Making solar cell modules

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is use of a) polyalkyl(meth)acrylate and b) a compound of formula (I), wherein residues R1 and R2 independently denote an alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-20 carbon atoms, to make solar cell modules, primarily for making light concentrators of solar cell modules. (I). Also disclosed is a solar cell module and a version of said module. The solar cell module has operating temperature of 80°C or higher; full light transmission of moulding compounds in the wavelength range from 400 to 500 nm is preferably at least 90%; full light transmission of moulding compounds in the wavelength range from 500 to 1000 nm is preferably at least 80%.

EFFECT: improved properties of the module.

16 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the manufacture of modules, solar cells, and the respective modules of solar cells.

Solar cell, respectively photovoltaic element is an electrical structural element, which converts the energy of light, especially the energy of sunlight directly into electrical energy. The physical basis of the specified transformation is the photovoltaic effect, which is a special case of the internal photoelectric effect.

Figure 3 schematically shows a cross-section of the basic structure of the module of solar cells. Position 501 indicates a photovoltaic element, the position 502 hardening tool, position 503 of the disk and the position of the rear wall 504. Sunlight entering through the disk 503 and reinforcing means 502, falls on the photosensitive surface of the photovoltaic element 501 and is converted into electrical energy.

Emerging electric current away from the output terminals (not shown in Fig.3).

Photovoltaic element should not be exposed to extreme ambient conditions, since it is easily prone to corrosion and is extremely fragile. In this regard, it should be close and protect suitable material. Protection of photovoltaic ale the NTA often provide with suitable reinforcing means, which is injected into the gap between the weather-resistant transparent disk, for example, a glass disk, and a back wall having an excellent moisture resistance and high electric resistance, and pripressovyvajut.

As a reinforcing means for solar cells often use polyvinyl butyral, and copolymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate. While containing a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate compositions, in particular the stitching compositions have excellent properties such as high thermal stability, high weather resistance and high transparency as well as optimum efficiency.

Module solar cells must have high stability, since it is subjected to prolonged operation at atmospheric conditions. In this regard, strengthening the tool should have, in particular, excellent weather resistance and high heat resistance. However, during long-term operation of the solar module elements in atmospheric conditions, which can be achieved, for example, ten years, is often observed destruction of the reinforcing means under the action of sunlight and/or heat, and the resulting yellow reinforcing means and/or delamination of the photovoltaic element. Yellowing reinforcing means causes the reduction of the useful part of the shining falling on the photoelectric element of light, and, consequently, the reduction produced by the photovoltaic element of the electric power. The delamination of the photovoltaic element contributes to the penetration of moisture, which can cause corrosion of the photovoltaic element or metal parts of module solar cells and reduction of electric power.

Although commonly used copolymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate and are a good reinforcing means, but they are subject to gradual degradation due to hydrolysis and/or pyrolysis. At the same time under the influence of heat or moisture starts to be allocated free of acetic acid. This results in yellowing of the reinforcing means, the reduction of its mechanical strength and adhesion. In addition, the released acetic acid has a catalytic effect and additionally accelerates the degradation of copolymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate. Another problem, the use of these copolymers is caused by the release of free acetic acid corrosion of the photovoltaic element and/or other metal parts of the solar module elements.

To solve the above problems in accordance with European patent application EP 1065731 A2 is proposed to use a module of solar cells with photovoltaic element and the polymer is rocheuses means, containing ternary copolymer of ethylene, of ester of acrylic acid and acrylic acid ternary copolymer of ethylene, of ester of acrylic acid and maleic anhydride ternary copolymer of ethylene, a complex ester of methacrylic acid and a complex ester of acrylic acid ternary copolymer of ethylene, of ester of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid ternary copolymer of ethylene, a complex ester of methacrylic acid and methacrylic acid and/or a ternary copolymer of ethylene, a complex ester of methacrylic acid and maleic anhydride. However, the specified module solar cells has poor weather resistance and efficiency.

In addition, the prior art is known about the use of suitable UV absorbers to improve the weather resistance polyacrylate molding masses.

For example, in German patent application DE 10311641 A1 describes tanning, which include polymetylmetacrylate molded article containing 0.005 to 0.1% of the mass. UV stabilizer of formula (I):

,

in which the residues R1and R2respectively independently of one another denote alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-20 carbon atoms.

However, in the cited publication no data used in the research institutes mentioned in it molded products for the manufacture of solar modules elements.

From German patent application DE 3838480 A1 known polymers and copolymers of methyl methacrylate, which contains:

a) derived anilide oxalic acid or 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine as a stabilizer against the harmful effects of light radiation, and

b) not support combustion of the organic compound of phosphorus.

However, in the cited publication, there are no data about the use of the above compositions for the manufacture of solar modules elements.

In Japanese patent application JP 2005-298748 As described molded parts of methacrylic resin, the preferred content of which is 100 mass. o'clock, and the resin contains from 60 to 100% of the mass. of monomer units of methyl methacrylate and from 0 to 40 wt%. of monomer units other capable of copolymerization of vinyl compounds, and 0.005 to 0.15% of the mass. 2-(2-hydroxy-4-n-octyloxyphenyl)-4,6-bis(2,4-dimetilfenil)-1,3,5-triazine and/or 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxybenzoic-none. These molded parts are a barrier to the penetration of ultraviolet rays, the transmission of which at 340 nm is a maximum of 20% at 380 nm is at least 70% (for measuring bandwidth use molded product with a thickness of 0.5 to 5 mm).

These molded parts are primarily intended for use as protective cover for a lighting device. About COI is whether the respective molding masses for manufacturing modules of solar cells in the cited Japanese patent not reported.

Taking into account the above prior art, the present invention was used to find the possibility of reducing the power loss of solar cells with their long-term operation under atmospheric conditions, in particular at elevated temperatures and/or high humidity. While the main efforts should focus on providing excellent weather resistance maximum heat resistance and maximum light transmission and minimal moisture absorption. In addition, it was necessary to provide a minimum separation causing corrosion free of chemicals, especially acids, and high adhesion to various base components of the solar module elements.

The above, as well as others not specifically formulated objectives of the present invention, however, stemming from the context of its description, which is solved by the use of the molding material, the hallmarks of which are given in paragraph 1 of the claims. The most expedient embodiments of the invention are provided in the respective dependent clauses. In addition, an object of the present invention are the corresponding modules of solar cells.

