Building module (versions) and method to erect building walls using building modules (versions)

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: building module comprises a base element, formed from silicate bricks, extruded gypsum-based bricks, foam concrete or aerated concrete blocks or ceramic extruded bricks, and having parallel bed surfaces, with at least two pairs of coaxial holes and fixing elements of straight and reverse cones placed in them. Axes of conical parts of fixing elements of straight cones and adjacent surfaces of collars, which determine the gap between layers of masonry, are made at the angle to the axes of seating surfaces of the same elements mounted in holes of the base element. Also the version of the module is described, as well as the versions of the method to erect building walls using the specified building modules.

EFFECT: increased labour efficiency in construction, lower prime cost of modules, higher quality of building module installation.

13 cl, 10 dwg

 

The group of inventions relates to the field of construction, namely, the construction elements for the construction of walls of buildings and structures and to methods of constructing walls of these elements.

Known building block for walls containing monolithic body in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with one vertical blind grooves (A.S. USSR №985216, IPC EV 2/14, publishing, 1982).

Known construction element has a light weight and superior heat resistance compared to conventional solid brick due to the presence in his body blind holes, forming a closed air voids in the wall.

Known construction element has a high complexity in manufacturing.

There is described a method of construction of exterior walls of the known building elements, including laying rows with ligation of the vertical joints, and construction elements of adjacent rows are equipped with a combination of voids and bandaging of seams is carried out in two rows.

The disadvantage of this method lies in the complexity of work in the construction of walls, since it requires a specific orientation of building elements when they are laying in the block in two rows one above the other, aligning the holes. The resulting blocks are placed on solution deposited on a solid bed related the th block, formed of two building elements, which leaves the connection between two blocks of "cold bridges" and leads to increased consumption, masonry mortar, due to the presence of vertical cavities. Currently used for masonry construction elements in the form of bricks, masonry, blocks, etc. usually are connected with cement-sand mortar, which is the main conductor of cold ("cold bridge") in the capital walls, because the freezing wall occurs at the seams, and therefore, thermal requirements, you must multiply the full rows of bricks in the wall to compensate for significant heat losses through the mortar joints.

Known element in the construction of building walls in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with the slots on the sides (RF patent No. 2108430, IPC IS 2/04, EV 2/14, publishing, 1998).

This building block has improved heat resistance due to the presence of bed faces blind grooves, as close as possible to each other, and this construction element is more adaptable to production.

The disadvantage of this construction element is its low strength, due to the presence in the monolithic body of the construction element of a significant amount of voids.

There is described a method of masonry walls,providing the binding mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements and the formation, thus, the bottom horizontal row of the wall, the subsequent formation with ligation of other upstream horizontal rows walls by binding mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements of the already laid in each, formed below a horizontal row, and from other construction elements forming a new horizontal row.

The disadvantage of this method lies in education as the wall of "cold bridges" and in the increased consumption of masonry mortar.

Known element in the construction of building walls in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with the slots on the sides, the surface of each face is made with raised ridges forming parallel ridges with grooves under mortar, each of the ridges of the construction element is docked along the edges of the faces of the other ridges located on the surfaces of its adjacent faces, with the formation of a single girding its ridge parallel to its longitudinal section of one of its vertical faces, and each of the surfaces of the faces contains at least two parallel ridges, equidistant from its edges (RF patent No. 2304674, IPC ES 1/00, EV 2/02, EV 2/04, publishing, 2007).

There is described a method of masonry walls, providing the binding mortar adjacent faces builds the selected elements and forming thus the bottom horizontal row of the wall, the subsequent formation with ligation of other upstream horizontal rows walls by binding mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements of the already laid in each, formed below a horizontal row, and from other construction elements forming a new horizontal row, while the mortar spread on the faces of each building element in the grooves encircling its ridges, parallel to its longitudinal section of the erected wall and masonry building elements produced so that the ridges on the sides of adjacent elements are aligned between themselves and filling the grooves of these ridges of mortar formed on the inside wall of cold surrounds each construction element enclosed belt located parallel to the wall, associated with similar zones adjacent building elements and forming together with the surfaces of the faces adjacent building elements limited to these zones, heat-retaining hollow channels covering each construction element and forming together in one common wall closed branched heat-retaining void camera

The disadvantages of the known technical solutions is reduced durability of the construction elements, as well as the strength of the SP is the accumulation of adjacent elements together.

