System and method for minimisation of drilling mud loss

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: system contains one or more sources providing data representing aggregated fractures in formation, processor of computer connected to one or more sources of data, at that processor of computer contains carriers containing output code of the computer consisting of the first program code for selection of variety of materials to control drill mud losses out of list of materials in compliance with data representing total number of fractures in formation and the second program code related to the first program code and purposed for determination of optimised mixture for selected materials to control drill mud losses to apply them for fractures; at that optimised mixture is based on comparison of statistical distribution for selected sizes of materials to control drill mud losses and sizes of aggregated fractures.

EFFECT: reducing loss of materials and improving operational efficiency of wells.

20 cl, 6 dwg

 

The SCOPE of the INVENTION

The present invention relates to a system and method of minimizing absorption of drilling fluid within the subterranean reservoirs and, in particular, to a greater extent to a system and method for determining the mixture of materials to reduce absorption in relation to the cracks caused by drilling subterranean formations.

BACKGROUND of INVENTION

Cracks, inadvertently caused by drilling, as is well known, lead to an increase in operating costs and productivity wells. Cracks can lead to instability of the well, its collapse, entrapment of pipes in the drilled holes, costly excavation and complex maintenance of such pipes and unproductive downtime well. For example, estimates that during the regular annual period up to one third of downtime can be explained by the absorption of drilling fluid caused by unintended cracking. In addition, operating costs for maintenance of the wells can significantly increase due to replacement of drilling fluid and cement, disappearing into the cracks formed. A failure to make the proper handling and control of formations of cracks can cause damage to the reservoir by the departure of the drilling RA is down and even potential emissions due to insufficient hydrostatic pressure in the borehole bottom.

For mitigation of unintended formations of cracks are often used so-called "materials to reduce the absorption of drilling fluid", used for the purpose of blockage or prevent formation of cracks in underground reservoirs. For example, operators of drilling rigs, usually used to approximate the distributions of the size of the crack, as well as established practice and experience-based rules for determining the type, amount and/or combinations of materials intended for application to cracks. These materials include and may include cement, crushed walnut shells and other synthetic materials, which the operator identifies as suitable for wells based on their experience.

However, the main disadvantage is that the choice intended for use of the material is performed without taking into account the advantages of abstract properties of the rock, and operational data, which may be obtained by constructing models of the reservoir, for a more accurate optimal concentrations and volumes intended for application materials. In practice, workers rarely delves into detailed data obtained by simulation of the reservoir, and regardless of it does not possess and what strumentale to use such data to determine the optimized mixtures of intended for the use of materials to reduce the absorption of drilling fluid. In addition, the set of available operators types of materials and their sizes are usually limited to those materials that are used or produced their vendors or service providers who perform auxiliary operations for the drilling process.

In this case, there is a need for more effective treatment of formations of cracks to reduce operating costs and improve the efficiency of the drilling process. In particular, for combining the detailed data obtained after simulation of the reservoir, with a suitable set of choices of materials to reduce the absorption of drilling fluid, there is a need in the planning stage, with the aim of obtaining optimal filling mixture for sealing concrete cracks or set of cracks.

The INVENTION

The proposed system is to minimize losses of drilling fluid associated with the operation of the underground reservoir. This system includes a computer processor, one or more data sources, displaying a set of fractures in the reservoir, and the computer processor is associated with one or more data sources, the computer processor equipped using a computer media, programmed executable computer code designed to determine the op is Kalnay mixture of materials to reduce the absorption of drilling fluid. The Executive computer code includes first program code for selecting a variety of materials in order to prevent the formation of aggregate cracks in accordance with data representing a collection of cracks, and the second code associated with the first software code and intended for the mathematical definition of an optimized mixture of the selected materials.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention implemented on a computer the method of minimization of losses of the drilling fluid associated with the operation of an underground reservoir, comprising the steps of using the data representing the formation of cracks, to determine the physical attributes of cracking, wide selection of materials to prevent cracking and to determine mathematically optimized mixture of the selected materials used to cracking. Physical attributes, for example, may include the size, depth, orientation, and potential cracking. Considered as variants of the materials selected from the list of available materials on the basis of at least part of the physical attributes. Then determine the concentration of selected materials for the application as the mixed material to the entirety of cracks.

In e is e one aspect of the invention provides a computer software product, stored on the computer storage media, and program code read by the computer and implemented in this work to use the data representing the totality of the cracks, to determine the physical attributes of the totality of cracks, wide selection of materials to prevent the aggregate of cracks and to determine mathematically optimized mixture of the selected materials used to aggregate the cracks.

Systems, methods and computer program products of the present invention can be used mainly to select from a reliable list of materials those that are designed to obtain a mathematically optimized mixture to more effectively minimize losses of drilling mud used in relation to underground wells. To determine the optimal concentrations of the selected materials are used in the system characteristics of rocks, the model data column of the species and data on the operation of the well. The system can be used to plan work well so that the most suitable materials and their amounts are made available to operators at the location of the wells. Due to the optimal selection, mixing and application of such materials can significantly reduce the amount of waste and significant is about to increase the efficiency of the well.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of FIGURES

A brief description of the present invention conducted regarding the specific implementation of the present invention, which is illustrated in the attached figures. The figures show only the typical variants of embodiment of the invention and, therefore, should not rely on those that limit its scope.

The Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the system minimize losses of drilling fluid according to the first aspect of the present invention;

The Figure 2 shows a block diagram of a method of minimizing losses of drilling mud according to the second aspect of the present invention;

The Figure 3 shows a block diagram of another variant embodiment of the system according to the present invention;

In Figures 4a-h shows the on-screen user interfaces/ representing computer-implemented sequence of operations designed to display a set of cracks according to the present invention;

In Figures 5a-d shows the on-screen user interfaces, representing computer-implemented sequence of operations for list selection options for materials used to minimize losses of the drilling fluid; and

In Figures 6a-c shows the on-screen user interfaces representing a computer-implemented workflow DL the mathematical optimization of a mixture of selected materials, designed to minimize losses of drilling mud.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

The present invention can be described and implemented in the General context of the instructions executed by the computer. Such executable computer instructions can include programs, routines, objects, components, data structures and computer software that you can use to perform specific tasks and processing abstract data types. The implementation of the software for the present invention can be coded in different languages for use in a variety of computing platforms and environments. It should be appreciated that the scope and underlying principles of the present invention is not limited to any particular technology computer software.

In addition, experts in the subject area will appreciate that the present invention can practically be used in any configuration or combination of configurations of the computing processing system, including, but not limited to, single or multiprocessor systems, handheld devices, electronic devices, programmable consumer, minicomputers, universal computers, and the like. The invention also can be virtually prima is better in distributed computing environments, where tasks are performed by servers or other processing devices connected via one or more communication networks. In a distributed computing environment, program modules may be located on the media information storage both local and remote computers, including a mass storage device.

In addition, manufacturing the product used to work with a computer processor, such as a CD-ROM, pre-recorded disk or other equivalent devices could contain media for storing computer programs and recorded thereon software for controlling a computer processor to facilitate the implementation and practical use of the present invention. Such devices and industrial products are also consistent with the essence and scope of the present invention.

Now will be described variants of the embodiment of the present invention with reference to the figures. The invention can be implemented in many ways including, for example, the consideration of it as a system (including computational processing system), method (including the method of implementation of computer, device, media, data which is read by a computer, computer program product, graphicscardinterface user, the web portal or data structures, material recorded in the readable memory of the computer. Below are described several variants of embodiments of the present invention. In the attached figures illustrate only typical variants of the embodiment of the present invention, which, therefore, should not be considered as those that limit the amount of his claim.

Figure 1 is a block diagram of a system 10 that is designed to minimize the loss of drilling mud in accordance with the present invention. The system 10 includes one or more sources 12-18 to provide reporting data on aggregate cracks in the reservoir. Data sources may include one or more sensors or devices 12-16 that are associated with the computer processor 20 and are designed to collect typical data set of cracks in the borehole, as well as a software tool for modeling strata of rocks or database 18 for generating or providing the model data column of rocks. Data sources for example may also include operators of wells or modelers strata of rocks involved in the provision of data about the crack using one or more graphical user interfaces that are associated with the computer processor 20. The computer processor 0 contains the executable code of the computer 22-26 for reporting data on the crack to determine an optimized mixture of materials, applied to the entirety of cracks, and a graphical user interface or an equivalent device 30 that is designed to display detailed information about an optimized mixture of materials to the attention of the operator of the drilling rig or the scheduler. Detailed information about the mixture may include the values of the concentrations of various materials intended for use in the optimized mixture, as well as instructions for making the mixture. At the request of the user, the system 10 can be used to generate instructions to control one or more devices (not shown)for measuring and/or mixing of the selected materials in order to obtain an optimized mixture.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention Executive code of the computer 20 is designed and configured to implement the method 40 shown in Figure 2. The method 40 includes the steps of collecting such data about the bore, representing the totality of the cracks, as data offset breed, pressure, flow rates of drilling fluid/water fluid density, the depth of the well, the wellbore inclination and other registered and operating data for the well, etc. that can be appreciated by specialists in the subject area, step 42, and the use of the data is about the bore for the analysis of cracks to produce the physical characteristics of a population of cracks, stage 44. Method 20 further includes using the results of analysis of cracks to identify the products or materials that may be suitable for use in characterized crack, step 46, a determination of an optimized mixture of the identified material, stage 48, and an optimized mixture to the crack stage 49. Although the Executive code 20 is represented as consisting of module 22 forming characteristics cracks, module 24 identification of the material and module 26 optimization of the mixture, it can be segmented or distribute as appropriate to the execution of the method 40.

The software can be distributed, for example, as shown in Figure 3, where the system 50 PROVIDUS, consisting of software modules 64, 70, 72, designed to estimate the values of pressure in the wellbore, which stimulates the formation of cracks, estimate the distribution of the sizes of the cracks for the given data of excess pressure, and to generate a list for the purchase of materials which are suitable for the treatment of cracks and calculate the optimal mixture of the materials chosen from the list of selected purchased materials.

