Reactor for cleaning or hydraulic cleaning of fluid bed for, for example, catalytic cleaning of green heavy oil distillates
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic cleaning of green heavy oil distillates. Reactor comprises at least one bed layer, in fact, liquid phase L and, in fact, gas phase G located at reactor bottom and separated by interface 38 and distribution tray furnished with at least one main pipe to circulate liquid phase L in bed direction and at least one channel to feed gas phase G to said bed. Tray has at least one combined pipe to circulate liquid phase in bed direction or to feed gas phase into said bed.
EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning.
9 cl, 4 dwg
The present invention relates to a reactor containing a device for distributing at least one gas phase and at least one liquid phase circulating in said reactor in an upward flow mode.
In particular, it relates to a reactor equipped with a similar device and placed at the entrance of the reaction zone or zones of contact of the gas/liquid, which may consist of a layer of solid particles in the form of filler, possibly catalytic.
It applies in particular to the reactor for cleaning or Hydrotreating liquid load, for example, for catalytic purification of crude distillates heavy oil.
It is widely known that for the type of reactor, equipped with a fixed bed of catalyst is necessary as it is possible more uniform distribution of gas and liquid phase.
It is also necessary to provide a more uniform and homogeneous distribution of the two phases along the length of the cross-section of the above-mentioned reactor to optimize contact of the gas/liquid in the reactor and provide almost identical modes of different zones mentioned reactor.
As is known from the document US 3441498, a similar distribution can be achieved using a switch plates, equipped with a vertical pipe and what tertiary, designed to achieve a practically uniform distribution of the gas phase and the liquid phase over the whole cross section of the reactor, often which has a cylindrical shape.
This type of switch plates, thus, allows to distribute the gas phase through the holes of the plates, and the liquid phase through the pipes.
In addition, in patent US 6123323 described switchgear used in the reactor, fueled by an upward flow of the mixture of liquid and gas.
The said device consists of a distribution plate that occupies all or part of the local section of the reactor, limiting the volume in which there is a separation of gas and liquid, or a part of it. The gas passes through holes distributed over the whole cross section of the plate. Liquid separately from the gas flowing through the vertical pipes crossing the plate and continuing under the surface of the separation liquid/gas, or through the sites section of the reactor is not closed by the plate.
Such a reactor, the power of which gas and liquid is carried out by pipeline, located on the bottom of the tank, is interesting from a technical point of view, however, has significant disadvantages.
In fact, the mode of operation of such a reactor is not optimal, because the bad gas is mixed in the cross-section of the reactor; usually gas lift up the raised center of the cross section in the form of a post. It distorts the surface of the section of gas-liquid distribution under the plate and produces an uneven distribution of gas under the plate.
In addition, the possible penetration of gas inside the pipes, which is undesirable. The consequence of the presence of a column of gas is the uneven distribution of gas; in the Central zone of the plate will be more gas.
In addition to the above, the separation of gas creates a significant distortion that can cause ripple currents and local violations of the uniformity of gas distribution.
The present invention is intended to eliminate the above mentioned disadvantages by use of a reactor with a catalyst bed containing a distribution plate that serves to achieve a uniform distribution of the gas phase over the whole cross section of the reactor and do not affect the distribution of the liquid phase even in the case of distortion of the surface section of gas-liquid.
In connection with the above-mentioned purpose, the present invention is proposed reactor for treatment or hydrotreatment of liquid load, containing at least one packing layer, essentially liquid phase and essentially gas phase at the bottom of the reactor and separated by a boundary surface, and a distribution plate provided with at least one main nozzle, providing circulation of the LM is in transition phase towards the layer, and at least one channel serving to supply the gas phase in said layer, characterized in that the plate also has at least one composite pipe intended for circulation of the liquid phase in the direction of the layer or to the gas phase in the layer.
Combined pipe may have a height less than the height of the main pipe and the greater the height of the channel.
Combined pipe may have a cross-section of flow, a smaller cross sectional flow main pipe.
Combined tube may be a tube, open at both ends; the flow area of the flow can be a diametrical cross-section of the said tube.
Combined tube may be a tube, open at both ends; the flow area of the flow can be a diametrical cross-section mentioned combined pipe containing narrowing.
The narrowing may be a washer with a hole located at one end of the combined socket.
Combined tube may be a tube, closed at the bottom end; the initial section of such pipe may constitute at least one hole located in the side wall of the above-mentioned socket.
The main PA is logging can be located coaxially in the hole, available in the above-mentioned plate and having a Diametric size greater than the size mentioned pipe.
Combined pipe can be placed between the main pipe and the hole aligned with them.
