Device and method for real-time monitoring of integrity of satellite navigation system

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: in order to estimate an indication (11) of integrity of the system with respect to location errors (2) of very low probability, lower than or equal to about 10-7, the following steps are carried out in real time: measurement of data calculated by the system; calculation of a model of distribution H of location calculation errors (2) of the system; determination of parameters characterising the distribution model (H); modelling, in the probability domain, of the tail of the distribution H(x) by a calculation means as a function of said parameters applied to the extreme values theory; comparison in real time of the distribution of location errors with a tolerance threshold for providing an indication of integrity; and transmission in real time of the indication (11) of integrity of the system.

EFFECT: solving problems of estimating integrity margin of a satellite navigation system for malfunction events of very low probability.

7 cl, 3 dwg

 

The field of invention relates to satellite navigation systems, and more particularly to the field of technology, which provides the user with a means of confidence in the information about the correction of errors coming from the satellite system.

The term “satellite navigation system” is meant in the present description any system providing navigation in a wide area, such as existing systems GNSS (global navigation satellite system”), called GPS, GLONASS or the system GALILEO, and all equivalent and built based on them.

Specialists are well known principle of the positioning satellite navigation systems. For example, in the GPS, the radio frequency signal emitted by the satellite, is encoded and the time required for this signal reaches the receiver, the location of which you want to define is used to determine the distance between the specified satellite and the receiver, preferably called pseudo-distance.

To improve existing satellite systems with respect to accuracy, integrity, continuity, and their availability, uses the so-called auxiliary systems. The characteristic of integrity is of particular importance, as it defines a work the systems, depends on the safety of users. European subsidiary satellite system EGNOS improves the characteristics of two satellite systems GPS and GLONASS. It transmits the user message integrity, which allow it to assess how much he can trust the coordinates of your location and eventually allow him to take an appropriate decision. The EGNOS transmits, in the form of standard deviations, correction of pseudo-distances and their refinements and corrects:

- the errors associated with the passage in the ionosphere and the troposphere electromagnetic waves;

- the errors associated with GPS satellites and geostationary satellites (slow correction: orbital errors and time errors);

- rapidly changing errors, such as time, due to selective access-Selective Availability SA(speed adjust).

Can be calculated as data errors in determining the pseudo distance data, referred to as the English abbreviated SREW: “Satellite residual Error for the Worst User Location”. These data represent the orbital and clock errors of the satellites for the least privileged user in the service area. The data referred to in English abbreviated UDRE (User Differential Range Error") represent majorant assessment data SREW. One may also ion the sphere of error called in English abbreviated GIVD “Grid Ionospheric Vertical Delay”. Ionospheric layer was divided by a grid into separate sections. For each point on the grid, passed the assessment of the corresponding ionospheric delay. The user, measurement of which is impossible to determine accurately in the specified grid point should make an interpolation of the values provided for each of the 4 grid points adjacent to the point at which the location was determined user. At the same time, the user will see the satellite vertically, but this will most likely be inclined froze.

Continue to apply only to those sources of uncertainty that are associated with the receiver clock error, eccentricity, numerous routes). The user then calculates its "accessory" position, i.e. the position, which improved as a result of adjustments pseudo-distances. The accuracy of this provision is estimated by comparison with a reference position. Adjustments pseudo-distances allows the user to calculate in real time the accuracy of their position, through the dissemination of error. In civil aviation set, for example, based on the accuracy of the position, levels of protection. These levels represent the intervals strict confidence. Decree the data protection levels shall not exceed the alarm level, applicable phases of flight. Integrity, availability and continuity in the navigation system are valued at the error position, the protection levels and anxiety levels.

In Fig. 1 shows the structure of a satellite navigation system that includes a system of differential GNSS positioning and auxiliary systems SBAS (“Satellite Based Augmentation System) and GBAS (Ground Based Augmentation System). Aircraft have on-Board receivers associated with the auxiliary systems.

EGNOS is a system type SBAS that contains ground infrastructure SBAS G and SBAS geostationary satellites S. Ground infrastructure includes a large number of ground receiving stations, distributed in a wide geographical area, which receive data from GNSS satellites and determine a pseudo-distance, as well as the Central station 1 and control processing, which is based on the pseudo-distances, transferred to receiving station SBAS G, determines the correction and integrity, which are grouped in the SBAS signal. Geostationary satellites transmit the signal from the Central station to the receiver aircraft.

The GBAS system contains ground-based radio beacons, designed to meet local needs, in that case, if a higher accuracy specified in the range. These ground-based radiobeacons are, for example, in areas of the airport. The GBAS system also includes a receiver installed on Board the aircraft. The GNSS system produces aircraft and ground-based radio beacons information for calculating pseudo-distances. Ground beacon generates for each GNSS satellite in the zone of visibility, information on the adjustment of the pseudo-distances and integrity information differential positioning. The beacon GBAS give more accurate adjustments, compared with adjustments to the Central station SBAS. In addition, the beacons GBAS are under control services air control, which may, thus, to control the transmission of specified radio beacons in accordance with the required integrity and position accuracy.