Steps 42 and 44 can be performed by the module 22 characteristics of the crack as shown in Figure 1, by processing the input information from the date the of IKI 12-16 or model strata of rocks 18. Alternatively, as shown in Figure 3, the data 52 registers, operational data 54, 56 data about the offset of the breed and data 58 of the pressure provided for the software tool 60 analysis of rock mechanics RMA or equivalent tool or modeling tools strata of rocks with the purpose of generating such data model 62 strata of rocks, as the characteristics of rocks, pressure gradients, the ratio of Sh/SHand azimuth SH. Operational data 54 may include General information about the well and the parameters, including, but not limited to a hole depth, hole size and liquid properties. Data 62 model strata of rocks are then combined in the form of data 66 equivalent density of the drilling mud circulation/maximum equivalent static density (ECD/ESD) and additional operational data 68, for example, pressures in the wellbore, which are specifically defined for the operation of the drilling module 64 system PROVIDUS. After that, the module 70 system PROVIDUS uses information 62 modeling strata of rocks and data 66 and 68 in order to predict the probability of formation of cracks, and, if the crack is formed, to predict its size. After that, the information about the predicted size of the crack is used by module 72 to determine t is x materials to combat absorption (LSM), which will halt the flow of fluid into the fracture, and the determination of the optimal mix of different materials to fight the takeover.

In one variant embodiment of the present invention, the system PROVIDUS performs analysis of cracks using algorithms and methods known to experts in the subject area and assessed their dignity. Data analysis of cracks can include mechanical properties of the considered rock/formation voltage strata of rocks (Sv, SHand Sh), the depth and orientation of the borehole, the temperature of the drilling fluid, and the minimum and maximum pressure that feels formation (ESD and ECD, respectively). Using methods known to experts in the subject area and assessed their value system PROVIDUS calculates the values of the pressure in the wellbore, which stimulates the formation of cracks in the rock, and the size distribution of cracks in the case of application of a given overpressure. The system then PROVIDUS uses data about the cracks together with stored data about the materials that are already in the crack, for the mathematical determination of the optimized composition of the mixture, applied to the crack.

Alternatively, the data model 62 strata of rocks and data 70 analysis of cracks can be manually entered into the module 72 by the operator who does read automatically from a database or other device for storing data, which communicates with the module 72.

Steps 42 and 44 can also be performed, as shown in Figures 4a-h, where a typical user interfaces representing the sequence of actions to obtain the characteristics of the population of cracks in accordance with the present invention. Using the options in the settings menu 100, as shown in Figure 4A, and the user enters or retrieves from the database specific parameters 110, entitled "Formation voltage gradients, including the ratio between the maximum and minimum horizontal pressure in the strata of rock, Sh/SHand corresponding directions, the azimuth of Shand azimuth SH. The user then selects the "Mechanical parameters of rocks" 120 as shown in Figure 4b to enter or download the General properties of rocks and strata of rocks. Some of these options are selected by default, but others can be obtained from studies of rock mechanics, held by a third party.

Alternatively, the software can offer many standard types of rocks and their locations, if there is no other information. Rock mechanics can be characterized by one or more of the following parameters: ultimate tensile strength, unlimited strength with atie, internal friction angle, tectonic stress, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion, surface temperature, geothermal gradient and temperature of the seabed.

Then, as shown in Figure 4, the operator selects "operating parameters" 130 to enter or download operating data of wells, of which the most important are the maximum equivalent static density (ESD) and the equivalent density of the drilling mud circulation (ECD). These parameters are used to determine the time of occurrence of cracks in the rock and their sizes. Other operating parameters may include the depth of the water layer and the inner diameter of the wellbore. The user also uses the interface from Figure 4d for delivery of the final General input data 140, which affect the calculation of the parameters of the crack. These input data may include height, length, and hardness cracks, geometric coefficients (PKN) and (KGO).

After this, the operator uses the interface 102 as shown in Figure 4E, to provide data on the location of wells and the depth of the water layer, if any. Settings 150 are used to estimate pressures attached to the subject rock. The user can override these calculations, if necessary, enter values directly from another source of the ICA. The interface 104, as shown in Figure 4f, is then used to input the type of analysis intended for cracks, for example, a point or interval analysis analysis criteria destruction 160 and such parameters 170 as the depth of the well, the local pore pressure, angle and direction of the borehole, and the local properties of the rock. Using these data, the program can calculate the conditions under which a set of cracks will not be generated.

In the Figure 4g presents the results of single-point analysis 106 cracks, which in this example show that the destruction of the rock projected 180. This means that cracks will appear in the rock surrounding the borehole, and drilling mud will flow into these wells. This thread or the so-called "loss" can complicate drilling, equipment damage, lead to staying well and increase the costs associated with the replacement of the lost fluid. Figure 4h shows additional details 108 analysis of cracks, including the predicted average and maximum sizes 190, which are based on the distribution of the size of the crack. Analysis of cracks, and the remaining steps of this method can be used for example in the "localization" or in real time to diagnose existing PR the problems during operation of the drilling rig or in the planning mode, prediction and forecasting, which are intended for modeling have already faced potential problems and materials that may be needed at this point in the drilling operations.

If re-refer to Figure 2, the stage 46 can be performed by the module 24 identification of material, as shown in Figure 1 (reference number 72 on Figure 3), for automatic selection of a set of "options" materials applied to the crack. Using these cracks, the module 24 identification of the material that may be implemented in the module 64 system PROVIDUS, explores the extensive list of materials of the supplier and on the basis that it generates the list from which the user selects for use the materials. Offered as options materials are selected from an extensive list based on predefined criteria, including the size distribution of cracks. Using this extensive list has the advantage compared with the traditional methods, since the range of available materials is generally limited to those items that are sold or used by suppliers serving and/or contracted in the drilling operations.