Known building modules "Duplex" for walls, each of which includes a base member and bonded with the base element facing element made in the form of a casing of thin sheet metal, the base element partially inserted into the inside of the casing with the possibility of fixing it, and between the facing element and the base element is placed intermediate heat and/or damp-proofing layer of material (RF patent No. 71349, IPC EV 2/02, AS 1/40, publication 2008).

Know the use for walls construction modules "Duplex", which are linked together by means of locking elements mounted coaxially located in the holes made in the construction modules perpendicular to their bedding surfaces that allows you to position the stacked wall modules relative to each other (patent RF №75204, IPC ES 1/00, EV 2/02, publication 2008).

The locking elements previously introduced into the holes located on one side of the building modules with the formation of surface protrusions tapered shape. In the process of masonry walls after applying a binder on one surface of a building module from the top into the holes to put the tabs joined with him the second construction module. The centering of the two adjacent building of the compulsory modules is achieved due to the conical shape of the projections, between building modules is ensured by a uniform gap.

Known technical solution allows to solve the problem of automated and mechanized construction of walls of buildings and structures.

Object of the invention is the provision of high economic efficiency of construction of buildings of various shapes due to its cheaper and faster.

A single technical result achieved in the implementation of the claimed group of inventions is to provide a construction module, allowing to effectively use automated and mechanized way of the walls of the buildings.

The technical result of the proposed technical solution is also in multiple productivity directly in the construction, reduce the cost of modules for economy-class housing, and improve the quality of stacking building blocks.

The essence of the proposed group of inventions is as follows.

The stated construction module consists of a base element formed from a silicate brick, extruded brick, gypsum, concrete or concrete block or ceramic extrusion of brick, and is parallel to the bed surface, with at least two pairs of coaxial is twisty and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, in this case the axis of the conical parts of the locking elements direct the cones and the adjacent surface of the flange defining the gap between the layers of masonry, made at an angle to the axis of the landing gear of the same elements mounted in the holes of the base element.

Building module is provided with a front side forming a liner from a deformable insulating material with a metal shell, with liners and their metal shell is made with bevelled edges and ledges,

On a basic element of the construction module from the sides can be made bevels.

In another embodiment, the construction module consists of a base element formed from a silicate brick, extruded brick, gypsum, concrete or concrete block or ceramic extrusion of brick, and is parallel to the bed surface, with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, while on the front surface of the modules applied self-adhesive film with convex valves with a protective layer that is used for overlapping construction joints in the process of walling.

In another embodiment, the construction module consists of a base element formed from extrusi the frame brick on the basis of plaster or ceramic extrusion brick, and is parallel to the bed surface, with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, while on the upper bedding surface of the base element is mounted through a flange of the two locking elements inverted cone protective fine polymer mesh, welded in the center of the polymer film, interacting with vacuum suction cups in mechanized or automated

the way of the walls.

In all variants of the construction module fixing elements forward and backward cones made of cast metal alloys.

In all variants of the construction module, the outside is coated, for example, powder coated hot curing.

A method of erecting walls of buildings using building modules, each of which is formed by a base element having parallel bedding surface, with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, on the front surface of the base elements, painted hot curing of a given color, pasted adhesive tape with convex valves with a protective layer. The way the before layer-by-layer construction of walls with ligation of the modules and with the use of a binder. After laying each layer of building modules perform vibration impact on the next layer of the front building modules for uniform filling of the connecting seams between the modules and their compaction and hardening, with pre-valves self-adhesive film another layer modules thibaudia on the wall to prevent leakage of the binder in the process of vibration exposure and thereby forming a smooth exterior surface of the connecting seams, one valve of each building module is unbent down on the modules of the previous layer and attached thereto, and a second valve bends sideways to the adjacent module of its layer and also stick to it, and after drying the connecting joints glued film deleted.