There are a large number of ways to detect the integrity of satellite systems, but none of them is able to provide an indication of the integrity of the system in real time to events of very low probability, i.e. the probability of the order of 10-7. As an example, the US patent 7,089,452 B2, which describes a technique to estimate the integrity of the GPS satellite system, based on the use of assessment tools, using the technique of moments. Modern technologies are only able to identify, observe the sludge is no satellite system conditions of certification. They perform only aposteriori level control system integrity. The main disadvantage of this type of solution is that the operator can only be deactivated as soon as will pass a certain critical threshold. These technologies do not allow to monitor the evolution of the integrity of the satellite navigation system and eventually to anticipate an emergency situation.

It is known that satellite systems operating with auxiliary systems able to meet the technical requirements for events of very low probability. These tests were conducted under development using time-consuming and monotonous ways. Moreover, at the application stage systems it was impossible to re-perform these checks. When using modern technologies to perform these checks will need to carry out measurements, the duration of the test which will tend to infinity. In fact, when measuring inventory integrity by the methods of classical inferential statistics, recent attempts to simulate the behavior of a random variable in the observable region implementations. To obtain relevant statistics to get enough dekorrelirovannyih data so as not to measure too much information. Believe not bhodemon to perform the discretization interval, approximately 5 minutes between each measurement. And given the low probability events that must be detected, this will require to collect billions of samples for thousands of years of measurements.

In addition, satellite systems have been certified to the integrity level corresponding to 10-7for information transfer in complex satellite system and a separate system. Modern technologies allow measurement integrity at the level of 10-7for all complex life cycle of the satellite system and do not take into account the influence of disturbing factors related to each location.

The invention is, therefore, in order to improve the control technology navigation systems for indications of integrity regarding the events of very low probability in order to better assess stock integrity in accordance with strict technical requirements, and in particular in the case of systems used in the aviation industry.

More specifically the invention relates to a computing device that provides a means of assessing the display of the integrity of the satellite navigation system, characterized in that it comprises means of measuring in real time, by measuring data calculated by the navigation system, is indicatii integrity of the system relative errors of the positioning very low probability, moreover, these tools contain:

means receiving data calculated by the position measurement system,

- assessment tool distribution model errors of the positioning

- assessment tool parameters characterizing the distribution model,

computing means, using theory of extreme values depending on the parameters characterizing the distribution model that allows to simulate the distribution of errors of determination of the location of very low probability,

-assessment tool in real-time indication of the integrity for the errors of the positioning very low probability,

- a means of transferring real-time display of integrity.

The invention provides a solution to the problem of estimation of the integrity of the satellite navigation system for the event of failure of very low probability. The invention offers an approach that is different from the solutions based on the use of inherently statistical methods, because they cannot be used to give an indication in real time about events of low probability. The term "low probability event" refers to the error position, the probability of occurrence of which should be below 10-7for the period, a duration of 150 seconds. Analysis of extremals the x events differs significantly from the classic inferential statistics because of the nature of the studied variables. In fact, recent attempts to predict the behavior in the tail of the distribution”. The distribution of extreme values is known to asymptotically and approximation using asymptotic law seems to be effective. Using the distribution of elements in the monitored region, it is possible to simulate in real time the distribution of the elements of the tail belonging to the very low probability of occurrence, and to qualify so stock integrity. The invention provides a means for estimating in real time the evolution of the characteristics of the satellite navigation system. Thus, it is possible to predict the deterioration of characteristics of the system and the end result is to anticipate the cases of failure.

The invention and its other advantages will be better understood after reading the following description of non-restrictive shown with attached figures, among which:

In Fig. 1 shows the structure of a satellite navigation system with an auxiliary system. It shows two types of auxiliary systems providing indication of the integrity of the satellite navigation system: the space segment type SBAS, such as EGNOS, and ground segment type GBAS.

In Fig. 2 illustrates the principle of determining inform the tion about the integrity of the satellite navigation system, using as input data the pseudo-distance.

In Fig. 3 presents the distribution of residual errors observed in the calculations of the position of the satellite navigation system. The tail of the distribution represents the residual error is very low probability and it is modeled by applying theory of extreme values to estimate the distribution model.

The invention, as shown in Fig. 1, relates to counting devices, providing indication of the integrity of the satellite navigation system. The invention is intended, in particular, for the ground station calculation type GBAS satellite navigation system, equipped with an auxiliary system, which in particular is used in airports, but can be used on the control stations and processing of auxiliary systems such as SBAS.