In Figures 5a-d shows the user interfaces representing the sequence of operations for selecting lists the variants of materials, designed to minimize losses of drilling mud. First, as shown in the interface 200 in Figure 5A, the user loads the size distribution of cracks from the previous part of the program. The user can change the size and manually enter the values of the distribution, if he knows them. Then to select the list of choices of materials or products 220/230 from the project list 204 of materials to reduce the absorption of Figure 5 is provided with the interface 202 of the user, taken from Figure 5b. A list of 204 materials is extensive and covers the entire range of 240 materials each primary provider of working fluids. First, the operator evaluates materials already included in the drilling fluid, which can meet requirements for size distribution of cracks from Figure 5A, after which he is able to enter data, a maximum of five existing materials. The program then assesses whether these materials are appropriate size in accordance with the following equation (I):

Crack D50≤Material D90 and Material D90≤2×the Crack D90 (Equation 1)

If the material meets these criteria, it is considered to be effectively usable. The program continues to assess the adequacy of the total concentration of acceptable materials for stopping fluid losses to the formation. When estimating the con is entrale program uses a predefined minimum threshold value, for example, 8 pounds per barrel (lb/bbl), material effective to combat the absorption of drilling fluid required to delay the loss of fluid. If the user selects a material, for example, by clicking the mouse on the featured button, and the criterion threshold concentration is not satisfied, then the operator using the pop-up window 250 of Figure 5d is warned that this material is to fight absorption is not suitable for this size.

If re-refer to Figure 2, step 48 can be performed using a sequence of operations, presented in Figure 6A-C. Figures 6A-C show user interfaces that represent sequences of operations to optimize the mixture of the selected materials designed to minimize loss of drilling mud. Using these interfaces 3006 310/330/350 and 320/340/360, the user selects additional materials that he wants to add to the mix, and introduces them to the maximum allowable concentration. It is usually limited by the properties of the liquid or tools used in the well. In a preferred embodiment, the user may add one (Figa, 320), two (Fig.6b, 340) or three supplementary material (Figs, 360), which can be included in the mixture. The aim is to determine the optimal mixture of materials, skin is utilized to crack, so the best way to install a jumper, filling, sealing, or otherwise stop the spread characterized cracks. Materials can be chosen based on the previously defined performance criteria, which in most cases narrow the list of applicable materials from hundreds to tens. This should help the user to use the materials that are actually effectively applicable, and not to use in a borehole those that will not help to reduce losses and/or will only complicate the problem.

In the case of separate application of additional material, as shown in Figure 6A, the amount recommended to add material, is determined by equation 2:

C1= Max. Permissible Concentration - Σ Concentration of the Material (Equation 2),

where C1is the concentration of material 1.

In the case of the use of two additional materials, as shown in Figure 6b, the mixture is determined by solving equations 3 and 4 to ensure compliance with the total concentration of additional material maximum permissible concentrations minus the sum of the existing concentrations and the fact that the weighted average of the size of the two additional materials D90 corresponds to the value of such size for cracks D90.

With1+C2= Maxim the other permissible concentration - Σ Existing Materials

D901C1+D902C2=D90crack×(C1+C2) (Equations 3 and 4)

This set of linear equations is solved using the formula ax=b, where A is the matrix on the left hand side of the equation, x is the vector of solutions, a b - vector of constants on the right side. This approach requires that the equation took the form x=A-lb, which requires the inverse transform matrix and then multiply. This process is the same for two or three materials.

If you enable third material, as shown in Figure 6b, the full concentration should be calculated, as before, all D90 match, and now D50 must meet according to equations 5-7:

With1+C2+C3= Maximum allowable concentration - Σ Existing Materials

D901C1+D902C2+D903C3=Vcrack×(C1+C2+C3)

D501C1+D502C2+D503C3=50crack×(C1+C2+C3)

(Equations 5, 6, 7)

The result of solving these equations 5-7 is the concentration of materials that the staff at the well site should be added to the system fluid supply to minimize losses.

As such, the system, method and computer program material of the present invention benefits the s, however, that in complex form include the stages of the modeling of the crack, the choice of material for the material to combat the absorption and the mixture of materials.

Other variants of the embodiment of the present invention and their individual components become obvious to experts in the subject area based on the previous detailed description. As is evident, the invention involves other and different embodiments of, and some of the details of this invention can be modified in various obvious respects without deviating from the essence and scope of the present invention. Accordingly, the figures and detailed description should be considered illustrative and not to be restrictive. Therefore, there is no intention to limit the invention, except with sections of the attached claims.

1. The system for selection of materials to reduce losses of drilling fluid associated with the operation of an underground reservoir that has a set of cracks that contribute to the loss of drilling fluid, containing:
one or more sources for providing data representing a set of cracks in the reservoir;
a computer processor associated with the one or more data sources, the computer processor contains used to is the computer media contains Executive computer code, consisting of:
first program code for selecting a variety of materials to combat the loss of drilling mud from the list of available materials to reduce losses of drilling mud in accordance with data representing a collection of cracks; and
the second software code associated with the first software code and intended for determining the optimized mixture of the selected materials to reduce losses of drilling fluid to be applied to the totality of the cracks, and with an optimized mixture based on the comparison of the statistical distributions of the selected dimensions of materials to reduce losses of drilling mud and sizes together cracks.