The fall of the power of the solar cell during its long-term operation under atmospheric conditions, in particular priviacy temperatures and/or high humidity, can a predictable and efficient manner easily avoided, if for the manufacture of modules of solar cells, especially for the production of the light concentrator modules, solar cells, use:

a) at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate and

b) at least one compound of formula (I):

,

in which the residues R1and R2respectively independently of one another denote alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-20 carbon atoms.

Thanks first of all achieved excellent weather resistance, extremely high performance thermal stability and light transmission, as well as extremely low water absorption. In addition, during long-term operation of the respective modules of solar cells under atmospheric conditions there is no release of Pro-corrosion substances, as well as reach extremely strong adhesion to various base components of the solar module elements.

Proposed in the invention solving the above problems can effectively be used "useful" radiation in the visible wavelength range. At the same time efficiently absorbed unsuitable for current output radiation in other wavelength ranges, especially in the UV range. As a consequence, increases the resistance of the modules u is cnyh elements. In addition, due to the absorption unsuitable for current output radiation can prevent unwanted heating of the light collectors without having to use for this purpose a special cooling elements, which increases the service life of the modules, solar cells, their overall power and efficiency.

The present invention achieves the following advantages.

Becomes available module of solar cells, which has excellent weather resistance, high thermal stability and high resistance. This eliminates the problem of delamination, a photovoltaic element, which also applies to long-term operation of the solar module elements in atmospheric conditions. In addition, increases the resistance module of solar cells, since no selection of free acid, which also applies to high temperatures and high humidity. Due to the absence of corrosion of the photovoltaic element under the action of acid may be provided with long-term operation of the solar cell module without affecting its electrical power.

In addition, according to the invention using the materials, which are characterized by an excellent performance by atmosphereto bones, heat resistance, moisture resistance and light is propuskanija, that enables us to produce modules of solar cells is extremely high kachestva Figure 1 schematically shows a cross section of a preferred according to the present invention, a solar module elements.

On Figa schematically shows a cross section of a photovoltaic element with a base structure, which is preferably used is shown in figure 1 is a module of solar cells, while Fig.2b shows in plan the photosensitive surface of the specified photovoltaic element.

Figure 3 schematically shows a cross section of a conventional solar cell.

Figure 3:
Designation
Figure 1:
101photovoltaic element
102hardening tool
103drive
104hardening tool
105the rear wall
Figa:
201a conductive substrate
02 a reflective layer
203the photoactive semiconductor layer
204a transparent conductive layer
205collector
Aterminal
206bterminal
207conductive adhesive paste
208a conductive paste or solder
Fig.2b:
201a conductive substrate
202a reflective layer
203the photoactive semiconductor layer
204a transparent conductive layer
205collector
206aterminal
206bterminal
207conductive adhesive paste
501photovoltaic element
502hardening tool
503drive
504the rear wall

In accordance with the present invention for manufacturing modules of solar cells used:

a) at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate and

b) at least one compound of formula (I):

,

in which the residues R1and R2respectively independently of one another denote alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-20 carbon atoms.

The above components can be used in molding the mass intended for the manufacture of a generic element, for example, molded parts module solar cells, in the form of the total composition, for example, in the form of a mixture. However, it is possible to individual use of each of the above components for the manufacture of various individual elements of the solar module elements.

According to the invention can be used as one polyalkyl(meth)-acrylate, and a mixture of several different polyalkyl(meth)acrylate. In addition, you can use polyalkyl(meth)acrylate in the copolymer.

In the accordance with the present invention, especially preferred are homopolymers and copolymers of alkyl(meth)acrylates with 1 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl, moreover, it is reasonable to use polymers of alkyl(meth)acrylates with 1 to 10 carbon atoms in the alkyl, especially polymers of alkyl(meth)acrylates with 1 to 4 carbon atoms in the alkyl, which optionally may contain links to other monomers, different from the alkyl(meth)acrylates.

Under (meth)acrylate mean as methacrylate, e.g. methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, and so on, and acrylate, such as methyl acrylate, acrylate and so forth, as well as a mixture of monomers of both types.

Even more preferred is the use of copolymers which contain from 70 to 99 wt. -%, first of all, from 70 to 90% massonary links alkyl(meth)acrylates with 1 to 10 carbon atoms in the alkyl. Preferred alkyl methacrylates with 1 to 10 carbon atoms in the alkyl are methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, propylbetaine, isopropylacetate, n-butylmethacrylate, isobutylacetate, tert-butyl methacrylate, intermetallic, vexillarius, gettimeformat, octylacrylate,, isooctylphenyl, ethylhexylacrylate, nonyl-methacrylate and decylmethacrylate and cycloalkylation, such as cyclohexylmethyl, isobornylacrylat or ethyl cyclohexylmethyl. The preferred alkylacrylate with 1-10 carbon atoms in the alkyl are methyl acrylate, tracrium, propyl-acrylate, isopropylacetate, n-butyl acrylate, isobutylamine, tert-butyl acrylate, pentylaniline, hexidecimal, heptylamine, octyl-acrylate, isooctadecyl, nasolacrimal, dellaquila and ethylhexyl-acrylate, and cycloalkylcarbonyl, such as cyclohexyl-acrylate, isobutylacetate or ethylcyclohexylamine.

Even more preferred copolymers contain from 80 to 99% of the mass. of monomer units of methyl methacrylate and from 1 to 20 wt. -%, preferably from 1 to 5% of the mass. of monomer units of alkylacrylate with 1-10 carbon atoms in the alkyl, especially methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate and/or butyl acrylate. Even more preferred is the use of polymethyl methacrylate Plexiglas® 7N company Rohm GmbH.