Station calculation of the integrity of the navigation system provides a means of measuring the residual error of the position calculated by the navigation system. Initial data for calculation display integrity can do:

- from the scope of the provisions that uses error positions, normalized by the radius of protection levels;

from the field of pseudo-distances using the adjustment error, calculated by the Central control station and processing.

<> In Fig. 2 shows schematically the principle of determining the value of the error position. As an example, non-restrictive, station calculation integrity according to the invention contains the receivers RF signals differential positioning satellite system, and the specified receiver determines the current position of the station. Station calculation also includes a receiver that receives the value adjustments 3 and 4, which allows to determine, therefore, the value of the adjusted position of the station. Station calculation also includes a storage medium that stores the value of the actual position of the station of calculation, an amount certain technical geodetic means. The calculator calculates, thus, the difference between the real and the estimated position of the station. This difference of 2 is called the “remainder” and allows to determine the integrity of the navigation system. The threshold value integrity 5 is determined and the probability that the threshold is integrity 5 will be below the remainder of the 2 should be below the level of 10-7.

Station calculation, according to the invention, contains a computational tool that allows you to estimate the distribution of residues measured in real time. Based on the distribution of gain settings, which is then used computational tool for the application of theory of extreme values. As an example, non-restrictive, as shown in Fig. 3, the model distribution in the form of a Gaussian distribution. The invention is not limited solely to this assessment tool and adapted in various methods of the invention may use other assessment tools. Specialists in this field known in the art assessment tools type Pickands, the method of maximum likelihood or method of moments. The parameters used subsequently to apply theory of extreme values depend on the used distribution model.

The invention relates also to a method allowing to evaluate the indication of the integrity of the navigation system, characterized in that it uses the device according to the invention, for performing the following steps in real-time to assess the indication of the integrity of the system relative errors of location x, which should be a very low probability:

- measurement data x, calculated by the position measurement system,

- calculation of the distribution model H errors in the calculation of the location x of the system

- determination of the parameters (a, b, c) describing the distribution model H, where a is the parameter that determines the most probable values of the distribution , “b” is a parameter indicating the variation of extreme values, and “C” is a parameter indicating the importance of extreme values in the distribution

- modeling in the field of probability tail of the distribution H(x) computing means depending on the parameters (a, b, c)used in theory of extreme values as follows:

Ha,b,c(x)={e-(1+ax-bc)-1aewith aland1+ax-bc>0,a0e-e(-x-bc)ewith alanda=0

- comparison of real-time distribution of errors of determination of the location of the threshold of tolerance 22 , allowing you avati indication of integrity

- send real-time indication of the integrity of the 11 systems of the positioning.

Reliability modeling of the tail of the distribution depends on the parameters a, b and c. These parameters come from the evaluator that defines the distribution model of the original data, where “x” represents the original data and corresponds to the measurement error of the positioning. The parameter “a” is a parameter determining the location and it is directly connected with the most probable value of the law; it indicates, therefore, approximately where the center of the distribution. The parameter “b” is a parameter of variation; it indicates the variation of extreme values. The parameter “c” is called a measure of dispersion. More than this figure in its absolute value, the greater the importance of extreme values in the original distribution. The specified parameter is a main indicator of the behavior of the tail of the distribution, and when:

-c>0: region corresponds to the Frechet distribution, i.e. the distribution is unlimited x-values and the attenuation of type polynomial;

- c=0: area corresponds to the distribution of Gambell, that is, the distribution of x , representing the attenuation type exponentially in the tails of the distribution;

- c<0: the region corresponding to the distribution Weibull, that is, the distribution of the limited x-values.

According to the first method of the invention measure the error of positions relative to a reference position in order to calculate the distribution of the errors in the calculation of the positioning system.

According to the second method of the invention measure the error of the pseudo distance with respect to the actual distance in order to calculate the distribution of the errors in the calculation of the positioning system.

Initial data for calculation of display integrity can come from any of the navigation system, and any associated auxiliary systems. The invention allows real-time indication of the integrity of the events of very low probability, based on the data submitted in real time, and not based on data obtained from analyses of the system at some point in time and under specific conditions. Information about the integrity of the probability of 10-7also not based on the data defined in the period of development of the system for a particular structure. An advantage of the invention is that it provides an indication of the integrity regardless of the considered satellite navigation system.

An advantage of the invention is the o that means receiving station calculation display integrity measures in real time the data the navigation system calculates in such a way that the samples are sufficiently dekorrelirovannyih to measure distinct data. In fact, it is necessary that the sampling frequency of the data was fairly distributed in time so that a set of samples was representative. The methods of classical inferential statistics do not allow to measure the remains of very low probability, which we try to detect and it is because of their very low probability of occurrence.