2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes third program code associated with the second software code that is designed to generate display data associated with the optimized mixture.

3. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes a device for displaying the detailed information about the optimized mixture.

4. The system according to claim 1, wherein the one or more data sources include the model of the strata of the rocks.

5. The system according to claim 1, wherein the one or more data sources include tools analization.

6. The system according to claim 1, wherein the one or more data sources include one or more sensors for determining data characterizing a set of cracks.

7. The system according to claim 1, wherein the one or more data sources include one or more graphical user interfaces, intended for entering data related to the crack.

8. The system according to claim 1, wherein the one or more data sources include one or more databases associated with the computer processor and containing data characterizing data of the crack.

9. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes fourth program code that is associated with the second software code to control the application of the optimized mixture.

10. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes fifth program code that is associated with the second software code to control the device mixing order to obtain an optimized mixture.

11. The system according to claim 1, in which the second program code evaluates the adequacy of the total concentration selected to combat the loss of drilling mud to stop the loss of fluid in the aggregate cracks.

12. The system according to claim 1, in which the second code is currently evaluating the use additionally the x materials to combat the loss of drilling mud in an optimized mixture on the basis of the difference between the maximum allowable concentration of all materials to combat the loss of drilling mud and the total concentration of all existing materials to reduce losses of drilling mud already applied to the entirety of cracks.

13. The system according to claim 1, in which the second code is currently evaluating the use of additional materials to reduce losses of drilling mud in an optimized mixture based on solving a set of linear equations related to (a) the concentrations of each of the additional material to combat the loss of drilling fluid, (b) the maximum allowable concentration of all materials to combat the loss of drilling mud, in) with a total concentration of all existing materials to combat the loss of drilling mud already applied to the entirety of cracks, g) statistical distributions of the sizes of additional materials to combat the loss of drilling fluid, d) statistical distributions of the sizes of the set of cracks.

14. Implemented on a computer a method for selecting materials to combat the loss of drilling fluid associated with the operation of an underground reservoir that has a set of cracks that contribute to the loss of drilling fluid, containing:
using data representing a set of cracks to determine the physical attributes of the totality of cracks, and physical attributes are the size of the population of cracks,
the choice sets of the materials to combat the loss of drilling mud from the list of available materials to reduce losses of drilling fluid, and
mathematical definition of an optimised blend of selected materials to combat the loss of drilling fluid to be applied to the fracture in the formation, and the step of determining includes comparing the statistical distributions of the selected dimensions of materials to reduce losses of drilling mud and sizes together cracks.

15. The method according to 14, characterized in that it further comprises the step of mixing an optimized mixture in accordance with the calculated concentrations of selected materials to combat the loss of drilling mud.

16. The method according to 14, characterized in that it further comprises the step of applying the optimized mixture to a collection of cracks.

17. The method according to 14, further including assessment of the adequacy of the total concentration selected to combat the loss of drilling mud to stop the loss of fluid in the aggregate cracks.

18. The method according to 14, further containing an assessment of the use of additional materials to combat the loss of drilling mud in an optimized mixture on the basis of the difference between the maximum allowable concentration of all materials to combat the loss of drilling mud and the total concentration of all existing materials to combat the loss of drilling fluid which has already been applied to a multitude of cracks.

19. The method according to the .14, optionally containing additional materials to reduce losses of drilling mud in an optimized mixture based on solving a set of linear equations related to (a) the concentrations of each of the additional material to combat the loss of drilling fluid, (b) the maximum allowable concentration of all materials to combat the loss of drilling mud, in) with a total concentration of all existing materials to combat the loss of drilling mud, is already applied to the entirety of cracks, g) statistical distributions of the sizes of additional materials to combat the loss of drilling fluid, d) statistical distributions of the sizes of the set of cracks.

20. Machine-readable media containing program code executable by a computer, which the computer performs a method for selecting materials to combat the loss of drilling fluid associated with the operation of an underground reservoir that has a set of cracks that contribute to the loss of drilling fluid, containing:
using data representing a set of cracks to determine the physical attributes of the totality of cracks, and physical attributes are the size of the population cracks;
a wide selection of materials to reduce losses mud races of the thief from the list of available materials to reduce losses of drilling fluid, and
mathematical definition of an optimised blend of selected materials to combat the loss of drilling fluid to be applied to the totality of cracks, and the step of determining includes comparing the statistical distributions of the selected dimensions of materials to reduce losses of drilling mud and sizes together cracks.



