SUBSTANCE: hydrophilic plasticine is a product of comprehensive recycling of concentrated steep water from starch production, having sufficient plastic properties. The hydrophilic plasticine is obtained by heat treatment at 90°C, while simultaneously mixing the mixture of dry sieved moss peat with moisture content of not more than 20% and a thickened corn-steep extract, formed during starch production when corn is soaked in warm water at 45-52°C, which contains up to 0.35% sulphuric acid with respect to SO2 and less than 2% fatty acids and dry substances boiled down to concentration of not less than 48%. Components of the mixture are taken in ratio of 1:(4-6), respectively. If content of fatty acids in the thickened corn-steep extract is higher than 2%, the components are first heated to different temperatures before mixing.
EFFECT: plasticine is plastic and dissolves in water.
The invention relates to the field of deep disposal of waste, to obtain a new, previously unknown polymeric material.
The technical problem is solved by mixing and subsequent heat treatment at 90°C, while stirring, a mixture consisting of two components: peat, dried to a moisture content of not more than 20% and sifted through a sieve with a pore diameter of 1 mm and condensed corn extract, formed on starch and syrup production for soaking corn grain in warm, with temperatures 45-52°C water containing up to 0,35% sulfurous acid (in terms of SO2), and then boiled under vacuum to a dry substance concentration not lower than 48%. In appearance it is a thick liquid, opaque, or nearly smooth paste with a flocculent suspension, able to settle. During storage it may be split into two heterogeneous layers: the top is dark and the bottom light. Approximate physico-chemical composition of condensed corn extract and its layers, in %, are shown in table (data from the book of Professor N.N. Tregubova "Technology of starch and starch products", M, 1970, str).
|Indicators||Original ek is a path||The top layer||The bottom layer|
|The concentration of dry substances (SV)||52,33||51,80||54,29|
|The acidity in terms HCl||11,64||of $ 11.97||to 11.56|
|Sulphurous acid (H2SO3||0,200||0,197||0,209|
|Protein by Kjeldahl method||40,36||41,85||34,96|
|Total soluble sugar||is 3.08||3,18||2,84|
|Lactic acid bulk||8,71||9,70||5,96|
|Lactic acid in terms of SV||15,06||17,86||11,50|
The resulting preparation, dosing and mixing a mixture of peat and condensed corn extract in a weight ratio of 1:(4-6) is subjected to heat treatment at a temperature of 90°C, exercising, at the same time, continuous stirring to obtain a viscous thick mass of black color, which upon cooling solidifies and becomes plastic properties.
Thus, it turns out the clay, which feature is its solubility in water.
At the same time, it should be noted that the product and form of the resulting clay, after the removal of moisture, get a certain heat resistance and can withstand temperatures when heated in the oven up to 300°C without deformation changes.
Dried to a moisture content of not more than 20%, peat sieved through a sieve with a pore diameter of up to 1 mm Sieved sample of 20 grams is mixed with 100 grams of condensed corn extract, containing not less than 48% of dry substances and to 0.35% sulfur dioxide (SO2). The resulting mixture was subjected to heat treatment at a temperature of 90°C. while stirring to obtain a viscous thick mass of black color, which upon cooling solidifies and becomes plastic SV is Ista.
The above method of obtaining a hydrophilic clay can be successfully applied when the content of fatty acids in the condensed corn extract is less than or equal to 2%.
With the increased content of fatty acids, more than 2%, effective method thereof, with separate preliminary heat treatment of components; sifted peat pre-heated to a temperature of 160-250°C in a special device, which design, to preclude the ignition, and then it is mixed with condensed corn extract, heated to 95-100°C. When this occurs an instantaneous exothermic reaction accompanied by considerable heat and, simultaneously, the formation of a homogeneous viscous plastic mass of black. The resulting clay has a shiny glossy surface and has a higher elastic properties.
Compare the obtained clay with existing analogues.
Known clay-based petroleum butter, a mixture of paraffin and ceresin, rosin, zinc white, as well as pigments and/or dyes - SU authorship 1333678, CL C08L 91/06.
There is a clay containing protective wax, paraffin oil, liquid paraffin, pigments and/or dyes and fillers as talc and chalk - SU authorship 773055, CL C08L 91/06.