An advantage of the invention is that model in real-time margin between the calculated residual error and the allowable residual error with a very low probability of occurrence, i.e. the probability of approximately 10-7. As shown in Fig. 3, number 21 is indicated on the x-axis residual error estimate with a probability of 10-7. Figure 22 marked the threshold of tolerance integrity. For applications in aviation, it is necessary that the probability that “x 22 below” that is “P(22<x)<10-7”that was below 10-7. The shaded area represents P(21<x and less than 10-7and it thus follows that P(22<x)<10-7”. If the integrity level is istemi, the corresponding 10-7observed threshold of tolerance 22 and the gap 11 between 21 and 22 is a stock integrity. Modern technology does not allow real-time events of very low probability specified display integrity. Their capabilities are limited to only a posteriori indication of the threshold is exceeded. Display inventory integrity, according to the invention, may be useful in applications in aviation, and in particular, when assessing the level of trust in the navigation system during landing, when the error becomes critical. The invention is particularly intended for use in ground stations type GBAS installed in airports, but it can find its application in any system of calculation of the integrity of the satellite navigation system.

According to another method of presenting the indication of the integrity of the model in real-time residual error 22 calculation of the positioning system with a very low probability of occurrence, that is of the order of 10-7and transmit in real time the amount of the residual error. Display integrity can be represented in terms of the absolute value of the residue for events of very low probability. As shown in Fig. 3, numeral 21 is indicated by the residual error rate of 10- and figure 22 shows the threshold of tolerance. 21 less than 22 thus, the system demonstrates integrity.

The invention is intended in particular for ground station calculation type GBAS satellite navigation system, equipped with an auxiliary system that implements the method according to the invention.

1. Evaluation method for indicating the integrity of the satellite navigation system that provides a means of assessing the display of the integrity of the satellite navigation system, characterized in that it implements the following steps in real-time to assess the indication integrity (11) of the system relative errors of positioning (2), which should be a very low probability lower than or equal to approximately 10-7:
measurement data calculated by the system,
the calculation of the distribution model N error calculation location (2) system
determination of the parameters (a, b, c)describing the distribution model (H), where a is the parameter that determines the most probable value of the distribution, "b" is a parameter indicating the variation of extreme values, and "c" is a parameter indicating the importance of extreme values in the distribution,
modeling in the field of probability tail of the distribution H(x) computing means depending on the parameters (a, b, c)used in theory of ekström is lnyh numbers as follows:
Ha,b,c(x)={e-(1+ax-bc)-1a,ewith aland1+ax-bc>0,a0e-e(-x-bc),ewith alanda=0
comparison of real-time distribution of errors of determination of the location of the threshold of tolerance in order to provide an indication of integrity
the real-time transmission display integrity (11) of the system.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the measuring error of position relative to the reference position for calculating the distribution model errors in the calculation of the positioning system.

3. The method according to claim 1, great for the present, however, to measure the errors of the pseudo-distances relative to the real distance to calculate the distribution model errors in the calculation of the positioning system.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that measure in real time the data the navigation system calculates in such a way that the samples are sufficiently dekorrelirovannyih in order to measure the remains of very low probability, less than or equal to approximately 10-7.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that model real-time stock (11) between the calculated residual error (21) and residual permissible error (22) with a very low probability, less than or equal to approximately 10-7, appeared.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that model real-time residual error (21) calculation of the positioning system with a very low probability, less than or equal to approximately 10-7, appeared.

7. Ground station calculating satellite navigation system, characterized in that it implements a method according to claim 1.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device includes a GPS/GLONASS receiver, an antenna, a user interface (keyboard, display, sound), a communication interface, nonvolatile memory, a microcontroller, consisting of a unit for calculating the coordinate vector from code measurements, a unit for calculating the increment of the coordinate vector from phase measurements, a filter unit based on a least-square method, a unit for calculating a specified coordinate vector from the filtration results, a unit for working with interfaces, where the microcontroller includes a unit for analysing stability of the phase solution, a unit for evaluating duration of measurements and geometrical factor of the constellation of satellites, as well as a correcting unit consisting of a counter for counting stable solutions and a decision unit for deciding on continuing measurements, interfaces for time marking external events and outputting the second mark.

EFFECT: highly accurate determination of coordinates of a receiver based on differential processing of phase measurements with complete elimination of phase ambiguity.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: navigation is performed using low earth orbit (LEO) satellite signals, as well as signals from two sources of ranging signals for determining associated calibration information, where a position is calculated using a navigation signal, a first and a second ranging signal and calibration information. Also possible is providing a plurality of transmission channels on a plurality of transmission time intervals using pseudorandom noise (PRN) and merging communication channels and navigation channels into a LEO signal. The method also involves broadcasting a LEO signal from a LEO satellite. Also disclosed is a LEO satellite data uplink. The invention also discloses various approaches to localised jamming of navigation signals.

EFFECT: high efficiency and ensuring navigation with high level of integration and security.

14 cl, 34 dwg

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