 

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20 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine. In method realisation current values of each of parameters of clinical data characterising current state of cardiovascular system are measured and fixed. Results of assessment of values of clinical data parameters are transformed. Results of assessment of current values of each parameter of clinical data are fixed depending on time of performed measurements. Results of transformation of assessment of current values of each parameter of clinical data are visualised on plane, coinciding with plane of displaying multicolour screen of videomonitor. Information about dynamics of cardiovascular system state is obtained. Also performed is digitisation and weighting of fixed instant values of each parameter of clinical data in physical values. Three-dimensional image of cardiovascular system state AN(t) is created in form of totality of geometrical places of points in N-dimensional space of cardiovascular system states, with coordinates of each point of N-dimensional space of cardiovascular system states being determined by totality of non-invasively and invasively measured in physical values digitised instant values of various clinical data, which characterise current state of cardiovascular system. Two-dimensional images of cardiovascular system states A2(t) are formed in form of projections of formed AN(t) on plane, coinciding with plane of displaying multicolour screen of videomonitor. Coordinates in 2-dimensional state of cardiovascular system states of each point of formed A2(t) are memorised. Virtual three-dimensional models of various nosologic forms of cardiovascular system diseases Bi are built in form of totality of M-geometrical places of points in N-dimensional space of cardiovascular system state, where i=1; 2; 3;…M is the number of displayed diseases of cardiovascular system. Coordinates of each point of each of B are determined by totality of values of various clinical data in physical values, describing characteristic clinical-morphological picture of corresponding disease and degree of CVS pathology manifestation, respectively. Coordinates in N-dimensional space of cardiovascular system state of all points of three-dimensional images Bi are memorised. Two-dimensional models of various nosologic forms of cardiovascular system diseases B2i are formed in form of projections, formed by B2i on plane, coinciding with plane of displaying multicolout screen of videomonitor. Coordinates in 2-dimensional space of cardiovascular system state of all points formed by B2i are memorised. Formed B2i are visualised on screen of multicolour videomonitor in such a way that colour of each point B2i in visible ranges of wavelengths Δλr, Δλo, Δλy, Δλg, Δλb…Δλ,m corresponds to certain type of disease, and degree of pathology is characterised by value, inversely proportional to wavelength of respective range. Visualisation on screen of multicolour videomonitor of successively formed in time values A2(t) is also performed, with each previous value A2(t) being connected by means of straight lines with their following values, and colour of A2(t) and connecting straight lines is formed by addition of red (Δλr), green (Δλg) and blue (Δλb) colours with similar amplitude proportion. Check of satisfaction of set of conditions A2(t) ⊂ B2i is carried out. Decision about cardiovascular system disease is taken in case of satisfaction of a condition from set A2(t) ⊂ B2i. Ambiguity of taking decision about cardiovascular system disease is excluded if mutual intersections B2i are present, when instant value A2(t) simultaneously belongs to two and more B2i, by formation on screen of multicolour videomonitor of each of new images of state A2k(t) and non-intersecting images of diseases в2ik by respective k transmissions of origin of coordinates of N-dimensional space of cardiovascular system state into selected by cardiologist points on plane of multicolour screen of videomonitor and carrying out procedure of projecting A(t) and Bi on plane coinciding with plane of displaying multicolour screen of videomonitor and after each of k transmissions of origin of coordinates of N-dimensional space of cardiovascular system state, where k=1; 2; 3;…j. Formed A2k(t) and в2ik are visualised on screen of multicolour videomonitor. procedure of A2k(t) and в2ik formation is stopped when condition, when A2k(t) belongs only to one в2ik is satisfied. Decision about absence of disease is taken if condition A2(t) ⊄ B2i is satisfied. Assessment of dynamics of change of cardiovascular system state is performed by results of analysis of preliminarily determined values of quantities Δτ=A2(t1)-A2(t2) and dΔτdτ for specified time interval, where t1; t2 are moments of time of beginning and end of specified time interval respectively.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify process of operative analysis of clinical data by set of measured clinical signs and avoid mistakes in generation of medical control decision for diagnosing.

5 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means for diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. Device contains module of obtaining images which receives visual data about patient's brain state, and image analyser, made with possibility of determining quantitative index, which shows degree of development of neurodegenerative disease of patient's brain on the basis of visual data with application of probability mask for determination of studied areas on the image, specified by visual data. Method of clinical assessment includes stages of obtaining visual data and their analysis for determination of quantitative index, which makes it possible to assess degree of development of neurodegenerative diseases of patient's brain with application of probability mask. Software carrier contains computer programme, settings of data processing device for its performance of at least one of method stages.

EFFECT: invention facilitates early diagnostics and control of neurodegenerative diseases, for instance, Alzheimer's disease.

25 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method to support decision-making based on instances includes a stage of calculation of remoteness from likeness between the input case of requesting and the set of instances for extraction of similar cases, using the set of standard criteria and their weights for assessment of likeness. Then, in accordance with the method, a user is provided with similar instances and a set of standard criteria and weights. And also an input is received from the user, including a variable weight for one of the set of standard criteria and/or one new criterion in addition to the set of standard criteria. Besides, the calculation of remoteness from likeness is varied with a new set of criteria and weights for extraction of instances similar from the point of view of the user. At the same time a new set of criteria and weights is generated on the basis of clustering on the basis of likeness for variation of calculation of the remoteness from likeness by means of start-up of a genetic learning logic.

EFFECT: creation of a basis system of input estimates of likeness for adaptation of actual value of likeness to similar users with another experience or other opinion.

11 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: under clinical conditions, when at any time there are several patients, there are central stations (10) of patient control, for instance, nursing units, for combination of the collected information relative to physiological parameters of patients. Data is displayed in several subwindows (22) of the display (18) of the control station (10). Due to certain limitations for dimensions of the display (18), it is often difficult to distinguish data displayed in subwindows (22), or even display all collected data. The user may expand any such subwindow (22) into a scale-variable subwindow (32), which provides for more functions than any other subwindow (22), without full coverage or adjustment of size of any other subwindow (22).

