Method of integrated assessment of environmental condition of soil

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: samples of uncontaminated background soil and contaminated with heavy metals or crude oil and oil products are taken, and for each pair of samples of soil the number of ammonifying bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, the catalase activity, the invertase activity, the germination of radish is determined. IRS of the soil is calculated as follows: IRS =Σ( Pconti/Pfoni)×100%/n, where Pconti is the value of i-th index (number of ammonifying bacteria, million/g, the number of microscopic fungi, million/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %, catalase activity, ml O2/min, the invertase activity, ml, glucose/24 h, the germination of radish, %, for contaminated soil; Pfoni is the value of i-th/min, the indicator for uncontaminated soil; n is the number of indicators (n=6). The environmental condition of the soil is determined according to reduction of the IRS. If the IRS value in the contaminated soil is over 95%, the normal ecological condition of the soil is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 90-95% the satisfactory condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 75-90% the poor condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS below 75% the catastrophic condition is stated.

EFFECT: method enables to assess quickly and accurately the environmental condition of the soil.

17 tbl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of research or analysis of materials, in particular of the soil to determine the extent of pollution by heavy metals, oil and oil products and can be used in a wide range of scientific and environmental activities: when biomonitoring of soil condition, as well as natural and anthropogenically disturbed ecosystems in General and in the environmental regulation of soil contamination.

To determine the extent of contamination of soils and grounds traditionally used a variety of biological indicators - number and species composition of the major groups of soil organisms. The advantages of using biological indicators to determine the contamination of the soil in comparison with chemical analysis is the possibility of a comprehensive assessment of the security environment by assessing the impact of pollutants on living biological indicators.

So, as a bioindicator of soil contamination using the number of soil invertebrates (EN 2007146582 AND, H02G 7/00, published. 27.06.2009) [9], as well as nematodes, earthworms, mites, spiders, ants, beetles, molluscs, woodlice, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Orthoptera. (EN 2001134832, G01N 33/24, G01N 33/18; published. 20.06.2003) [7]. The selected group of indicators are used to determine the quality of the environment, establishing a region is any decrease in the rating of the quality of the environment or pollution by reducing the number of organisms bioindicators.

Since in these applications to determine the extent of contamination of soils used only one of the groups of soil organisms and do not include the microorganisms involved in the processes of self-purification of the soil, the accuracy decreases. In addition there is the difficulty of taking into account the number and species composition of soil invertebrates because of their complexity, duration accounting requirements relevant qualification performers for species identification of soil animals.

There is a method of biotesting of soils susceptible to anthropogenic contamination (EN 2006108153/12, AV 79/00, published. 10.10.2007) [8]. Assessment of the toxicity of the soil is carried out on the scales, change the signs of the length of the root and stem of plants, and comparison of actual curves and the normal distribution linear characteristics of a t-criterion of student who receive using Microsoft Excel (Windows) and mathematical analysis. However, this method does not take into account the condition of the soil microbial communities and soil enzyme that reduces the reliability of determining the degree of soil contamination.

The goal of improving the accuracy of the degree of soil contamination with heavy metals is partially solved in the patent (SU 1092412, G01N 33/24; published. 15.05.1984) [5], which allows to reliably and accurately diagnose the degree of pollution in the change in the stability of the microbial system of the soil, which the traveler is analyzed for its composition and structure of soil microbial communities, to account for the buffer properties of individual soil types, and the nature of the contaminant and form contact with the soil.

However, the definition States only soil microbial communities do not give an accurate picture of the contamination without regard to the enzymatic activity of the soil and toxicity to plants, which reduces the reliability of determining the degree of soil contamination, thus, shown above methods of assessment of the ecological state of soils provide for the assessment of only one indicator.

The closest in performance and the result achieved by the claimed invention is a method of assessment of the ecological state of the environment (EN 2156975, G01N 33/00, published. 27.09.2000) [6], according to which the calculated integral index of environmental pollution. Assessment of risk of damage to the health of the population of the city from the harmful chemicals in the soil, carried out by repetition of exceeding the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) with the calculation of ranked risk and total coefficient of soil contamination (Zc).