Polyalkyl(meth)acrylates can be obtained by the known methods of polymerization, and particularly preferably used a method of radical polymerization, especially free-radical polymerization in bulk, solution, suspension or emulsion. Particularly suitable initiators corresponding radical polymerization primarily are azo compounds such as 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) or 2,2'-azobis-(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), redox systems, such as combinations of tertiary amines with peroxides or disulfit sodium, and potassium persulfate, sodium or AMM is tion, or preferably peroxides (see, for example, N. Rauch-Puntigam, Th. Volker, "Acryl - und Methacrylverbindungen", Springer, Gay-Delberg, 1967, or Kirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, volume 1, SS and following, publisher J. Wiley, new York, 1978). Examples of particularly suitable peroxide polymerization initiators are peroxide of Dilauroyl, peroctoate tert-butyl, peritoneal tert-butyl, PEROXYDICARBONATE of DICYCLOHEXYL, peroxide of Dibenzoyl and 2,2-bis(tert-BUTYLPEROXY)butane. The polymerization preferably can be carried out using a mixture of different initiators with different half-lives, for example, a mixture of peroxide of Dilauroyl with 2,2-bis(tert-BUTYLPEROXY)butane, resulting in the polymerization process, as well as by varying its temperature, the quantity of generated radicals can be maintained at a constant level. The used amount of the polymerization initiator in General ranges from 0.01 to 2% of the mass. in terms of the mixture of monomers.

The polymerization can be carried out both in the continuous and intermittent mode. Upon completion of the polymerization, the resulting polymer to produce by conventional methods, such as filtration, coagulation or spray drying.

Regulation of the length of the chains of polymers or copolymers can be done by performing the polymerization of the monomer or mixture of monomer is in the presence of molecular weight regulators, first of all is usually used for this purpose mercaptans, such as n-butyl mercaptan, n-dodecylmercaptan, 2-mercaptoethanol, 2-ethylhexyl-glycolate or tetracyclics pentaerythritol, and the molecular weight regulator in General used in amounts comprising from 0.05 to 5 wt. -%, preferably from 0.1 to 2 wt. -%, particularly preferably from 0.2 to 1% of the mass. in terms of the monomer or mixture of monomers (see, for example, N. Rauch-Puntigam, Th. Volker, "Acryl - und Me-thacrylverbindungen", Springer, Heidelberg, 1967; Houben-Weyl, Methods der organischen Chemie, volume XIV/1, c.66, Georg Thieme, Heidelberg, 1961, and Kirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, volume 1, SS and following, publisher J. Wiley, new York, 1978). As the regulator of the molecular weight is particularly preferably used n-dodecylmercaptan.

In accordance with the present invention for manufacturing modules of solar cells in addition to polyalkyl(meth)acrylate use at least one compound of formula (I):

,

in which the residues R1and R2respectively independently of one another denote alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-20 carbon atoms, particularly preferably 1 to 8 carbon atoms. Aliphatic residues are preferably unbranched or branched and can contain substituents, such Nakatomi halogen.

To the preferred alkyl residues are methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, 1-butyl, 2-butyl, 2-methylpropyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, 2-methylbutyl, 1,1-dimethylpropyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, 1,1,3,3-Tetra-methylbutyl, nonyl, 1-decyl, 2-decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, pentadecyl and eicosyl.

It is preferable cycloalkyl groups include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl and cyclooctyl, which optionally can be substituted by branched or unbranched alkyl residues.

Particularly preferred use of the compounds of formula (II):

.

The compounds of formula (II) are commercially available products manufactured by the company Clariant under the trade name®Sanduvor VSU, as well as by the company Ciba Geigy under the trade name®Tinuvin 312.

In accordance with the present invention, if necessary, you can also use well-known specialists of AIDS. Preferred auxiliary means are external lubricants, antioxidants, flame retardants, additional UV stabilizers, agents for improving the spreading, the additive metal for shielding electromagnetic radiation, anti-static tools, internal lubricants, dyes, pigments, adhesion promoters, and means to increase atmospheres is nosti, plasticizers, fillers, and so forth.

In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention use at least one spatial hindered amine, allowing additional increases weather resistance. In addition, it can be reduced tendency to yellowing or degradation of materials, which for a long time exposed to the external environment.

Particularly preferred spatial difficult amines include polycondensation product dimethylsuccinic-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, poly[{6-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-butyl)amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl}{(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)-imino}hexamethylene{(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)imino}], a condensation product of N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)Ethylenediamine-2,4-bis[n-butyl-N-(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl)amino]-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine, bis-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)sebacina and 2-(3,5-di-tert-4-hydroxy-benzyl)-2-n-butylmalonate(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl).

In addition, even more preferred is the use of Milanovich of adhesion promoters or organic compounds of titanium, allowing further increase adhesion to inorganic materials.

Suitable wilanowie the adhesion promoters are vinyltrichlorosilane, vinyltris(β-metox is ethoxy)silane, ventricose-silane, VINYLTRIMETHOXYSILANE, γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, γ-(3,4-epoxy-cyclohexyl)ethyltrimethoxysilane, γ-glycidoxypropyl-detoxifies, N-β-(aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, N-β-(aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, γ-aminopropyl-ethoxysilane, N-phenyl-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, γ-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane and γ-chloropropionitrile.

In principle can be any selected relative amount of poly (alkyl(meth)acrylate, and the compounds of formula (I).

In a suitable embodiment, a total molding material are present in both the specified component. Particularly preferred molding material contains:

a) from 90 to 99.999% of the mass. polyalkyl(meth)acrylate and

b) from 0.001 to 0.03% of the mass. the compounds of formula (I), respectively, calculated on the total weight of the molding mass.

Introduction compounds in the total molding composition can be carried out in a known literature methods, for example, by mixing with the polymer prior to further processing of the mixture at elevated temperature, by adding to the melt of the polymer or by adding to the suspended or dissolved polymer during processing of the latter. The compounds of formula (I) optionally, you can add also to be used to obtain the polymer of the initial substances, and they neutrahealth inherent absorptive capacity in the presence of other conventional light stabilizers, of thermal stabilizers, oxidizing and reducing agents and other additives.

The softening temperature is particularly suitable for the purposes of the present invention the molding material (softening temperature by Vic VET (I-SO 306-B50)) is not less than 80°C. In this regard, the molding mass is primarily suitable as reinforcing means for the modules of solar cells, since it has no tendency to creep even in the case of high temperature application.

Especially preferred are also the molding material, which have a relatively high transmission of total radiation, and, therefore, in the case of their use as reinforcing means in units of solar cells primarily prevent the loss of power of the solar cell, which may be due to optical losses in the hardening tool. The full transmission of the moulding mass in the wavelength range from 400 to 500 nm is preferably at least 90%. The full transmission of the moulding mass in the wavelength range from 500 to 1000 nm is preferably at least 80% (corresponding measurements are performed with a spectrophotometer Lambda 19 firm Perkin Elmer).

