditions, the expansion of the functionality of the device, namely the introduction as process control and adjustment of selected parameters on the stages of individual operations in the manufacture of springs, and in addition, the inclusion of additional preparation operations billets.

Due to the process improvements achieved technical result consists in the possibility to produce springs with a set of precise, time-stable elastic characteristics and with high dynamic strength.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of manufacture of springs, including heating wire winding spring of the rod when its heating temperature, hardening spring, vacation, upsetting, grinding the ends of the springs, shot blasting, and control parameters of the springs, set the parameters of the spring and technological parameters of each stage of the manufacturing process of the spring. At the same time wrapped carry out crimping the heated rod to form the ends of the springs, close to the form outside of the coils of the spring, and the imp is both rolling rod in the axial direction, quenching is performed with the use of mechanical effects on the cooling fluid through the jet mixing to depths sufficient to decrease volatilization of the environment with a gradual entry into the environment hardened springs and/or by application of ultrasound and different pressure on the depth of the cooling medium supplied to the surface of a coil spring. The control parameters of the springs operate constantly at each stage of manufacturing springs by comparing the parameters of the springs at each stage of the manufacturing process with the given parameters of the spring and technological parameters of the process are output on the monitor or the signal of detected deviations and subsequent software adjustments to those parameters springs, which are rejected from the set, to match the settings made in the spring with the given parameters. Control on cyclic fatigue exercise choice randomly spring up stage grinding their butt-ends and after blasting.

Technical result is achieved in that the device for the manufacture of springs containing installation of heating rods, spring coiling, hardening, tempering, precipitation, grinding of the ends of the spring and blasting with power management and monitoring, performed with feedback control parameter PR is new well and technological parameters of the manufacturing process, the mechanism of compression of the heated rod before it is wrapped to form the ends of the rod to form the ends of the springs close to the shape of the outside of the coils of the spring mechanism for the formation of the profile during rolling of the rod in the axial direction, the positioning of the intermediate control parameters springs, located prior to the installation of the grinding of the ends of the spring, install the final control parameters springs and device testing, located after installation, blasting, while the installation for tempering springs are made with jet unit mixing the hardening environment and/or ultrasonic cleaning unit and mixing, and the device test is designed to test randomly selected springs in cyclic fatigue after blasting.

The essence of the proposals is to introduce a method of manufacturing springs operations adjustments technological parameters of manufacturing springs and the results are ready springs to provide an accelerated process of making a series of springs with specified deviations (characteristic of the spring forces, heights and other) from the nominal values. In addition, the proposed combination of operations the preparation of the ends of the workpiece and its subsequent flattening will get progi is s, among other things, less allowance for grinding the outside of turns. Also offered training to perform using jet and ultrasonic mixing of the quenching medium to a depth sufficient to displace (reduce, suppress) the effect of vaporization environment with a gradual entry into the environment of the hardened product.

This ensures that after the volume-surface quenching and tempering optimal for springs mechanical properties, in particular strength, elasticity and fatigue limit.

Distinct devices from the prototype is that the entered power management and control with feedback mechanisms for the asymmetric formation of the ends of the rod and forming profile. Under asymmetry here refers to a location outside of turns in the spring. Device for hardening augmented jet unit mixing the hardening environment (or ultrasonic cleaning unit and mixing), and setting the control parameters with the removal of the power characteristics is how to aggregate resurfacing, and after blasting consolidation, after which the individual springs are tested for cyclic fatigue. After receiving or inadequate data or their tendency to deterioration can be performed adjustment of parameters of work of each unit block control what I control under the relevant program of the host computer, the specified block.

The device for implementing the method consists of shown schematically in figure 1 separate units gathered into a line and for performing the above sequence of operations. This setting cutting geometry control rod 1, the induction heater 2, the mechanisms for the asymmetric formation of the ends of the rod 3, marking and shaping of the profile 4, the winding of the springs 5, 6 vintage, cool 7, issue 8, re-cooling 9, installation of control hardness 10, the apparatus for precipitation with subsequent interim control 11. This is followed by the installation for grinding the reference coils 12, blasting 13 and installation to final inspection of the spring 14. After the unit is switched on the site for excavation of selected springs and transfer them to the machine fatigue testing 15. The main thread of the spring goes to the finishing part of the device (not shown). And controls all units of the control unit and control 16.

The method is carried out by means of the above device is described below. Enter in the host PC settings springs and set the process parameters for each step in the manufacture of springs. Then begin the manufacturing process, after cutting off the rod length and checking its geometry.