In another embodiment of the method of construction of walls of buildings using building modules, each of which is formed by a base element having parallel bedding surface, with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, the method involves layer-by-layer construction of walls with ligation of the modules and with the use of a binder, and after laying each layer of building modules perform vibration impact at the next layer p is sustained fashion modules for uniform filling of the connecting seams between the modules and their compaction and hardening, for the formation of the smooth exterior surface of the connecting joints after laying each layer of building modules newly formed seams stick with sticky tape that prevents the leakage of the binder, and after drying the binder all glued tape are removed.

The proposed technical solution is illustrated by drawings, where:

1 shows the construction module "Duplex", the shell of which has a curved front surface, and the connecting element of the direct cone is at an angle to the bedding surface;

figure 2 - cross section A-a in figure 1;

figure 3 shows the modules without shells and liners and their location relative to the center of curvature of the erected surface;

figure 4 - cross section b-B figure 3 shows the connection of building modules together;

figure 5 shows a construction module "Duplex", designed for the housing of economy class, with outer (front) surface covered with paint hot curing;

figure 6 - cross section b-b In figure 5;

figure 7 depicts the construction module "Duplex" with the base element of the extrusion of ceramic bricks or extrusion

brick on the basis of plaster;

on Fig - type G 7;

figure 9 - overlapping window openings;

figure 10 - the overlap of the doorways.

Building module "Duplex", intended for the construction of curved walling presented on figure 1 and figure 2. Building module is equipped with two pairs of inserts, direct cone 1, and two pairs of inserts inverted cone 2, located in two cylindrical holes, perpendicular to the bedding surfaces of the base element 3, and the tapered portion of the inserts direct cone 1 together with the adjacent flange 4, determining the gap between the layers of masonry, made at an angle to the axis of the landing gear inserts direct cone 1.

As the base element can be used, the bricks, the extrusion of ceramic bricks and others. Material inserts direct and inverted cone may be casting aluminum alloys.

The obverse (front) modules are equipped with galvanized metal shell 5 with the liner 6 of easily deformable material, such as foamed polyurethane, and the shell 5 has a bevelled edges and protrusions for forming the exterior curved surfaces without visible seams. Additionally, the shell 5 has an exterior curved surface, made by radius as the height of the module and the length, and the membrane module 5 painted on the outside paint hot curing of any given color or finished in any other metal surface, n is the sample, gold.

Figure 3 shows an example of stacking modules "Duplex" with ligation and radius, and the subsequent layer modules connect two adjacent

module of the previous layer.

Figure 4 shows the connection of two modules from different layers of masonry, and the angle of turn of the modules relative to each other, provided that they pivot relative to each other is within the thickness of the connecting seam, i.e. the 10 mm is a quite significant amount of 4.5°, and, if necessary, by increasing the angle of the conical section of the connecting element of the direct cone can be obtained and large fragile slope.

Building modules "Duplex" from the basic elements on the basis of silicate bricks, concrete blocks, concrete blocks are used for construction of economy-class housing, and the construction of the walls may be conducted by any known method manual, mechanized or automated.

Figure 5 and 6 presents the modules "Duplex" on the basis of the basic elements of the extrusion of ceramic bricks and extruded brick, gypsum same purpose and method of construction of the walls.

A distinctive feature modules "Duplex", presented on figure 5, 6, is the fact that their front surface has a metal shell with insulating liner and painted the coat of paint hot curing 7.

The front surface of the front modules "Duplex", covered with a layer of paint hot curing 7, provided with a protective layer of self-adhesive film 8 having two unbendable valve: side unbendable valve 9 closed top protective paper layer, and the lower unbendable valve 10 also has a protective paper layer.

To enable the use of automated and mechanized wall construction all construction modules "Duplex" equipped with a conical connecting elements of high impact polystyrene - direct cone 11 and inverted cone 12 and the internal heater 13, for example, of foamed polystyrene or aplisol, which is in the process of installation of the modules is inside the wall.

Building modules of the extrusion of ceramic bricks and extruded brick, gypsum, presented on Fig.7 and Fig additionally equipped with a "protivokataralnoe" fine polymer grid 14, held by two shoulder inserts inverted cone 12 and having welded in the middle of the polymer film 15 is approximately 90 mm in diameter, interacting with vacuum suction cups, to avoid sucking air in mechanized or automated way of the walls.