Many the m mark clay-based petroleum butter, paraffin, kaolin, industrial oil, rosin, and pigments and/or dyes - SU authorship 594146, CL C08L 91/06.
All of these types of clay, consisting primarily of refined petroleum products - non-renewable raw material source, are complex multicomponent derivatives are expensive at cost, practically does not dissolve in water and are intended solely for modeling and simulation, as proposed, as applications for the invention, the hydrophilic clay will find use not only as a material for modeling in tuning Atelier, in particular, but also, as a filler in the production of hydrophilic rubber, rubber compounds and biodegradable plastics.
Disclosure of the invention.
Below the table the actual signs characterizing the resulting substance.
|Name of indicator||The actual signs|
|1. Appearance||Plastic-viscous mass, which can take any form.|
|3. Smell||Characteristic odor.|
|4. Consistency||Homogeneous plastic-viscous mixture.|
|5. Plastic properties||Does not dry out, connects easily, well softened.|
|6. The content of water-soluble dyes||Contains water-soluble natural dyes.|
|7. Solubility in water||A cube of clay from the sides of the faces 1X1X1 cm dissolved in hot water for half an hour|
|8. Shelf life||In a sealed package more than 1 year saves plastic properties.|
|9. Transportation||Can be transported when Packed in airtight containers, weighing 10, 25 and 50 kg|
Hydrophilic clay as a product of deep disposal of concentrated steeping water starch production, obtained by the method of heat treatment at 90°C. with simultaneous stirring of a mixture of renewable sources of raw materials: dry sifted peat moisture content above 20% and condensed corn was EXT the act, formed on starch production for soaking corn grain in warm, with temperatures 45-52°C water containing up to 0,35% sulfurous acid (in terms of SO2), and contains less than 2% fatty acid, and then boiled under vacuum to a dry substance concentration not lower than 48%, taken in a weight ratio of 1:(4-6), or when the content in condensed corn extract fatty acids more than 2% of the mixture of preheated above components: peat - up temperature 160-250°C and condensed corn extract to a temperature of 95-100°C, taken in a weight ratio of 1:(4-6).
SUBSTANCE: wood-polymer composition consists of, wt %: wood-vegetable filler 70-90, thermoplastic polymer binder 8-25, a sodium salt of polyethylene polyaminomethylene phosphonic acid 0.5-1.0 and target additives - the balance. The thermoplastic polymer binder is selected from a group of vinyl polymers based on vinyl chloride or copolymes thereof with vinyl acetate, polymers based on ethylene, propylene, copolymers thereof, polymers based on methyl methacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene or mixture thereof.
EFFECT: invention improves strength properties of the composition, simplifies the composition and method for production thereof.
2 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composite contains 55-75 wt % bagasse fibre with particle size of 40-120 mesh and length to diameter ratio ranging from 3:1 to 5:1 and 25-45 wt % thermoplastic polymer. The bagasse is prepared from a by-product of sugarcane refining. The separated fibres are softened by adding water and grinding. The fibres are then mixed with a thermoplastic polymer and the fibre-polymer mixture is extruded to obtain a composite.
EFFECT: obtaining a high-strength ecologically clean composite which can be used for a long period of time without deformation and colour change.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to olefin-containing compositions for producing wood materials and crude wood materials, use of olefins to endow crude wood materials with hydrophobicity and a method of producing wood materials from crude wood materials. The composition contains crude wood materials from lignocellulose in form of fibres, chips or shavings, as well as olefins or a wax composition. The wax composition contains olefins and additionally paraffin wax in form of long-chain saturated hydrocarbons. The olefins contain an average of 24-50 carbon atoms; more than 50 mol % are alpha-olefins; have a maximum of carbon chain length distribution between 24 and 40 carbon atoms. Bringing crude wood materials (shavings, chips, fibres) into contact with said olefins and optionally together with paraffin wax provides hydrophobisation thereof. Binder is added to said composition to obtain fibreboards, wood chipboards and oriented strand boards.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain end products with good hydrophobic properties.
23 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: wood working industry.