However, the known method does not allow for assessment of the biological component of the soil (plants, microorganisms, and other), and involves only the determination of the amount of contaminants in the soil with the aid of expensive devices to determine pollution the water, air and compared with normative values for each of the pollutants.

The proposed method can produce accurate and reliable estimates of the extent of soil contamination without complicated and expensive tests, without using sophisticated equipment and in a short time.

The operation of the prototype method are as follows:

1. Determine pollutant factors:

A number of anthropogenic emissions in the atmosphere.

The number of soil pesticides and pollutants;

According to the announced terms of the quantities of contaminants identify soil contamination levels (first, second and third).

2. Formula calculate the integral index of environmental pollution (IIAS):

AndAndEC=i=1nj=1mkjinm

where IIE-integral index of environmental pollution;

Kji - level contamination in the i-th year on the j-th factor;

m=3 is the number of considered pollution factors;

n is the number of years of study of pollution in the region.

When values of IIAS 1,00-1,20 definition is given in environmentally friendly conditions in the region when values of IIAS 1,26-1,53 - conditionally favourable environmental conditions of the region, when values of IIAS 1,60-3,00 - ecologically unfavorable conditions of the region.

The method prototype consists of determining the amount of contaminants in the soil, the calculation of the ratio of EQS is exceeded, and further assessment on the proposed ranges.

The disadvantages of this method include the following:

1. There is no account of the regional dimension of the territory, for example, background levels of pollutants;

2. Not take into account the peculiarities of different soil types;

3. It is impossible to determine the impact of emissions on the degree of soil contamination (not taken into account atmospheric changes, wind, precipitation etc).

For accurate monitoring environment it is necessary to have a comprehensive approach to assessing the ecological status of soils.

The aim of the present invention is to increase the reliability of the integrated assessment of the ecological state of soils contaminated with heavy metals, oil and oil products.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of complex assessment of the ecological condition of soil, consisting in the study of the results of the analysis of samples with subsequent calculation of the integral indicator of soil condition (IPS), according invented the Yu, take samples uncontaminated background soil (Phon) and soil contaminated with heavy metals or oil and oil products (PSAR) and for each pair of samples of soils determine n biological indicators: number ammonification bacteria in m/g, the number of microscopic fungi in m/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, equal to the ratio of the lumps of soil, covered with bacterial products, to the total number of lumps of soil, percentage germination of radish, equal to the ratio of the number of germinated seeds to the total number of seeds, in %, the activity of the enzyme catalase - H2O2:H2O2-oxidoreductase, is equal to the volume of oxygen released from 1 g of soil for 1 minute using catalytic decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme activity of the invertase - β-fructofuranosidase during the catalysis of sucrose, equal to the mass of glucose in 1 g of soil for 24 hours and IPS soil calculated by the formula:

IPS=Σ(PSAR/Pfan)×100%/n

where i is the value of the biological indicator, n=6,

and reduction of IRS determine the ecological status of soils, however, if the value of the IPS in polluted soil more than 95% of the state normal environmental condition of the soil, while reducing the IPS up to 90-95% state in a satisfactory condition, while reducing the IPS up to 75-90% say poor condition, and by reducing the IPS below 75% constatino the t catastrophic condition of the soil.

A new set of used biological indicators n with further elaboration of the criteria of the ecological state of soils due to the fact that biological indicators are the first to react to any changes in the condition of the soil, increases the reliability of the integrated assessment of the ecological state of soils. The choice of these biological indicators and criteria of the ecological state of soils should not evident from the prior art, so as to obtain a new result it took a long and laborious research by the authors of samples of soil.

The method of complex assessment of the ecological state of soils is confirmed by the tables.

Table 1 - assessment of the ecological status of the contaminated soils on the degree of violation of their ecological functions, ecological classification of functions according to Nikitin [4].

Table 2 - number ammonification bacteria to contaminated and background of brown forest soil

Table 3 - number of microscopic fungi for contaminated and background of brown forest soil.