In addition, preferred are also the molding material, which have a resistance leakage between Ashima in the range from 1 to 500 kω·cm 2. This effectively avoided due to short circuits reducing power of the solar cell.

The molding material, which contain the above components, particularly suitable for use as reinforcing means modules solar cells. In addition, the molding material preferably used for the manufacture of so-called light concentrators. It is about the items with high efficiency concentrating the light beam on the surface most insignificant area and, thus, provide a high radiation intensity. Thus the need for the display light emitter is missing.

To achieve the objectives of the present invention is particularly preferred light concentrators are focusing lenses that collect light rays and focus them on the focal surface. In the focal point primarily focus light rays parallel to the optical axis.

The focusing lens can be biconvex (both sides of the lens curved outwards), convex (one side of the lens is flat, the other convex or concave-convex (one side of the lens is curved inward, the other side is curved outwards, with the convex side preferably has a greater curvature. is in the concave side). According to the invention particularly preferred focusing lens have at least one convex side, and even more preferred are PLANO-convex focusing lens.

According to a particular preferred variant implementation of the present invention, the light concentrators have the structure of a Fresnel lens. Under the Fresnel lens mean optical lens has a specific structure, which in General achieve the reduction of weight and volume, and, in the case of larger lenses, reducing the focal length.

Reducing the amount of reach due to the segmented Fresnel lens on the annular zone. The transition from one annular zone to another, the thickness of the lens is reduced, that is, the Fresnel lens has a stepped structure. Since light rays are refracted only on the surface of such lenses, the angle of refraction does not depend on the thickness of the lens, but only generated from its surface angle. In this regard, the focal distance of the Fresnel lens remains constant, although the image quality due to the stepped structure of the lens deteriorates.

In accordance with a first particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention to the optical axes use a rotationally symmetric lens with Fresnel structure. Such lenses is ocusert light at the point.

In accordance with another especially preferred embodiment of the present invention use linear lenses with Fresnel structure, which focus the light in the plane.

Otherwise, the module of solar cells has a known conventional design. It preferably includes at least one photovoltaic element, which is suitable variant introduced into the gap between the disc and rear and pripressovav, and in accordance with the best option disk and a back wall connected to the photovoltaic element through the reinforcing means. This module solar cells, first drive, the rear wall and/or a hardening agent, preferably contain used components according to the invention, i.e. polyalkyl(meth)acrylate and a compound of formula (I).

In accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the solar module elements include:

a) at least one photovoltaic element,

b) at least one light concentrator containing at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate, and

C) at least one transparent disk containing at least one compound of formula (I).

Particularly preferred structure of the solar module elements shown neprerekaemyj to the present description of the drawings (see Figure 1, 2A, 2b).

Proposed in the invention, the solar module elements preferably contains photovoltaic element 101, a ROM 103, which closes the front side of the photovoltaic element 101, the first reinforcing means 102 between the photovoltaic element 101 and the disk 103, a rear wall 105, which closes the back side 104 of the photovoltaic element 101 and the second reinforcing means 104 between the photovoltaic element 101 and the rear wall 105.

The photovoltaic element is preferably provided located on a conductive substrate, a photoactive semiconductor layer as a first electrode for converting light and formed thereon a transparent conductive layer as the second electrode.

A conductive substrate is preferably made of stainless steel, which helps to further strengthen the adhesion between the reinforcing means and the substrate.

The collector, which as a component contains copper and/or silver, preferably formed on the photosensitive side of the photovoltaic element, and with the collector preferably contacts polyalkyl(meth)acrylate, preferably containing monomer units of at least one of the compounds of formula (I).

Ideally, the photosensitive surface of the photoelectric cell battery (included) is that closed polyalkyl(meth)acrylate, preferably containing monomer units of at least one of the compounds of formula (I), after which preferably should be a thin film of a fluoride polymer as the outer layer.

First reinforcing means 102 that is designed to protect the photovoltaic element 101 from external influences, closes the irregularities of the photosensitive element 101. In addition, it connects the disk 103 with the photovoltaic element 101. In accordance with this addition to the high light transmission of the first reinforcing means 102 should have a high weather resistance, high adhesion and high thermal stability. In addition, it should have low water absorption and should not allocate a free acid. To fulfill these requirements as the first reinforcing means preferably use polyalkyl(meth)-acrylate, preferably containing monomer units of at least one of the compounds of formula (I).

To minimize the reduction produced by the photovoltaic element 101 light energy transmittance of the first reinforcing means 102 in the visible wavelength range (400 nm to 800 nm) is preferably at least 80%, in the wavelength range from 400 to 500 nm, the transmittance is particularly preferably sostavliaete least 90% (measurement of light transmission is performed by using a spectrophotometer Lambda 19 firm Perkin Elmer). In addition, for more light penetration affecting the photovoltaic element 101 of the light radiation from the air the refractive index of the first reinforcing means 102 preferably is in the range from 1.1 to 2.0, more preferably in the range from 1.1 to 1.6 (measured according to ISO 489).

Second reinforcing means 104 that is designed to protect the photovoltaic element 101 from external influences, closes the bumps on the back of the latter. In addition, the second reinforcing means 104 is intended for connection of the rear wall 105 with the photovoltaic element 101. In accordance with this second reinforcing means similar to the first reinforcing means should have a high weather resistance, high adhesion and high thermal stability. Therefore, as the second reinforcing means also preferably use polyalkyl(meth)acrylate, preferably containing monomer units of at least one of the compounds of formula (I). The material of the first reinforcing means preferably similar to the material of the second reinforcing means. However, because the light transmission of the second reinforcing means is only an optional requirement, it is optionally possible to add a filler such as the R, organic oxide (with a view to further improving the weather resistance and mechanical properties) or pigment (for coloring).

As the photovoltaic element 101 is preferable to use a known photoelectric elements, primarily monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells, amorphous silicon or microcrystalline silicon, similar to those used in thin-film silicon cells. Also particularly suitable are selenide copper-India and semiconductor compounds.

The preferred photovoltaic element is schematically shown in Figa and 2b. On Figa schematically shows a cross-section of the photovoltaic element, while Fig.2b schematically shows a top view of the specified element. Position 201 to Figa and 2b corresponds to a conductive substrate, position 202 a reflective layer on the back side, position 203 photoactive semiconductor layer, position 204 a transparent conductive layer, position 205 collector, positions a and 206b terminals and positions 207 and 208 of the conductive adhesive or conductive paste.