SUBSTANCE: wood and polymer composition contains a wood filler and thermoplastic wastes. The wood filler is bark of conifers exposed to serial extractive treatment with water or aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide or isopropyl alcohol. The thermoplastic wastes are wastes of polystyrene or polyvinyl chloride.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve physical and mechanical indices of a wood polymer composition, to expand raw resources for manufacturing of this composition and to reduce its prime cost.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials, particularly, to fabrication of compacted wood biological composite materials. Proposed method comprises making biological composite material including biological binder and saw dust. Produced material is dried to make a mat by cold compaction and subjected to hot forming. Saw dust is mixed with biological binder based on culture broth obtained in cultivation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacterium on nutrient medium. Said medium consists of the mix of molasses, wastes of sugar production, and lactoserum taken in the ratio of 2:2:1 at temperature 24-26°C for 72-96 hours in static conditions with addition of liquid glass in concentration of 2.5 wt %.
EFFECT: moisture-resistant nonpolluting materials without phenol compounds.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a biodegradable thermoplastic composition for producing materials and articles which are biodegradable in natural conditions. The biodegradable thermoplastic composition contains lignocellulose filler, a binding agent and polyethylene as a polymer base. The binding agent is a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. The lignocellulose filler used is in form of cheap manufacturing wastes with no food and feed value and natural materials selected from flax shive, sunflower husks, sodium lignosulphonate, leaves and straw.
EFFECT: composition is characterised by high biodegradability and meets requirements for materials for processing using conventional processes and equipment.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing wood materials from lignocellulose-based grinding products, with low emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes. The lignocellulose-based grinding products and an adhesive based on amino plastic, diisocyanates, polyurethanes and/or tannin-formaldehydes or mixtures thereof are prepared. The lignocellulose-based grinding products are mixed with the adhesive and the mixture is pressed during heat treatment. Before pressing and after splitting into fibres or processing into chips, a combination is added to the grinding products, said combination comprising at least one component having buffer capacity, selected from a hydrosulphite salt or sulphite salt. At least one component is optionally added, said component being selected from urea, a urea derivative or hydroxides of alkali, alkali-earth metals or ammonia.
EFFECT: wood material obtained using the method have low emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, during synthesis thereof and during prolonged use thereof.
5 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a polymer composition based on PVC, an impact strength modifier, a heat stabiliser, a binding agent and addition of modified wood flour. The wood flour is obtained by pre-saturating wood flour with aqueous solutions of binding agents of silica sol or carbon nanotubes, stirring the obtained mixture and drying.
EFFECT: wood-polymer materials based on the obtained highly filled rigid polyvinyl chloride composition have high tensile strength and thermal stability, low viscosity, flammability and water absorption.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of wood-filled composite materials based on timber wastes and mineral binders. Proposed method comprises mixing wood filler with binder. Filler is treated in tight chamber in atmosphere of flue gases at 190-200°C for 50-60 minutes. Then, prior to mixing, filler is processed in plasma-forming gas flow in discharge chamber at high-frequency generator power of 200-600 W and vacuum of 100-130 Pa for 250-280 s. Air is used as said plasma-forming gas fed at flow rate of 0.08-0.12 g/s. After mixing of filler and binder, molding and heat treatment are performed.
EFFECT: higher strength.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of construction materials and specifically to compositions of mixtures for making heat-insulating articles used in building walls, floors and partition walls. The crude mixture for producing heat-insulating materials contains the following in wt %: wood aggregate 69.0 - 78.0, hydrolised lignin 1.0 - 2.0, ground thermoplastic wastes 20.0 - 30.0.
EFFECT: reduced toxicity of heat-insulating articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a synthetic thickener used in compositions for making paints. The synthetic thickener contains a water-soluble or water-swellable synthetic polymer whose main chain contains terminal and/or intermediate blocks of oligomeric hydrophobic fragments. The hydrophobic fragments are selected from a group which includes alkyl or aryl fragments which contain a polymerising cyclic monomer or mixture thereof. The monomer is selected from a group which includes alkyl glycidyl ethers, aryl glycidyl ethers, alkyl epoxy and mixtures thereof. Alternatively, hydrophobic fragments are selected from a group which includes polymerising alkene or mixture thereof and derivatives thereof. The polymerising alkene monomer is selected from a group which includes styrene and styrene compounds. The main chain of the water-soluble or water-swellable synthetic polymer is selected from a group which includes polyethylene glycol, polyacetal polyethers and polyurethane. The synthetic thickener can be used as a modifier of rheological characteristics, especially in latex paints.