Table 4 - the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter for contaminated and background of brown forest soil.

Table 5 - germination of radish for contaminated and background of brown forest soil.

Table 6 - catalase activity for the contaminated and background of brown forest soil.

Table is CA 7 - the activity of invertase for contaminated and background of brown forest soil.

Table 8 - average values of the six indicators for the contaminated and background of brown forest soil.

Table 9 - calculation of the integral indicator of the state (IPS) brown forest soil with contamination, % from the background.

Table 10 - number of ammonification bacteria in the ordinary Chernozem soil.

Table 11 - number of microscopic fungi in polluted and background Chernozem ordinary.

Table 12 - the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary.

Table 13 - germination of radish in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary.

Table 14 - catalase activity in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary.

Table 15 - the activity of invertase in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary.

Table 16 - average values of the six indicators for contaminated and background of ordinary Chernozem soil.

Table 17 - calculation of the integral indicator of the state (IPS) of ordinary Chernozem soil with contamination, % from the background.

Operations, by definition, a comprehensive assessment of the ecological state of soils are as follows. Take samples of soil contaminated by oil or oil products or heavy metals in triplicate, for each frequency select Sredni vesenny sample of five points by the envelope method. Take samples of the same soil uncontaminated (background) in triplicate, for each frequency selected weighted sample of five points by the envelope method. After selection in all samples fresh samples to determine the following four indicators:

the number ammonification bacteria determined by sowing pattern on solid selective medium čapek followed in 3-5 days by counting the number of germinated colonies [1, str-118];

- the number of microscopic fungi determined by the sowing pattern on solid selective medium meat-peptone agar followed, starting two days after inoculation by counting the number of germinated colonies, continuing counting daily for 3-5 days depending on the growth rate of colonies [1, str-175];

the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, method of sowing the lumps of soil in a dense medium Ashby, followed in 5-10 days by the assessment ratio (in %) lumps of soil that formed around him mucous colonies of bacteria to the total number of lumps of soil [1, p.66-67];

- germination of radish determine method of sowing from 10 to 50 radish seeds previously soaked in tap water during the day, on the surface of the soil, moistened with water to a thick paste in a Petri dish, and germinated within 5-7 days at 25°C and for every day the soil is moistened equal volume of tap water. Every day say the number of germinated seeds. [3, str];

the activity of the enzyme catalase H2O2:H2O2-oxidoreductase determined after drying to air-dry state in all samples by the method based on measuring the decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide during its interaction with the soil by the volume of released oxygen [2, p.28-32];

the activity of the enzyme invertase (3-fructofuranosidase determine the method, based on changes in the optical properties of sucrose solution before and after exposure to the enzyme [2, p.72-75].

Then calculate the average value of each indicator for the background soil Pfon and contaminated soil PSAR and define the integral indicator status (IPS) of the soil by the formula:

IPS=Σ(PSAR/Pfan)×100%/n

where

Phon - value of i-th indicator for unpolluted soil, n is the number of parameters, n=6,

and reduction of this indicator determine the ecological status of the soil. If the value of the IPS in polluted soil more than 95% of the state normal environmental conditions, at lower values of IPS to 90-95% state in a satisfactory condition in which there is a violation of microbiological ecological functions of soils and at lower values of IPS to 75-90% state disadvantaged status is s, in which the violation occurs microbiological, biochemical, physico-chemical, chemical and holistic ecological functions of soil, and by reducing the IPS below 75% of state catastrophic state of the soil, which results in the violation of microbiological, biochemical, physico-chemical, chemical and integrated physical and ecological functions of soil.

The operation of the method were tested with specific examples.

Example No. 1. Brown forest soil, the Republic of Adygea.

Samples were taken of brown forest soil contaminated with fuel oil in triplicate, for each replicate samples were collected in a weighted sample of five points by the envelope method. Then samples were taken the same brown forest soil uncontaminated (background) in triplicate, for each replicate samples were collected in a weighted sample of five points by the envelope method. After selection in all samples fresh samples was determined six above-mentioned biological indicators. For each indicator tables 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Calculate the arithmetic mean values of each indicator (table 8) in the absolute values of each indicator and determine the integral indicator status (IPS) soil (table 9) in the relative percentage of background values. The obtained value of IPS for brown forest soil, C is contaminated by oil equal to 57%.