After laying each layer of the facial mod is lei and ordinary modules into the wall before applying vibration impacts to prevent leakage spanning both valves 9 and 10 thibaudia on the wall, before the limb with these removed the protective paper layer, and the lower valve 10 unbent down on the modules of the previous layer, and a lateral valve 9 bends sideways to the adjacent module of its layer and adhered thereto, thus preventing leakage of the binder and thereby forming a smooth exterior surface of the connecting seams, after drying, the binder of the protective film 8 and the valves 9 and 10 are removed from the wall.

When used as a face (front) of the basic elements of ceramic bricks or brick-based plaster, obtained by extrusion and consequently has a large number of through holes, these through holes must be protected from the ingress of the binder, for example, using the fine polymer network 14 to prevent the so-called effect of "facade rockfall".

Practice has shown that by heating the walls of the building by the sun, especially in spring, is the chipping of the front halves of the face of the bricks.

Calculations confirmed that caught in the through holes and frozen there, a binder due to the difference of coefficients of thermal expansion can create tension between the frozen binder and a material of the base element to 0.2 mm, which can lead to chipping of FAS is A.

In figures 9, 10 show, respectively, of window and door openings. Currently in construction is made to overlap such openings to use reinforced concrete beams.

For this purpose, can be used modules "Duplex" connection with conical elements direct the cone 16 and the connecting conical elements inverted cone made of high impact polystyrene or cast aluminum alloys, and the obverse (front) modules overlap should be used the same, which made the rest of the facade.

To create the initial support surface uses a removable wooden formwork reusable 17, which is held quick-release device 18, made a lanyard, and a screw bearing 19 has, for example, the right direction of the threads, then screw bearing 20 should have left the direction of the thread.

Building modules can be mounted based on a short side surface of the module or on the long side surface of the module.

Openings, and, therefore, quick and reusable formwork 17 may have any geometric shape.

The use of the proposed technical solutions ensures the implementation of various architectural tasks, ensures fast and without the construction of additional the different support structures the construction of the domes of the cathedrals, arches, porticoes and arches of the buildings, fencing curvilinear structures stadiums with a retractable light domes and tubes of thermal power plants with high resistance, reliability and quality finishes, allows instead of manually gilding of domes, to build them from building elements already covered by galvanic method.

Proposed technical solutions allow us to provide reliable and quality overlay window and door openings of any shape.

The use of the proposed technical solutions will enable the production of low-cost building modules with a quality coating any colors for the houses of economy class, increase productivity with the erection of buildings with improved thermal characteristics of their walls and durability of the facade.

1. Building module consisting of a base element formed from a silicate brick, extruded brick, gypsum, concrete, or concrete block, or ceramic extrusion brick and having parallel bedding surface with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, characterized in that the axis of the conical parts of the locking elements direct the cones and the adjacent surface the displacement of the shoulder, define the gap between the layers of masonry, made at an angle to the axis of the landing gear of the same elements mounted in the holes of the base element.

2. Building module according to claim 1, characterized in that it is equipped with front side molding insert of deformable insulating material with a metal shell, with liners and their metal shell is made with bevels and edges.

3. Building module according to claim 1, characterized in that the base element with sides made bevels.

4. Building module according to claim 1, characterized in that the securing elements forward and backward cones made of cast metal alloys.

5. Building module according to claim 2, characterized in that the membrane module from the outside is coated, for example painted hot curing.

6. Building module consisting of a base element formed from a silicate brick, extruded brick, gypsum, concrete or concrete block or ceramic extrusion brick and having parallel bedding surface with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, characterized in that on the front surface of the modules applied self-adhesive film from the curved outwards valves with a protective layer, used for slab construction joints in the process of walling.

7. Building module according to claim 6, characterized in that the securing elements forward and backward cones made of cast metal alloys.

8. Building module according to claim 6, characterized in that the module outside is coated, for example, powder coated hot curing.

9. Building module consisting of a base element formed of extruded brick on the basis of plaster or ceramic extrusion brick and having parallel bedding surface with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, characterized in that on the upper bedding surface of the base element is mounted through a flange of the two locking elements inverted cone protective fine polymer mesh, welded in the center of the polymer film, interacting with vacuum suction cups in mechanized or automated way of the walls.