EFFECT: use of the synthetic thickener in water-based coatings ensures good thickening, levelling and insignificant drips.
5 cl, 23 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: versions are proposed of a powdered water-absorbing agent, which contains a powdered water-absorbing resin, obtained from a polymer based on partially neutralised polyacrylic acid. The surface of the said powdered water-absorbing resin is cross-linked with at least one cross-linking agent, chosen from a group comprising glycerin, 1,3-propanediol, ethylene carbonate, 3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyloxetane and ethanolamine. The said water-absorbing resin has a cross-linked internal structure. Content of the said powdered water-absorbing resin is between 70 and 100 wt % per 100 wt % of the said powdered water-absorbing agent. The said powdered water-absorbing agent satisfies several conditions for particle size and sorption characteristics. Proposed also is a method of obtaining a powdered water-absorbing agent and an absorbent structure based on the said agent.
EFFECT: higher absorption capacity compared to traditional absorbent structure and odour reduction.
12 cl, 4 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water-absorbing materials and products from them. Claimed are versions of water-absorbing material in form of particles, including as main component water-absorbing polymer, which has net structure from links, obtained from unsaturated carboxylic acid and/or its salt, which is obtained by surface sewing processing. Water-absorbing material of claimed invention contains residual monomer in amount not higher than 500 p/mln, and residual monomer index value is not higher than 0.30. Claimed method of obtaining water-absorbing material includes obtaining of hydrogel polymer by means of polymerisation of water solution of monomer which includes unsaturated carboxyl acid and/or its salt in presence of sewing agent; obtaining water-absorbing polymer precursor which represents powder and includes particles which have size from 300 to 850 mcm and particles which have size less than 300 mcm as main components; drying of said hydrogel polymer with further crashing and classification for determining distribution by particle size; obtaining water-absorbing polymer by heating mixture of mentioned water-absorbing polymer precursor and surface sewing agent, which can form ester bond on water-absorbing polymer precursor surface; addition to water-absorbing polymer of water solution, which includes sulphur-containing reducing agent, by means of dispersion, and heat processing of mixture of water-absorbing polymer and water solution in air flow at temperature not lower than 40°C, but not higher than 120°C. Also claimed is absorbing product which includes claimed water-absorbing material.
EFFECT: elaboration of water-absorbing material which has inessential amount of residual monomer, inessential change of residual monomer amount in range of particle distribution by size and suitable absorptive properties, applicable for sanitary-hygienic material production; and method of obtaining it.
15 cl, 3 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention refers to fibre dull polish ensured by mixed mineral additives in raised polymer thermoplastic compositions. Associated mineral additives contain at least two mineral additives chosen from the group containing zinc sulphide, titanium dioxide, barium sulphate, silicon dioxide, alumina, kaolin, calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate, mat clay. The polymer composition for product spinning as filaments, fibres, filament fibres contains associated mineral additives 2 wt % to 4 wt %.
EFFECT: high dulling factor of thermoplastic polymers.
16 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: microbiology, medicine.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer matrices for hygienic product in form of single-layer film, including bacteria, producing lactic acid in pharmaceutically acceptable polymer or polymers. Said pharmaceutically acceptable polymer is able to protect bacterial cells from moisture during storage, but is soluble in physiological fluids. Polymer matrix in form of film also leads to full transfer of bacterial cells onto human's skin.
EFFECT: increase of bacteria survivability during transportation and storage.
15 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to a water-absorbing agent in form of particles, which contains a water-absorbing resin as the base component, used in absorbing objects. Proposal is given of a resin, used in absorbing objects. Proposal is given of a water absorbing agent in form of particles, which retain excellent absorbing properties for a long period of time even when the composition of water is changed. The water absorbing agent consists of a water absorbing resin in form of particles, obtained through polymerisation with formation of transverse bonds of unsaturated monomer, containing a base component in form of acrylic acid, and is capable of retaining liquid after centrifugal treatment (CRC) in a normal saline solution of not less than 32g/g. The agent has mass-average size of particles (D50) from 200 to 400 mcm. The ratio of particles with diameter less than 150 mcm ranges from 0 to 2 wt %. The water absorbing agent has value of increasing content of extractable substances under destruction effect ranging from 0 to 15 wt %. Versions of the water absorbing agent and methods of obtaining it, as well as an absorbing object, are proposed.