EFFECT: improved access to information.

12 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of operating a device for measuring an analyte, having a display, a user interface, a processor, memory and user interface buttons includes steps of: measuring the analyte in the body fluid of a user using the analyte measuring device; displaying a value representing the analyte; prompting the user to select an indicator for linking with the displayed value; and pressing one of the user interface buttons only once to select an indicator linked with the value of the analyte, and storing the selected indicator together with the displayed value in the memory of the device. The group of inventions also relates to a method of operating the measuring device, which additionally includes a step of ignoring activation of any of the user interface buttons except the selected button.

EFFECT: more intuitive and easier use of the device for measuring an analyte, eg a glucometer.

20 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: method of extracting a plurality of data layers from a set (5) of data of medical images, wherein the method includes the following steps: a) displaying an indicator (10, 20) associated with the plurality of data layers; b) selecting the indicator (10, 20) based on user input; and c) extracting the plurality of data layers associated with the indicator when said indicator is selected; wherein the link between the indicator and the plurality of layers is based on segmentation of the set of data of medical images, wherein the indicator is an object obtained during segmentation of the set of data of medical images, and the plurality of data layers include object data, wherein the object data are contained in the plurality of layers.

EFFECT: reducing the amount of data transmission.

12 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a computer implemented method and system for conducting a geologic basin analysis in order to determine the accumulation of hydrocarbons in a subsurface region of interest. According to the disclosure, a basin analysis project is defined within a subsurface region. At least one basin analysis cycle is applied to the basin analysis project and the results of the basin analysis are integrated to generate basin analysis project results for the basin. The project results are used to optimise and manage the performance of technical tasks required to determine the accumulation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface region of interest.

EFFECT: high accuracy and information value of survey data.

20 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communications.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises P units of maximum signal separation, P units of activation function calculation and P groups of membership function values generation units.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of recognition when recognising objects with separate low or partially distorted areas.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: packer with electronic instrument includes mandrel with sealing elements, dividing elements between them, movable and fixed elements. The packer is equipped with electronic instrument with a sensor to control leakproof state of sealing elements in process of well operation. According to the first version electronic instrument with a sensor or sensor of electronic instrument is located in leakproof space at permanent pressure between sealing elements. According to the second version electronic instrument with sensor or sensor of electronic instrument is located outside sealing elements or in sealing and dividing elements. The sensor of electronic instrument is connected hydraulically with leakproof space at permanent pressure between sealing elements. Method of packer with electronic instrument operation includes running-in of tubes with the above packer, measurement of parameters and their transfer to the surface. Electronic instrument with sensor or sensor of electronic instrument is installed with possibility of fluid communication with space between sealing elements in order to control leakproof state of sealing elements; at that packing of the packer is made and leakproof space is formed at permanent pressure between sealing elements as in hydraulic chamber. When packer with electronic instrument with sensor is set parameters are measured in the above space.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of well operation.

24 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: background gamma-ray logging is effected to inject tagged drilling solution and to reciprocate drilling equipment. After reciprocation of drilling equipment, 0.5 m3 of drilling solution are injected with radon concentration making at least 0.175 Gbc per 100 m of well interval to penetrate it additionally. Research interval is flushed in two cycles of circulation to make gamma-ray logging thereafter. Obtained result is compared with background measurement.

EFFECT: determination of low-permeability beds.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for optimising extraction from a well is proposed, in which an artificial lifting system in a well shaft is controlled, and multiple parameters of extraction on surface and in the shaft well are monitored. A well model with calculated data parameters is built. Then, measured data on working face and surface of the well is compared to the model data and reliability of the measured data is checked. After that, difference between measured data and modelled data is diagnosed, and operation of an artificial lifting mechanism is adjusted as per the above diagnostics results.

EFFECT: ensuring enlargement of analysis volume of a well and components of an extraction system for effective extraction optimisation as a whole.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes stress inducing in formation around well shaft in order to generate in it some special feature related to induced stress. Measurements presenting well shaft geometry are performed using assembly of drilling string bottom rotated in well shaft, which geometry presents induced stresses in formation. Creation of well shaft image based on its geometry measurements. Evaluation of azimuth variation of induced voltage in formation by well depth. Change of parameter of drilling mode for assembly of drilling string bottom using evaluation of azimuth variation of induced voltage in formation by well depth.

EFFECT: using data obtained in real-time mode, checking stress model for certain region, so that the path may be corrected constantly for achievement of optimum ratio with measured characteristics of stress for this region.