For the manufacturer the springs in accordance with the proposed method at the first stage billet for manufacturing springs heated by the induction heater 2 over the whole cross section to a predetermined temperature (about 1000-1050°C) and served in the area prepare the ends of the rod 3 and then form the profile of the rod 4. These operations are performed by passing the workpiece through rolling mills that provide the desired profile, as the workpiece, and its ends, which are outside the coils of the spring and will be podshlifovyvat during the corresponding operation according to the sequence of the complete method.

After that, the rod billet wound on the mandrel 5. Each coil together with the mandrel serves to continuously and consistently in the installation of cooling 6, where there is hardening. Additional unit for mixing (not shown) is required in order to suppress or at least reduce evaporation quenching environment targeted by the jet impact on the cooling fluid in the area of location of the product. This is achieved by a higher and more uniform cooling rate of the workpiece during quenching than conventional cooling processes, and therefore more homogeneous structure of the metal. The design of this unit may be different, and in particular, in this case used two semicircular parts, the inner surface of which had small inclination height relative to normals. On this surface are a series sopilnyk holes of different diameter and configuration of the location, so that regulation is implemented is the use of pressure medium and/or the volumetric flow blasting a cooling medium. Poleconomy the location of these nozzles from the axis changes the distance between the nozzles and the surface of the spring products. It also contributes to a more uniform cooling of the springs. It is possible to use different pressure depth applied to the surface of a coil of the cooling medium.

Supply environment and change settings of the cooling medium (level, temperature, pressure) is connected to the cooling circuit (so-called "chiller"), which is also controlled by the control unit and control 16.

Another method of exposure may be ultrasonic volumetric mixing medium in the quenching bath in the spring with approximately the same shape emitter located in the area of continuous serial input coils hardened spring. Possible imposition of ultrasound on jet mixing. Thus obtained, the spring further undergoes surgery vacation 6, testing, hardness 7, precipitation (samevolume) 8, control preliminary grinding of the end faces 9, blasting 10, additional control springs 11 and follows protective surface treatment (painting or otherwise).

Randomly selected springs are checked for cyclic fatigue on the unit tests 12. The parameters obtained springs are wound together with the PE lname technological parameters of each of the controlled stage to the control device 13. Software compares the obtained parameters of the spring with the previously specified values. When the differences exceed specified, searches for possible causes of the comparison of the influence of technological parameters on the parameters of the spring. Make appropriate adjustments in the program process. Do this as long as there is a correct match as in the strength characteristics and mechanical (strength, fatigue, toughness).

Further, when thus determined, the parameters of each stage start manufacturing the entire party.

In accordance with the method proposed device being tested the proposed technology developed springs. The use of the method and the device will automate the process of production on a large scale, to increase the level of operational characteristics, in particular mechanical properties, relaxation resistance, the cyclic durability.

1. The method of manufacture of springs, including heating wire winding spring of the rod when its heating temperature, hardening spring, vacation, upsetting, grinding the ends of the springs, shot blasting, and control parameters of the springs, wherein the set of springs and technological parameters of each stage of the manufacturing process of the spring, while before winding syshestvyut crimping the heated rod to form the ends of the spring, close to the form outside of the coils of the spring, and perform the rolling rod in the axial direction, the quenching is performed with the use of mechanical vozdali on the cooling fluid through the jet mixing to depths sufficient to decrease volatilization of the environment with a gradual entry into the environment hardened springs and/or by application of ultrasound and different pressure on the depth of the cooling medium supplied to the surface of a coil spring, and the control parameters of the springs operate constantly at each stage of manufacturing springs by comparing the parameters of the springs at each stage of the manufacturing process with the given parameters of the spring and technological parameters of the process are output on the monitor or the signal of detected deviations and subsequent software adjustments to those parameters springs, which are rejected from the set, to match the settings made in the spring with the given parameters, this exercise control on cyclic fatigue randomly selected springs to stage grinding their butt-ends and after blasting.

2. Device for the manufacture of springs containing installation of heating rods, spring coiling, hardening, tempering, precipitation, grinding of the ends of the spring and blasting, characterized in that it is provided with the unit under control of the population and control, made with feedback controlled parameters of the spring and technological parameters of the manufacturing process, the mechanism of compression of the heated rod before it is wrapped to form the ends of the rod to form the ends of the springs close to the shape of the outside of the coils of the spring mechanism for the formation of the profile during rolling of the rod in the axial direction, the positioning of the intermediate control parameters springs, located prior to the installation of the grinding of the ends of the spring, install the final control parameters springs and device testing, located after installation, blasting, while the installation for tempering springs are made with jet unit mixing the hardening environment and/or ultrasonic cleaning unit and mixing, and the device the test is designed to test randomly selected springs in cyclic fatigue after blasting.



 

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