EFFECT: design of a water absorbing agent with improved extraction characteristics.
22 cl, 7 tbl, 30 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns water-absorbing resin and method for obtaining same. The proposed composition is based on water-absorbing resin and includes water-absorbing resin powder with cross-linked structure containing water-soluble component obtained by acrylic acid and/or its salt polymerisation, with the resin cross-linked closer to its surface and its content in composition reaching 70 mass % or more, and component based on polyvalent metal with content at the water-absorbing resin particle surface defined by its extraction rate, which comprises 5.0 to 100 mass %. Also, the invention claims variants for method of obtaining the said composition, absorber based thereon, and absorption device including the said absorber.
EFFECT: obtaining a composition based on water absorbing resin free of conglomerated particles even at high humidity and having improved absorption properties.
15 cl, 2 dwg, 7 tbl, 17 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder-like cross-linked products absorbing different liquid and based on partially neutralized, ethylene-unsaturated and comprising acidic groups of monomers. Invention proposes a powder-like polymeric product subjected for additional cross-linking and absorbing water, aqueous or serosa liquid and blood that is synthesized from: (a) polymerized ethylene-unsaturated and comprising acid groups of monomers neutralized by at least 25 mole%, 55-99.9 wt.-%, and (b) polymerized ethylene-unsaturated copolymerized with monomers of (a) monomers, 0-40 wt.-%; (c) one or some polymerized cross-linking agents, 0.1-5.0 wt.-%, and (d) water-soluble polymer, 0-30 wt.-%. Proposed product possesses the more effective properties being first of all the better capacity for transfer of absorbed liquids in a swollen state. Product can be subjected for surface cross-linking using a combination consisting of an organic cross-linking compound but with exception of polyols and cation as its salt in an aqueous solution. Also, invention proposes a diaper and hygienic article for adults based on the claimed product.
EFFECT: valuable properties of product and articles.
15 cl, 2 tbl, 29 ex
FIELD: composite materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to binding composition containing aqueous binding agent, hydrophobic aerogel particles, and hollow nonporous particles. Disclosed is also insulation composite material containing lower layer, including binding composition with hydrophobic aerogel and hollow particles, and protective layer; base containing binding composition with hydrophobic aerogel and hollow particles; methods for preparation of binding composition with aerogel and hollow particles. Insulation composite material and binding composition with aerogel and hollow particles can be used for insulation of, for example, parts of motorized vehicles or instruments.
EFFECT: achieved heat resistance, mechanical strength, and/or flexibility in deposition process.
7 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: composite materials.
SUBSTANCE: composite material including bacterial cellulose (Acetobacter xylinum) and polymeric filler is characterized by that the latter is synthetic hydrophilic high-molecular weight homopolymer; or copolymer based on water-soluble vinyl-series monomers; or synthetic hydrophilic crosslinking copolymer based on water-soluble vinyl-series monomers and crosslinking agent having in its molecular structure two or more double bonds; or polyvinyl acetic acid or its (meth)acrylate; or polyethylene glycol or its (meth)acrylate; or polyethylene oxide or its (meth)acrylate; wherein molecular weights of non-crosslinked polymers are at least 50000. Indicated polymeric component is present in the form of polymeric lattice inside bacterial cellulose matrix and its concentration ranges from 10 to 98 wt %. Invention also discloses hydrogel obtained from above defined composite material.
EFFECT: increased resource of starting materials for preparation of hydrogels.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 45 ex
FIELD: domestic rubber goods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plastic material such as hardenable plasticine suitable for modeling, molding, and manufacturing of decorative and applied or artistic articles, which plasticine is capable of acquiring elastic and deformation properties and heat resistance after heating or microwave irradiation. Material comprises 5-80% unsaturated rubber or mixture of unsaturated rubbers; 0.1-10.0% curing agent, namely spatially hindered phenol-quinonedioxyme condensation product of general formula: , wherein R1 and R2 represent hydrogen atom or R1 is methyl, R2 isopropyl, and R3 t-butyl or methoxy; 3-15% plasticizer; 0-5% dye; and filler - the balance.
EFFECT: enabled modeling and molding of flat and three-dimensional articles.