21 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: by-pass system of oil well pumping unit for dual pumping of a well having at least two formations consists of Y-shaped unit installed at pipe string and pumping unit and string of bypass pipes with landing nipple for setting of removable blind plug are connected to the bottom part of this unit. Fishneck is located at setting of removable blind plug in the nipple in Y-shaped unit over the string of bypass pipes while the latter is fixed to the pumping unit by means of clams. Landing nipple is manufacture so that geophysical plug can be set in it instead of removable blind plug. In the well beneath by-pass system with pumping unit there are at least two packers of mechanical, hydromechanical or hydraulic action. Each packer is installed over respective well formation and at formation level between them there is at least one chamber with union or flow adjuster or stationary mandrel or pilot-controlled valve with hydraulic, electrical or mechanical actuation and ability to adjust flow passage with two positions of open and closed. Over the top packer there is pipe string disconnector at which adapter in disengaged status is installed. At the lower end of pipe string there is a blind plug or nipple-hopper. Besides geophysical plug can be set into landing nipple in by-pass of pumping unit instead of removable blind plug and nipple-hopper is fixed at the string of bypass pipes from the bottom. Upwards the latter the string of bypass pipes and pumping unit are interconnected by supporting structure. Telescopic sleeve is installed under the landing nipple at string of bypass pipes. Removable blind plug has sliding skirt in the upper part for pressure balancing and a tip in the lower part for wire or rope fixing. Bypassing method involves trip in hole of the tool at logging cable; the tool is installed at the logging cable with geophysical plug. Two hammers with frictional insert or inner surface with jagged notches are installed at the logging cable. The bottom hammer is installed 10-20 m higher then the tool. The top hammer is installed at bigger or equal distance from location point of geophysical plug in Y-shaped unit before the lower boundary of the surveyed formation. Geophysical plug is made with slide-off bushing in order to balance pressure.

EFFECT: improving operational reliability of downhole equipment during surveys of wells in production string downstream pumping unit due to accident-free removal of removable blind plug and geophysical plug in surveying process.

5 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: tool contains sectional case with installed collar locators (CL), gamma-ray loggers (GRL), pressure sensors (P), temperature sensors (T), humidimeter (W), thermoconductive flowmeter (TCF) and resistivity metre (RM) from top downward; in pressurised portion of the case there are GRL, LM and P sensors at that sensitive membrane of P sensor is connected to environment by hydrochannel, while T sensors, W, TCF and RM are located in pressurised cavities of non-pressurised portion of the case. At that T and W sensors are shifted in relation to longitudinal axis of the device at equal distances and are installed in the case at place with two pairs of mutually perpendicular reach-through windows having different width and equipped with cross bulkheads, at that the device is equipped with flowmeter module consisting of centraliser, liner, body and metre run with RPM sensor and rotation direction sensor installed along axis of the body. In the upper part of the device there is also force sensing device, and between the device and flowmeter module there is an additional docking device with clamper and double-hinged mutually perpendicular electroconductive unit with offset of rotation axes in relation to longitudinal axis of the device; the device is equipped with additional three dimensional module or humidimeter (W) or thermal moisture tester (T-W) or viscometer (V).

EFFECT: improving operational performance of the device and expansion of its application area.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in emission of sounding pulses by means of a generator solenoid located inside tested pipes, the axis of which coincides with axis of the tested pipes, and measurement of EMF induced in receiving coils by means of an electromagnetic field decrease process. Magnetic flux is measured, which is caused by sounding pulses of the generator solenoid, by means of sensors located along the instrument perimetre at distance r from the probe axis, opposite the end face of the generator solenoid, in N sectors on radial direction.

EFFECT: enlarging application area and improving quality of pipe flaw detection.

10 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of an fibre-optic cable in a production well; determination of well shaft temperature; build-up of a temperature vs. well depth graph; indication on the graph of a temperature rise minimum by 10 degrees, which is the closest one to the well head; determination of depth of well liquid level as corresponding to depth of the indicated temperature rise.

EFFECT: determination of liquid level in a well with high temperature for extraction of high-viscosity oil.

1 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: for determining the characteristics of pore volume and thermal conductivity of matrix of samples of porous materials, the sample of porous material is alternately saturated with at least two fluids with different known thermal conductivity. As at least one saturating fluid a mixture of fluids from at least two fluids with different known thermal conductivity is used. After each saturation of the sample the thermal conductivity of the saturated sample of the porous material is measured, and the characteristics of pore volume and thermal conductivity of the matrix of the sample of porous material is determined taking into account the results of thermal conductivity measurements.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and stability of determining the characteristics of the pore volume and the thermal conductivity of the test samples.

14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: standard electric logging of a well is carried out in low-temperature rocks, the area of possible bedding of gas hydrates and hydrate formation is identified in them. In the identified area of low-temperature rocks, on the basis of data of standard electric logging, zones are registered, in which measured values of the apparent electric resistance of low-temperature rocks are equal to at least 15 Ohm.m. Coolant is pumped in the investigated rock interval, afterwards thermometry is realised using highly sensitive thermometers, providing for error of temperature measurements of not more than 0.01°C, and zones are sought for, rock temperature in which, relative to the lowest registered temperature in the identified zone is at least by 0.2-0.5°C lower than the temperature of rocks adjacent to the borders of the detected zones. At the same time the latter zones are considered as zones containing gas hydrates. The area of possible bedding and hydrate formation is the area of rock bedding characterised by availability of thermobaric conditions for gas hydrates existence in rocks.

EFFECT: its higher efficiency by detection of gas hydrate rocks bedded in low-temperature rocks below a foot of permafrost rocks.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in case of gas-lift operation of wells equipped by free piston-type installations. Invention envisages stopping well, connecting tube space and annular space in wellhead, recording bottom zone and wellhead pressures in tube and annular spaces, and computing well operation parameters using inflow curve plotted according to differences of bottom zone and wellhead pressures. Volume of produced fluid is found from potential output of formation and from condition of output of free piston. When comparing these volumes, parameters of well are computed in the base of minimum volume value.

EFFECT: optimized well operation.

2 dwg

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