As follows from table 1 reduction of IPS to 57% indicates a disastrous condition brown forest soil and the need for reclamation.

Example No. 2. The ordinary Chernozem soil. Rostov oblast, settlement Persianovskaya. Samples were taken of ordinary Chernozem soil contaminated with Nickel in an amount of 10 maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in triplicate, for each frequency selected weighted sample of five points by the envelope method. Then samples were taken of the same ordinary Chernozem soil uncontaminated (background) in triplicate, for each replicate samples were collected in a weighted sample of five points by the envelope method. In all samples fresh samples was determined with the same six of these biological indicators of ecological condition of the soil.

For each of the six biological indicators of soil tables 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15.

Calculate the arithmetic mean values of each indicator (table 16) in the absolute values of each indicator and determine the integral indicator status (IPS) soil (table 17) in the relative percentage of background values. The obtained value of IPS for ordinary Chernozem soil contaminated with Nickel equal to 71%.

As follows from table 1 reduction of IPS to 71% indicates catastrophic the environmental condition of brown forest soil and the need for reclamation.

The accuracy of the developed criteria of the degree of disruption of the ecological soil functions was proved by tests on other types of soils chestnut, seropeco, brown semi-desert and other black subtypes typical leached and South.

Sources of information

1. Methods of soil Microbiology and biochemistry / edited. ed became popular Zvyagintsev. M.: Moscow state University press, 1991. - 304 S.

2. Khaziev FH Methods of soil Enzymology. M.: Nauka, 2005. - 252 S.

3. Babeva M.A., Zenova NICHOLAS soil Biology. M.: Moscow state University press, 1989. 336 S.

4. Nikitin DU Soil as biokosma multifunctional system, diversity and interrelationship of the soil ecofoci. Structural and functional role of soil in the biosphere. M.: GEOS, 1999. P.74-81.

5. SU 1092412, G01N 33/24; published. 15.05.1984.

6. EN 2156975, date, pub. 27.09.2000, 9 IPC G01N 33/00 prototype.

7. EN 2001134832, G01N 33/24, G01N 33/18; published. 20.06.2003.

8. EN 2006108153/12, AV 79/00, published. 10.10.2007.

9. EN 2007146582 A, H02G 7/00, published. 27.06.2009.

Table 1
Assessing the environmental status of the contaminated soils on the degree of violation of their ecological functions, ecological classification of functions according to Nikitin, [4]
The ecological condition of soilsIs IPS contaminated soil than the s background Disturbed ecological functionsDisturbed soil properties
Normalmore than 95%--
Satisfactory90-95%Microbiologythe size, composition and structure of microbiocenosis
Microbiologythe size, composition and structure of microbiocenosis
Dysfunctional75-90%Chemical, physico-chemical, biochemical, holisticthe content and reserves of humus and mineral nutrients, moisture, alkaline-acidic and redox conditions, enzyme activity
Microbiologythe size, composition and structure of microbiocenosis
Disastrousless than 75%Chemical, physico-chemical the definition, biochemical, holisticthe content and reserves of humus and mineral nutrients, moisture, alkaline-acidic and redox conditions, enzyme activity
Physicalthe structure, density, moisture content, permeability, temperature, conductivity

Table 2
The number ammonification bacteria to contaminated and background of brown forest soil
Sampling pointThe number ammonification bacteria, m/g
Brown forest soil uncontaminatedBrown forest soil contaminated with fuel oil (5% by volume)
123123
11,021,000,980,43 0,420,41
20,990,920,970,400,400,41
30,970,981,010,420,410,40
40,971,010,980,390,400,38
50,991,020,970,390,400,41