10. Building module according to claim 9, characterized in that the securing elements forward and backward cones made of cast metal alloys.

11. Building module according to claim 9, characterized in that the module outside is coated, for example pokr is tons of powder paint hot curing.

12. The way of the walls of buildings using building modules, each of which is formed by a base element having parallel bedding surface with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, on the front surface of the base elements, painted hot curing of a given color, pasted adhesive tape with convex valves with a protective layer, including layer-by-layer construction of walls with ligation of the modules and with the use of a binder, characterized in that after laying each layer of building modules perform vibration impact at the next layer of building modules for uniform filling of the connecting seams between the modules and their compaction and hardening, with pre-valves self-adhesive film another layer modules thibaudia on the wall to prevent leakage of the binder in the process of vibration exposure and thereby forming a smooth exterior surface of the connecting seams, one valve of each building module is unbent down on the modules of the previous layer and attached thereto, and a second valve bends sideways to the adjacent module of its layer and also stick to it, and after drying soedinitelny all seams glued film are removed.

13. The way of the walls of buildings using building modules, each of which is formed by a base element having parallel bedding surface with at least two pairs of aligned holes, and placed in them fixing elements forward and backward cones, including layer-by-layer construction of walls with ligation of the modules and with the use of a binder, characterized in that after laying each layer of building modules perform vibration affecting the next layer of building modules for uniform filling of the connecting seams between the modules and their compaction and hardening, while for the formation of the smooth exterior surface of the connecting joints after laying each layer building modules newly formed seams stick with sticky tape that prevents the leakage of the binder, and after drying the binder all glued tape removed.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of monolithic construction of industrial and civil objects erected from the proposed hollow blocks comprising a single universal reinforcement base. The hollow construction block comprises outer and inner walls connected by links, and reinforcement elements, at the same time the walls are made from construction material, and the hollow block is made as capable of formation of the construction object by means of placement of multiple hollow blocks, external peripheral surfaces of outer and inner walls of which are in contact with similar surfaces of adjacent blocks. Reinforcement elements are placed inside the outer and inner walls and form the first frame in every of them, and links are made of reinforcement elements that fix the first frames of the outer and inner walls and in combination with reinforcement elements of the first frames that form the spatial reinforcement frame of the block, having reinforcement fixators, made as capable of connection of spatial reinforcement frames of adjacent blocks to form a single reinforced structure of the construction object, having a single cavity for simultaneous filling with construction material.

EFFECT: possibility to create proposed blocks of different spatial shape, which provides for the possibility to create construction objects of different shape, having a monolithic homogeneous strong and stiff structure, with increased speed of object construction and improvement of its aseismic stability.

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EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.

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2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl

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EFFECT: improved efficiency of assemblers and reduced material intensity.

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The invention relates to the construction, in particular to structural building elements that allows a masonry wall, providing rigid fixation blocks and seismic stability

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The invention relates to the construction, in particular to concrete elements used for masonry foundations and walls of buildings, including a clutch

Building block // 2074931
The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to the concrete elements used for masonry foundations and walls of buildings, including a clutch
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Decorative lattice // 2465414

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: decorative lattice comprises two layers of identical rings or sheet metal with identical diameters of holes. The specified layers are laid onto each other with any arbitrary placement of centres of rings or holes and any arbitrary angular displacement.

EFFECT: increased bending strength.

6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: structural block comprises the first and second element, identical to the above first element, at the same time each of the above elements has, in general, a parallelogram shape with a central hole and a cut in one angle and inner walls formed at least in the above central hole, at the same time the above element rotates relative to the other element approximately at the angle of 180°, and each element has a truncated inner surface, partially formed by the above inner hole; each element is connected with the other element by means of stretching via the central hole of the other element and substantially closing this central hole, and each element has a face surface directed towards the appropriate face surface of the other element; above cuts are arranged along a diagonal axis stretching via the above elements and via the above windows; the above elements may turn along the above diagonal axis between the closed position, in which face surfaces contact with each other, and the open position, in which the above face surfaces are separated, and truncated inner surfaces of elements rest against each other and act as stops to limit movement of the above elements. Also a wall, a window for a building and an architectural structure using the above block are described.

EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.

20 cl, 12 dwg

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