A conductive substrate 201 performs the function of not only the basics of the photovoltaic element, and the second electrode. The material of the conductive substrate 201 is preferably silicon, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, n is the rusting of steel, aluminum, copper, titanium, carbon film, lead-lined steel plate, retinoid film and/or provided with a conductive layer ceramics.

The reverse side of the conductive substrate 201 is preferably provided with a metal layer, a layer of metal oxide or metal layer and a layer of metal oxide as a reflective layer 202. The material of the metal layer is preferably titanium, chromium, molybdenum, boron, aluminum, silver and/or Nickel, while the material of the layer of metal oxide is preferably ZnO, TiO2or SnO2. The metal layer and the layer of metal oxide in a suitable embodiment, is formed by vapor deposition, heat, electron beam method or the ion-plasma sputtering.

The photoactive semiconductor layer 203 is designed to implement the photovoltaic conversion. Accordingly to the preferred materials of the specified layer includes polycrystalline silicon pin junction, a material made of amorphous silicon pin junction, the materials of microcrystalline silicon with a pin junction, and semiconductor compounds, primarily CulnSe2, CulnS2, GaAs, CdS/Cu2S, CdS/CdTe, CdS/InP, and CdTe/Cu2Te. Especially preferred is the use of materials made of amorphous silicon pin junction.

The photoactive semiconductor layer preference is sustained fashion form by converting the molten silicon in the film, by heat treatment of amorphous silicon (in the case of polycrystalline silicon), by vapor deposition using silane gas as a source material (in the case of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon) method or ion deposition, ion sputtering, vacuum evaporation, ion plating or electroplating (in the case of semiconductor compounds).

The transparent conductive layer 204 performs the function of the upper electrode of the solar cell. The material of this layer preferably is In2O3, SnO2, In2O3-SnO2(ITO), ZnO, TiO2or Cd2SnO4or it is a crystalline semiconductor layer doped contained in a high concentration of impurities. The layer can be formed by spraying with resistive heating, as well as by ion-plasma sputtering, kronirovaniye, vapour deposition or diffusion of impurities.

A conductive substrate and a transparent conductive layer of the photovoltaic element formed with a transparent conductive layer 204 at the time of formation of the photoactive semiconductor layer due to the surface roughness of the conductive substrate 201 and/or in connection with the heterogeneity can sometimes be short-circuited. In this case, there are most of the current loss, proportional to the output voltage. These low leak resistance (shunt resistance). In such case it is advisable to eliminate the short circuit and after forming the transparent conductive layer to expose the photovoltaic element processed to remove defects. Such processing is described in detail in U.S. patent US 4729970. Due to such processing, the shunt resistance of the photovoltaic element set in the range from 1 to 500 kω·cm2, preferably in the range from 10 to 500 kω·cm2.

On the transparent conductive layer 204 can be formed collector 205 (coordinate grid). Collector 205 is designed for the efficient collection of electric current and is preferably in the form of a grid, combs, line or otherwise. The preferred material of the collector 205 is, for example, titanium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, aluminum, silver, Nickel, copper, tin, or a conductive paste (so-called silver paste).

Collector 205 is preferably formed by ion-plasma sputtering using a mask pattern, a method of heating resistor, the method of vapor deposition, the method including the operations of forming the metal film on top of the shared layer by the gas separation and removal of unnecessary hours is her film by etching, the method, according to which by photochemical vapor deposition to form the pattern of the grid electrode, the method including the operations of forming a negative of the mask pattern of the grid electrode and the cladding is equipped with a drawing surface, the method in accordance with which carry out printing with a conductive paste and method, in accordance with which the sealed conductive paste watereth the metal wire. At the same time as the conductive paste preferably used film-forming polymer, which in the form of fine powder dispersed silver, gold, copper, Nickel, carbon or similar substances. As film-forming polymers are preferably used polyesters, etoxazole, polyacrylates, alkyd resins, polyvinyl acetate, rubber, urethane resin and/or phenolic resins.

Terminals 206 for pickup electromotive force is preferably fixed on a conductive substrate 201, respectively, to the collector 205. Terminal 206 is fixed on the conductive substrate preferably by welding spot welding or by prepaymania metal elements, e.g., copper pads, while the fixation of the terminals on the collector is preferably carried out by the electrical connection of metal elements with header what exploits conductive paste or tin solder 207 and 208.

Depending on the desired voltage or current of the photovoltaic elements are connected to each other in series or in parallel. In addition, voltage or current can be adjusted by inserting the photovoltaic elements in the insulating substrate.

Shown in figure 1, the disk 103 must have a high weather resistance, highest possible graziottin the Kiwanis and high mechanical strength because it is the outer layer of the solar module elements. In addition, the disk 103 should provide reliable long-term operation of solar cells under atmospheric conditions. Drives that can be used to achieve the objectives of the present invention contain (reinforced) glass film and fluoride polymer film. Used glass film preferably should have a high transmittance. Suitable fluoride polymer films are primarily film of a copolymer of ethylene with tetrafluoroethylene, polyvinyl, polyvinylidene fluoride, tetrafluoroethylene, copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene with HEXAFLUOROPROPYLENE or chlorotrifluoroethylene. PVDF film is especially suitable for high weather resistance, while the film on the basis of a copolymer of ethylene with tetrafluoroethylene especially a preference for the equipment, because they have the best combination of weather resistance and mechanical strength. To improve adhesion between fluoride polymer film and hardening means the film must be treated by corona discharge or plasma. In addition, to further increase the mechanical strength preferably you should use a film subjected to the hood.

In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention, the drive includes at least one polyalkyl-(meth)acrylate, which preferably contains monomer units of at least one of the compounds of formula (I).

In addition, the disk preferably performs the function of the light concentrator with high efficiency concentrates the light on the photoelectric element and, thus, increases the intensity of the light beam. Especially preferred are the lenses that collect light rays and focus them on the focal plane. It primarily concerns the focus parallel to the optical axis of the rays of light in the focal point.

The focusing lens can be biconvex, PLANO-convex or concave-convex. Especially preferred is the use of lenses with a convex structure. In addition, preferred is the preliminary version of the CD has the structure of a Fresnel lens.