Table 3
The number of microscopic fungi for contaminated and background of brown forest soil
Sampling pointThe number of microscopic fungi, m/g
Brown forest on the VA uncontaminated Brown forest soil contaminated with fuel oil (5% by volume)
123123
130,730,530,912,212,312,5
231,130,931,213,112,813,0
329,530,029,711,911,8to 12.0
430,830,730,611,5to 12.011,9
530,029,931,0a 12.712,1 12,2

Table 4
The abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter for contaminated and background of brown forest soil
Sampling pointThe abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %
Brown forest soil uncontaminatedBrown forest soil contaminated with fuel oil (5% by volume)
123123
125,025,025,021,722,022,3
224,925,025,121,8of 21.922,2
324,924,825,222,1of 21.9 21,8
425,0to 25.325,022,022,022,1
524,824,9to 25.3of 21.9of 21.922,2

Table 5
Germination of radish for contaminated and background of brown forest soil
Sampling pointGermination of radish, %
Brown forest soil uncontaminatedBrown forest soil contaminated with fuel oil (5% by volume)
123123
1787979606159
2808180585957
3798079596061
4777979606061
5808182625960

Table 6
Catalase activity for the contaminated and background of brown forest soil
Sampling pointThe activity of catalase, ml O2/min
Brown forest soil uncontaminatedBrown forest soil, contaminated the fair fuel oil (5% by volume)
123123
13,33,33,31,51,61,6
23,43,43,51,71,61,6
33,63,53,51,61,61,6
43,33,43,31,51,61,7
53,53,63,51,71,51,6

Table is CA 7
The activity of invertase for contaminated and background of brown forest soil
Sampling pointThe invertase activity (mg glucose/24 h
Brown forest soil uncontaminatedBrown forest soil contaminated with fuel oil (5% by volume)
123123
128,228,128,122,122,222,1
226,127,227,922,922,822,7
327,527,827,723,022,922,9
428,0 28,128,123,022,922,9
527,628,027,923,022,822,7

Table 8
Arithmetic mean values of the six indicators for the contaminated and background of brown forest soil
SoilThe number ammonifying
common bacteria, m/g
The number microscopies
these mushrooms, m/g
Abilene bacteria of the genus Azotabacter, %The activity of catalase, ml O2/minActivity interfaz mg glucose/24 hViable
here Radish, %
Brown forest soil uncontaminated (background)0,9730,725,03,54,480
Brown forest soil, pollution is i.i.d. fuel oil (5% by volume) 0,4012,222,01,62,260

Table 9
The integrated indicator of status (IPS) brown forest soil with contamination, % from the background
SoilNumber
ness ammonifying
common bacteria
The number of microscopic fungiAbilene bacteria of the genus AzotabacterCatalase activityThe activity of dehydrogenaseGermination of radishIPS
Brown forest soil uncontaminated (background)100100100100100100100
Brown forest soil contaminated with fuel oil (5% by volume)41408846 507557

Table 10
The number ammonification bacteria in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary
Sampling pointThe number ammonification bacteria, m/g
The ordinary Chernozem soil uncontaminatedThe ordinary Chernozem soil contaminated Ni (10 MPC)
123123
12,92,92,81,00,991,01
22,82,92,81,01,00,99
32,72,8 2,80,990,981,01
42,92,72,71,010,990,99
52,92,82,81,020,970,99

Table 11
The number of microscopic fungi in polluted and background Chernozem ordinary
Sampling pointThe number of microscopic fungi, m/g
The ordinary Chernozem soil uncontaminatedThe ordinary Chernozem soil, contaminated Ni (10 MPC)
123123
129,7 29,829,712,612,512,5
229,829,629,612,4a 12.712,5
329,529,829,612,3a 12.712,5
429,729,529,912,612,412,4
529,829,729,612,4a 12.7a 12.7

Table 12
The abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary
Sampling pointThe abundance of bacteria of the genus Azoobacter, %
The ordinary Chernozem soil uncontaminatedThe ordinary Chernozem soil, contaminated Ni (10 MPC)
123123
1252524232324
2242526222422
3262623242223
4252425232223
525252423 2422