The rear wall 105 is designed for electrical isolation of the photovoltaic element 101 from the external environment, as well as to improve its weather resistance, and simultaneously performs the function of a reinforcing element. The material of the rear wall 105 preferably has a sufficiently high electrical insulating properties, excellent long-term stability, the ability to resist thermal expansion and thermal contraction, and high flexibility. The materials are especially suitable for achieving these objectives include nylon, polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinylfluoride film. To ensure moisture resistance module of solar cells as the rear wall preferably used polyvinylfluoride film peresolennym aluminum, polyethylene terephthalate film with an aluminum coating or polyethylene terephthalate film coated with silicon oxide. In addition, to improve the fire resistance of a module of solar cells as a back wall, you can use a steel foil stamped with film and plated or stainless steel foil.

In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention the rear wall includes at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate, which PR is doctitle contains monomer units of at least one of the compounds of formula (I).

To further increase the mechanical strength of solar module elements or prevent buckling or arching the back wall, caused by temperature changes, to the outer surface of the rear wall may be attached to the protective plate. Particularly preferred materials such plates are stainless steel sheets, polymer sheets or sheets of reinforced fibers of polymers. In addition, the rear wall can be attached structural material.

The manufacture of the above module of solar cells can be performed with known methods. However, particularly suitable is described below using the following technologies.

To cover the photovoltaic element reinforcing means preferably use a method, according to which reinforcing means are subjected to thermal melting, and the resulting melt ekstragiruyut through a flat head, receiving the film, which is thermally connected to the photovoltaic element. Film reinforcing means is preferably placed between the photovoltaic element and the disc and between the photovoltaic element and the rear wall, and strengthen.

For the implementation of thermal hardening can use the ü known methods, for example, such as vacuum lamination or repressive by ramming.

Operating temperature proposed in the invention, a module of solar cells is 80°C or higher, the heat resistance inherent in the proposed invention the materials can be effectively used primarily in high temperature.

1. Use
a) at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate and
b) at least one compound of formula (I):
,
in which the residues R1and R2respectively independently of one another denote alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-20 carbon atoms,
for the manufacture of solar modules elements.

2. The use according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate is at least one copolymer or copolymer of alkyl(meth)acrylate with 1-18 carbon atoms in the alkyl.

3. The use according to claim 2, characterized in that at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate is at least one copolymer containing from 80 to 99 wt.% of monomer units of methyl methacrylate and from 1 to 20 wt.% of monomer units of alkylacrylate with 1-10 carbon atoms in the alkyl.

4. The use according to claim 3, characterized in that the copolymer contains monomer units of methyl acrylate and/or ethyl acrylate.

5. The use according to claim 1, characterized in that the residues R 1and R2in the formula (I), respectively independently of one another denote alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-8 carbon atoms.

6. The use according to claim 1, characterized in that the residues R1and R2in the formula (I), respectively independently of one another denote methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, 1-butyl, 2-butyl, 2-methylpropyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, 2-methylbutyl, 1,1-dimethylpropyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, 1,1,3,3-TETRAMETHYLBUTYL, nonyl, 1-decyl, 2-decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, pentadecyl or eicosyl.

7. The use according to claim 1, characterized in that the residues R1and R2in the formula (I), respectively, independently from each other mean cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl or cyclooctyl, which are optionally substituted branched or unbranched alkyl groups.

8. Use according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that in formula (I) one residue is 2-ethyl, and the remainder means 2 ethoxy.

9. The module of solar cells, comprising a molded part, which contains
a) at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate and
b) at least one compound of formula (I):
,
in which the residues R1and R2respectively independently of one another denote alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-20 carbon atoms.

10. Module solar cell according to claim 9, otlichuy is the, that the molded part is a light concentrator.

11. The module of solar cells of claim 10, wherein the molded part is a focusing lens.

12. Module solar cell according to claim 11, characterized in that the focusing lens has a convex part.

13. Module solar cell according to item 12, wherein the focusing lens is a PLANO-convex.

14. Module solar cell according to item 13, wherein the focusing lens is a Fresnel lens.

15. Module solar cell according to one of PP-14, characterized in that it further includes a photovoltaic element.

16. The solar module elements, including
a) at least one photovoltaic element,
b) at least one focusing lens containing at least one polyalkyl(meth)acrylate, and
c) at least one transparent disk containing at least one compound of formula (I):
,
in which the residues R1and R2respectively independently of one another denote alkyl or cycloalkyl with 1-20 carbon atoms.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: photoelectric device is an electro-optical converter (EOC), having in an evacuated metal-ceramic housing a photocathode which is applied on the output surface of the input window of the device, and a fibre-optic plate (FOP) with a cathodoluminescent screen on its input surface whose light transmission with aluminium and light-absorbing coating, having an absorption factor of not less than 0.97, is not more than 0.01%, and mated with a photosensitive charge coupled device (PCCD) by joining through a layer of immersion liquid of an area of the sensitive element of the PCCD with an area formed on the output surface of the EOC FOP, wherein the distance between the surface of the area of the sensitive element of the PCCD and the surface of the area formed on the output surface of the FOP, should not exceed 1 mcm for refraction index of immersion of about 1.5; the outer surface of FOP outside the vacuum unit, except the area under the area of the sensitive element of the PCCD, is coated with a light-absorbing coating with an absorption factor of not less than 0.97; the metal-ceramic housing of the EOC is rigidly joined by a fastening device to the housing of the PCCD, which is mounted in the groove of the fastening device and is joined to it by a compound; free space between the outer surface of FOP, walls of the housing of the PCCD and the housing of the fastening device is filled with a compound with light transmission of not more than 0.03 in the direction of the output surface of the FOP; the distance between the lower surface of the groove for the PCCD in the fastening device and the housing of the PCCD is 02-0.5 mm longer than the distance between the surface of the area of the sensitive element of the PCCD and the surface of the area formed on the FOP.

EFFECT: improved technical characteristics of the device: contrast sensitivity and resolution, while providing the same resolution on the entire field of view.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: photovoltaic module contains: a laminate of a) a transparent front covering, b) one or more photosensitive semiconductor layers, c) at least one plasticiser-containing film based on polyvinyl acetal with polyvinyl alcohol content of more than 12 wt %, and d) a back covering. The module is characterised by that plasticiser-containing films c) based on polyvinyl acetal have glass-transition temperature Tg of at least 20°C. The invention also relates to use of the films based on polyvinyl acetal with content of polyvinyl alcohol of more than 12 wt %, having glass-transition temperature Tg of at least 20°C for filling cavities present in photosensitive semiconductor layers or electrical connections thereof when manufacturing photovoltaic modules.

EFFECT: films with said glass-transition temperature have high specific resistance.

10 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is use of polyamide as sealant for photovoltaic modules, said polyamide being selected from polyamide 6, polyamide 66, polyamide 7, polyamide 9, polyamide 10, polyamide 11, polyamide 12, polyamide 69, polyamide 6 10, polyamide 6 12, PA-6-3-T, PA 61, polyphthalamide (PPA) or a group of copolymers of different aromatic or partially aromatic monomers. Disclosed also is use of the described sealant combined with filler material selected from ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), ionomers, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyurethane, polyester, hot-melt or silicone elastomers for making photovoltaic modules. The invention also discloses use of a plastic composite containing carrier material selected from polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene naphthenate or an ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer, as well as a layer of polyamide 12, joined as sealant on both sides to the carrier material in order to make photovoltaic modules.

EFFECT: improved method.

24 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of a plastic composite containing carrier material selected from a group polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene naphthenate (PEN) or ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE), as well as polyamide-12 layers adjoining the carrier material on both sides to obtain photovoltaic modules.

EFFECT: high weather resistance, with mechanical stability and desired electrical insulation properties.

18 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed solar battery has photoelectric material layer, load-bearing panel, and adhesive layer in-between for sticking photoelectric material layer and load-bearing panel together. Adhesive layer has adhesive composition incorporating polymer or copolymer whose MVTR is below 5 g per sq. m a day and silane-modified polymer or copolymer. Battery of other design alternate has photoelectric material layer, load-bearing panel, and adhesive layer for sticking photoelectric material layer and load-bearing panel together, as well as holes to pass module wires through at least photoelectric material layer or through load-bearing panel. Holes for passing module wires are filled with adhesive composition incorporating polymer or copolymer whose MVTR is below 5 g per sq. m a day, as well as silane-modified polymer or copolymer. Method for solar battery manufacture is also proposed.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of solar battery.

26 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: off-line power supplies using solar energy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed photoelectric module has at least one photocell disposed between polymeric filler layers whose bottom layer abuts against substrate; used as filler is thermoplastic silicon elastomer which is the product of block copolymerization of alpha, omega-amino siloxane and dual- or multifunctional isocyanate. Upper layer of polymeric filler can function as protective coating.

EFFECT: enhanced light, heat, and frost resistance and output power characteristics of module at long-time service in extended temperature range.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex

The invention relates to solar cells based on the direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells (solar cells), namely the cooling module, included in them

Photovoltaic module // 2030025
The invention relates to solar technology, in particular photovoltaics, and can be used in power systems with a long lifetime

Photovoltaic module // 2008749
The invention relates to the direct conversion of Solar radiation into electrical energy and can be used in photovoltaic modules, operated on the ground

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: back sheet for a solar cell module has a substrate sheet and a cured layer of a coating film made of coating material, formed on one side or each side of the substrate sheet, wherein said coating material contains a fluoropolymer (A), having repeating units based on fluoro-olefin (a), repeating units based on a monomer (b) which contains a cross-linking group, and repeating units based on a monomer (c) which contains alkyl groups, where the C2-20 linear or branched alkyl group does not have a quaternary carbon atom, and unsaturated polymerisable groups are bonded to each other through an ether bond or an ester bond. Also disclosed is a solar cell module using said back sheet and versions of a method of making the back sheet for the solar cell module.

EFFECT: making a cured flexible layer with good adhesion by eliminating fissuring, break-up, thickening and delamination.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: flexible photoelectric module comprises the following serially arranged components: a lower bearing film, a lower reinforcing net, a lower fixing film, electrically connected solar elements from single-crystal silicon, an upper fixing film, an upper reinforcing net and an upper bearing film. The bearing and fixing films are made of a material, which is transparent for sun light, and reinforcing nets are made of polymer threads, which are transparent for sun light and are impregnated with a substance or containing such substance with low coefficient of light absorption and scattering. Reinforcing nets are annealed nets from a thermosetting polymer.

EFFECT: possibility to fix a figurine-profiled surface of a flexible photoelectric module.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor photoelectric generator with double-sided working surface is made as a matrix from switched microphoto cells with n+-p-p+(p+n-n+) diode structures, in which one or two linear dimensions of the microphoto cell are comparable with diffusion length of minor current carriers in the base area, and planes of diode structures are inclined at the angle φ, 30°<φ<150° to the working surface of the generator, along the entire area of the working surface at two sides of the generator there is a passivating film with thickness of 10-60 nm, arranged on the basis of one or two oxides of the following metals: tantalum, zinc, aluminium, molybdenum and tungsten, and above the passivating film there is a layer of a clearing coating. In the other version along the entire area of the working surface of the generator at two sides of the generator there are passivating and clearing films, made on the basis of one or two oxides of the following metals: tantalum, zinc, aluminium, molybdenum and tungsten, and also silicon nitride or carbide.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of a photoelectric generator and increased efficiency of electromagnetic radiation conversion.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: flexible photoelectric module consists of series-arranged bottom carrier film, bottom reinforcing layer, bottom fastening film, solar cells electrically connected to each other, top fastening film, top reinforcing layer and top carrier film. The bottom and top carrier and fastening films are made from material transparent for sunlight, and the reinforcing layers used are layers of spheroidal elements made from material transparent for sunlight and coated with a layer of an anti-adhesive material. Dimensions of the spheroidal elements are in the range of 500÷1000 mcm.

EFFECT: invention provides reversible deformation of the plane of the photoelectric module simultaneously in two or more directions.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: photoelectric bitumen tiles comprise a bitumen base attached to a photoelectric module, which relates to a roll type with a transparent upper contact, and also comprise at least one solar element from amorphous silicon supported with a metal flexible layer. Tiles represent photoelectric asphalt roof tiles, which comprise a bitumen base attached to the photoelectric module, besides, the connection is made by means of application of the photoelectric module onto the bitumen base and gluing. And besides, the bitumen base comprises a bitumen layer, at least with one support from a glass film, impregnated with oxidised bitumen and a bitumen self-adhesive mastic; besides, the photoelectric module comprises at least one solar element from amorphous silicon with three transitions and electric connecting facilities at one side; besides, the bitumen base is characterised by thickness of the bitumen layer of 5±0.5 mm; the support from the glass film is characterised with density of 85 g/m2; and has the following characteristics: rupture strength in longitudinal direction of approximately 1500 N; rupture strength in transverse direction of approximately 1500 N. Also the method is described to manufacture tiles, as well as the method to lay the roof by tiles.