Table 13
Germination of radish in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary
Sampling pointGermination of radish, %
The ordinary Chernozem soil uncontaminatedThe ordinary Chernozem soil contaminated Ni (10 MPC)
123123
1100100100898889
29910099888990
31001009990 8988
410010098898889
59899100898890

Table 14
The catalase activity in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary
Sampling pointThe activity of catalase, ml O2/min
The ordinary Chernozem soil uncontaminatedThe ordinary Chernozem soil contaminated Ni (10 MPC)
123123
1of 9.309,279,299,02 9,009,01
29.28 areto 9.329.28 are8,989,019,00
39,27of 9.30of 9.309,009,028,99
49,31of 9.309,298,999,009,02
59,299,31of 9.309,019,028,98

Table 15
The activity of invertase in contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary
Sampling pointThe invertase activity (mg glucose/24 h
Chernozem ordinary nesaglasne the NYY The ordinary Chernozem soil contaminated Ni (10 MPC)
123123
145,1045,0945,1133,4033,3933,40
245,0945,1145,1033,3933,4133,38
345,0845,0945,1133,4133,4033,39
445,1145,0845,0933,4233,3833,37
545,1045,0945,1033,4033,40 33,39

Table 16
Arithmetic mean values of the six indicators for contaminated and background Chernozem ordinary
SoilNumber
of the shumilkin)
Viceroy
common bacteria, m/g
The number of microscopic fungi, m/gAbilene bacteria of the genus Azotabacter, %The activity of catalase, ml O2/minActivity interfaz mg glucose/24 hGermination of Radish, %
The ordinary Chernozem soil uncontaminated (background)2,929,7259,345,1100
The ordinary Chernozem soil contaminated Ni (10 MPC)1,012,6239,0the 33.489

Table 17
The integrated indicator of status (IPS) of ordinary Chernozem soil with contamination, % from the background
SoilThe number ammonification bacteriaThe number of microscope
ical
mushrooms
Abilene bacteria of the genus AzotabacterAsset
the activity of catalase
Activity interfazGermination of radishIPS
The ordinary Chernozem soil uncontaminated (background)100100100100100100100
The ordinary Chernozem soil contaminated Ni (DC)34429297748971

The method of complex assessment of the ecological state of soils, based on the research results of the analysis of samples with subsequent calculation of the integral index of biological condition of soil (IPS), characterized in that the selected PR what would uncontaminated background soil contaminated with heavy metals or oil and petroleum products and for each pair of samples of soils determine the number ammonification bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, catalase activity, invertase activity, the germination of radish and IPS soil calculated by the formula:
IPS=Σ(PSAR/Pron)·100%/n
where PSAR - value of i-th indicator (number ammonification bacteria, m/g, the number of microscopic fungi, m/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %catalase activity, ml O2/min, the activity of invertase, ml glucose/24 h, the germination of radish, %for contaminated soil); Phon - value of i-th/min indicator for uncontaminated soil; n is the number of parameters (n=6), and reduction of IRS determine the ecological status of soils, however, if the value of the IPS in polluted soil more than 95%, state normal environmental condition of the soil, while reducing the IPS up to 90-95% state in a satisfactory condition, while reducing the IPS up to 75-90% say poor condition, and by reducing the IPS below 75% state catastrophic state.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves probing an underlying surface having test areas with a multichannel spectrometer mounted on a space vehicle to obtain images on each channel; calculating, through zonal ratios of signal amplitude values in channels, partial degradation indices, specifically percentage content of humus (H), salinity index (NSI) and moisture loss index (W); determining the integral degradation index D based on a multi-parameter regressive relationship of the type: D=(H0H)1,9(NSINSI0)0,5(W0W)0,3; recalculating image brightness pixel values in the scale of the calculated degradation index for each pixel; selecting outlines of resultant images thereof with the established gradations of the degree of degradation. (H0, NSI0, W0) are values of partial degradation indices for reference areas.

EFFECT: faster and more reliable determination of degree of degradation of soil cover.

5 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a device into a vertical position, and the device is a metal hollow cylinder enclosed into the body, along the inner and outer wall of which there is a cutting element welded in the form of a spiral, lowering of the cylinder to the specified depth during its rotation with cutting of a soil sample of cylindrical shape.

EFFECT: simplification and increased reliability in production of samples.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes device of cutting, measurement of parameters of soil layer and calculation. In the layer of peat ash the mass of diatomic algae shells is measured per one unit of plot area. The value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness is calculated by the following formula: H=α·m, where H - is the value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness, cm; α - is the coefficient, cm·m2/g; n - is mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of plot area, g/m2. The coefficient α is evaluate according to the formula: α=H1/m1, where H1 - is the peat layer thickness of the analogue plot, cm; and m1 - is the mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of analogue plot area, g/m2.

EFFECT: method enables calculate quickly and accurately the pyrogenic change value of peat layer thickness.

1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves biotesting based on the number of organisms at optimum soil moisture. Soil toxicty is determined from the nitrogen-fixing activity legume bacteria which form tubercles on the root system of legume grasses in the 15-20 cm layer of the soil 2-3 weeks after spring aftergrowing and before the flowering period. Soil toxicity is determined from the inner colour of the nitrogen-fixing tubercles (pink or red); if more than 50% of the tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered satisfactory, if 20-50% of the tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered an environmental risk and if less than 20% of tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered an environmental disaster.

EFFECT: method enables rapid and accurate evaluation of the degree of environmental pollution.

1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: in the device containing a tubular furnace equipped with a heater and a temperature control - the temperature programmer unit, located vertically and provided with cylindrical container with a soil sample, which is coaxially located in it. the inlet of the above furnace is connected to a pipeline with an activator of inert gas flow rate, and the outlet is connected through a quick-detachable connection to a hydrocarbon sensor represented with a flame ionisation detector, at the inlet of which a quartz capillary is installed, and the soil container is made in the form of a thin-wall shell from stainless steel with a porous bottom facing the tubular furnace inlet.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and informativity of analysis.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes geodetic measurements of the land plot area, three-dimensional measurement of the land plot, based on the measurement of the coordinate component of the resource parameters in different parts of this plot. Resource soil parameters of land plot are determined for each time period of operation taking into account the discrete disposal of part of the resources that were available at the beginning of the measurement period. In determining the resource parameters of the soil its biological activity is additionally measured on the stream of direct solar radiation reaching the horizontal surface of the soil.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the accuracy of measurement the resource parameters of the particular land plot.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of air-dry aggregates. The separated aggregates are destroyed to the size smaller than 0.25 mm, moistened, dried, the self-collected structural units are separated from the structureless particles by circulating shaking (1.5 hours, 25 rpm), followed by sieving on a sieve of 0.25 mm and separation of water-resistant aggregates.

EFFECT: method enables to separate from the total soil mass the part which is the most active in terms of structure formation - the components capable to form spontaneously the aggregates after wetting-drying, enables to estimate the direction of aggregate formation processes in soil.

3 ex

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: for sampling in order to analyse soil a place is identified, as well as frequency, duration of soil sampling on sites according to a coordinate grid, indicating their numbers and coordinates. At the same time in each node of the coordinate grid or its part a site of soil sampling is laid with symmetrical shape with rows of soil sampling arranged symmetrically relative to borders of this site.

EFFECT: correlation of plant sampling for species diversity and soil sampling on an investigated site according to entire coordinate grid.

4 cl, 8 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes sampling of peat and vegetation growing on it. The samples of peat and vegetation are incinerated and the total content of Mn and Cr is determined in the ash. Biohpility of metals is calculated by the following formulae: AMn=Mnvegetation:Mnpeat and Acr=Crvegetation:Crpeat. The average degree of restoration of peat soil KRed is calculated by the formula: KRed=AMn:ACr.