EFFECT: development of photoelectric roof tiles with optimised surface with high capturing ability, with high energy output, provision of reliability, atmosphere resistance and reduced mass of tiles.

7 cl, 20 dwg

Photocell // 2491681

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: photocell consists of two or more monolayers of semiconductor spherical particles, one part of which has one type of conductivity and the other has an opposite type of conductivity. The particles of the semiconductor material have the size of the order of the electron diffusion length in said semiconductor. The top of the photocell is coated with antireflection layer. To increase conversion efficiency of the photocell, particles in different monolayers can have a different diameter, which improves absorption of radiation at different wavelengths. Instead of or along with a bottom transparent electrode, a metal electrode can be used, which provides both removal of generated charges and reflection of transmitted radiation back to the structure, ensuring more absorption thereof.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the photocell by increasing absorption of semiconductor material per unit surface area or per unit volume of the absorbing semiconductor material, low cost of making the photocell owing to low consumption of material.

8 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: solar concentrator module, according to the invention, has a receiver with a double-sided working surface, placed in the plane of symmetry between the focal axis of the concentrator and the surface of the concentrator, which is made in form of mirror reflectors, characterised by that the receiver is mounted in the plane of symmetry of a cylindrical concentrator; branches of the concentrator in the cross-section are formed by circles of radius R, which is equal to the height H of the receiver with centres at points O1 and O2, lying on the borders of the receiver in its top edge; wherein focal axes of the branches of the cylindrical concentrator, passing through the centres of circles O1 and O2 parallel to the top edge of the receiver, are directed in the North-South direction and are inclined in the northern hemisphere to the horizontal plane in the southern direction at an angle φ=90°-α, where α is the latitude. In the southern hemisphere, focal axes are inclined to the horizontal surface in the northern direction at an angle φ=90°-α and in the equator zone with a latitude from 30° of the southern latitude to 30° of the northern latitude, the focal axes of the cylindrical concentrator are parallel to the horizontal surface. Another version of the solar concentrator module described above is also disclosed.

EFFECT: invention provides efficient operation of the solar module during the entire daylight in stationary mode without tracking the sun, high concentration of solar radiation, high efficiency of using solar energy n the solar concentrator module owing to removal of heat from the photodetector and use of said heat in cogeneration mode to produce electrical energy and heat.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wireless transmission of electrical energy between spacecraft based on directed electromagnetic radiation from one spacecraft to a photoelectric converter-based detector-receiver of a second spacecraft. The photocell of a space laser radiation detector-converter has p-type and n-type semiconductor layers, alternating contact strips on the working side of the photocell and a continuous ohmic contact on the rear side of the photocell, wherein a diffraction grating is placed on the working side of the photocell with given thickness δ of its photoactive region, said diffraction grating being made from opaque parallel contact strips with width b, which alternate with a constant spacing Δ and make up an ohmic contact with the semiconductor layer of the photocell, on which electromagnetic radiation of the laser with wavelength λ falls normally. The diffraction grating is made such that it satisfies given relationships that a protected by the present invention.

EFFECT: invention enables to increase efficiency and specific values of photocurrent of the photoelectric converter in space.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for generating electrical energy using photovoltaic cells (3) lying on a bearing structure (2), particularly formed by bearing cables (21) and adjustment cables (22) or similar, with possibility of turning about at least approximately vertically aligned axis, thereby enabling them to follow the movement of the sun from east to west, and which are also able to turn about at least approximately horizontally aligned axes. According to the invention, the photovoltaic cells (3) are mounted on at least approximately parallel and approximately horizontally aligned bearing beams (20, 20a) or similar, wherein the bearing beams (20, 20a) or similar on one of their ends are attached to a bearing cable (21) or similar, on one hand with the possibility of turning about the at least approximately vertical axis and on the other with possibility of turning about their longitudinal axis, wherein the bearing beams (20, 20a) on their other end are connected to a turning device which is formed by at least one bearing and adjustment cable (22).

EFFECT: enabling adjustment of photovoltaic cells in accordance with the rising sun.

6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: frame device according to the invention includes a substrate having a peripheral edge; a frame, having a groove which passes along the length and breadth of the frame, engages with the peripheral edge of the substrate; and a sealing lying inside the groove of the frame, which passes from the substrate to the frame adjacent thereto, wherein the sealing includes foamed poly-α-olefin having setting time shorter than or equal to 1 minute. The group of inventions also includes a photovoltaic cell, a second version of the frame device, a method of making the frame device and the sealing.

EFFECT: making improved photovoltaic cells with a simple design and low cost.

15 cl, 4 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains at least one latex polymer, at least one pigment, water and at least one auxiliary additive. The auxiliary additive is ethoxylated tristyrenephenol and is present in an amount higher than about 1.3 wt % with respect to the weight of the polymer.

EFFECT: improved freeze-thaw stability, as well as other properties such as film setting time, colour stability, low film-formation temperature, film-forming resistance, blocking resistance, adhesion and sensitivity to water.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 24 tbl, 10 ex

Polymer composition // 2471831

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains a mixture of: (i) aromatic polycarbonate; (ii) a graft copolymer which contains polyacrylonitrile; and (iii) a non-cross-linked polymer having weight-average molecular weight (Mw) less than or equal to 65000 Da. The graft-copolymer contains acrylostyrene-acrylonitrile polymer, acrylonitrile-ethylene-propylene-diene-styrene polymer, olefin-styrene-acrylonitrile polymer or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer. The composition can additionally contain a modifying additive based on methacrylate-butadiene-styrene which increases impact strength. The composition can additionally contain reinforcing fibre. The non-cross-linked acrylic polymer increases the melt flow rate of the mixture and shortens the duration of the process cycle when preparing the mixture.

EFFECT: invention improves the technology of processing polymer mixtures based on aromatic polycarbonate.

36 cl, 4 tbl, 16 ex

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