EFFECT: method enables to determine quickly and accurately the average reductive-oxidative conditions in peat.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method used for determining of phosphorous fertilizer demands in the course of growing of cereals and leguminous crops.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing annual agrochemical investigation of soil arable layer; determining labile phosphorus content and availability of phosphorus to plant for forming of planned yields by providing chemical analyses for capability of soil to mobilization of labile phosphorus by using potassium phosphate solution, as well as by calculating doses of used phosphorous fertilizer from respective formula, with annual agrochemical investigation being provided in arable layer at 0-20 cm depth; additionally determining content of labile phosphorus delivered into soil in the course of mineralization of soil organic substance and plant remains of preceding crop.

EFFECT: reduced labor consumption, increased precision in diagnosis and regulation of phosphorous feeding of plants.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture, agronomic chemistry, agronomic ecology, soil biology, and chemical analysis of soil.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining content of mineral nitrogen and potentially mineralizable nitrogen provided by soil incubation at temperature of 34-36°C for 7-8 days; converting mineral and potentially mineralizable soil nitrogen to solution by boiling incubated soil suspension in water in the ratio of 1:5 during 20 min for sandy, sandy loam and medium loamy soil and during 30 min for heavily loamy soil; subjecting aqueous extraction of soil sample to analysis by means of Kieldal apparatus for determining nitrogen content actually available to plants under light alkaline hydrolysis conditions; determining nitrogen content potentially available to plants under drastic alkaline hydrolysis conditions; forecasting fertilizer nitrogen dose on the basis of nitrogen content actually available to plants for predetermined yield of specific crop with the use of coefficient of assimilation by plants of soil nitrogen and fertilizers, and amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product from formula: ,

where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.

5 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: biochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises using microscopic chlorella algae as a biological test, distributing the suspension of the cells of chlorella over the paper filter on the surface of the soil plate in the Petri caps, obtaining chlorophyll extract, determining optical density of the extract, and comparing it with the reference one. The 20-ml volume of the suspension of the chlorella cells are distributed inside the Petri caps. The caps are covered and set into a greenhouse. The caps are exposed to light during seven days, and then the filters are removed from the caps, dried at a temperature of 38-42°С, grinded, and extracted. The allelopathy activity of the soil is expressed in per cents of the optical density of the extract on the reference one, in which chlorella is grown on the filter, which is set onto four layers of moistened filtering paper or cotton.

EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture, soil science.

SUBSTANCE: alteration in soil properties during restoring the carcass of organo-mineral gel should be detected by measuring the difference of potentials between the soil and soil-contacting ion-exchange membrane. The method considerably simplifies and accelerates evaluating the carcass of organo-mineral soil gel.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: agrochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.

EFFECT: increased reliability and rapidity of analytical procedure.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.

EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.

5 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, evaluation of soil capacity of supplying farm crops with mineral nitrogen under sloped relief conditions.

SUBSTANCE: method involves composting soil while adding ammonium sulfate; determining content of nitrates accumulated in soil after decomposition of organic compounds. Composting procedure is carried out under natural field temperature mode conditions in bottomless vessels and at optimal moisture content mode conditions by providing periodic off-season irrigation procedures. Nitrification capacity is evaluated by ammonium nitrogen-to-nitrate nitrogen transition intensity.

EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.

2 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, soil type determining method allowing soil fertility to be evaluated.

SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling soil; preparing and analyzing soil sample by fluororoentgenographic method for determining calcium, iron, zirconium and titanium content thereof; determining type of soil by iron to zirconium ratio and calcium to titanium ratio from preliminarily plotted gauging diagram.

EFFECT: quick process of determining soil type, intensified interpretation and provision for obtaining of reliable results.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining maximal shear stress, with said process being carried out with the use of soil solution squeezed from soil and located in glass vessel; spilling dispersed material into glass pipe; determining maximal shear stress by difference of gas pressure at different ends of pipe, with soil solution being moved.

EFFECT: reduced labor intensity owing to substantial decrease in amount of soil required for carrying out test.

1 ex

FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, methods for determining of soil properties.

SUBSTANCE: method involves placing soil suspension into pycnometer; adding liquid and removing blocked air from soil by vacuum supplying. Liquid is solution tending to destruct soil aggregates. Air is removed from fluidized soil bed.

EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.

1 ex

Up!