Other characteristics and advantages of the present invention are understood when reading the following further descriptions are only illustrative and not restrictive purposes; the following are attached:
- 1, which in the form of a longitudinal section shows a schematic section of the reactor according to the invention, containing the distribution plate;
- Figure 2, which on an enlarged scale showing a detail view of a variant of implementation of the reactor according to the invention;
- Figure 3, which on an enlarged scale shows another detail view of another variant of implementation of the reactor according to the invention;
- Figure 3, which on an enlarged scale shows another detail view of the third variant of implementation of the reactor according to the invention.
Figure 1 shows a closed reactor 10, preferably having the form of a vertical elongated tube and in General contains in the upper part of the product feed means (not shown), providing the possibility of obtaining at least one layer of the filler 12.
Under the layer of filler understand the totality of solid particles having a uniform grain size order the ka of several millimeters and preferably with catalytic activity, providing the opportunity for the catalytic layer, consisting of both fresh and regenerated catalyst.
In addition, it is understood that the term "reactor", as used above, includes both capacity and columns.
Said reactor in the region of the floor 14, preferably in the middle region of DNA that contains the pipeline supply 16 working mixture 18 of the gas phase and the liquid phase (or load).
The gas phase preferably contains a mixture composed of pure hydrogen or a mixture composed of pure hydrogen, and residual hydrogen and vaporous hydrocarbons; liquid phase mainly contains hydrocarbons.
The working mixture may contain other phases, including the water in the mixture with air or with oxygen or hydrocarbon(s) in the mixture with air or with oxygen.
The layer of filler in the lower part of the above-mentioned reactor is limited to a transverse perforated plate 20, located at a distance from the bottom 14 of the reactor and occupies space up to the side wall 22 of the reactor; the role plates will be explained in further description.
It is widely known that this reactor provides the distribution and mixing of the gas streams and liquid in such reactor during its operation, the upward flow. For carrying out the desired catalytic is eacli, thus, it is necessary to ensure contact of the gas/liquid/solid phase during the reaction. For this purpose, the catalyst present in the layer of filler is maintained in the reactor in a stationary state or is the flow of the gas/liquid state of the fluidized bed.
As best seen from Figure 1, the distribution plate 20, or the distribution plate, limits the filler layer 12 and below in the direction of flow relative to the supply line 16 and the bottom 14 of the reactor.
Mentioned plate consists of a flat plate 24, occupying the entire cross section of the reactor up to the side wall 22.
This plate contains many passing through holes 26, 28, 30. The holes 26 next to them are vertical hollow tube 32, open at both ends, hereinafter in this description are referred to as "basic connections" and intended for passing on them predominantly liquid phase L of the working mixture. Holes 28 are designed to accommodate end-to-end to them hollow vertical tubes 34, open at both ends and is designated as "combined pipes". On the said pipe is leaking or predominantly liquid phase L of the working mixture, or a predominantly gas phase G of the working mixture. The holes 30 in the plate are free, preferably not contain hollow tubes and clicks the form of the channels, through which passes a predominantly gas phase G of the mixture.
Thus, the distribution plate consists of a set of main nozzles 32, the combined nozzles 34 and channels 30.
This plate, therefore, provides a moving flow of gas and liquid from the bottom of the reactor to a layer of filler.
Height H along the axis of the main nozzle 32 is greater than the height H' - axis of the combined nozzle 34, which in turn exceeds the height of the channels 30, which in this case coincides with the thickness E of the plate 24. The heights H and H' counts from the lower surface of the plate 24 to the lower open end of the main pipe and composite pipe, which enters the stream.
Sectional flow area S1 of the main nozzle 32 in the radial direction is preferably greater than the area of the cross-flow area S2 of the combined nozzles 34 and bore S3 channels 30. Square cross-sections S2 and S3 are preferably equal to each other, but they can be different, while not exceeding the cross-sectional area S1.
In this case, the cross sections S1 to S3 correspond to the open cross-section, through which in the direction of layer 12 is circulating flow (gas or liquid). As the cross sections S1 and S2 are considered internal diametral cross-section of the tubes forming the main pipe 32 and to milirovannie nozzles 34; section S3 corresponds to the diametrical cross-section of the channels 30.
Assume that the channels, tubes and holes, into which are inserted the said nozzles, can have any geometric shape cross-section, equal or different between them, including round, elliptical or any other shape.
Similarly, the number and placement of the nozzles 32, 34 and channels 30 on the plate 24 and their size is chosen using any methods known to a person skilled in the art depending on the desired minimum and maximum operating values of the gas flow.
It should be clarified that any range of operating values of gas consumption mentioned characteristics must ensure the formation of a cloud of gas 36 under the plate 20 and the surface 38 of the partition liquid/gas located above the lower ends of the main pipe 32.
Preferably, as in the example shown in figure 1, the main nozzle 32 leaked liquid phase L of the mixture, and the combined nozzles, and channels 30 to the gas phase G. it follows that the lower ends of the main pipes 32 are immersed in the working mixture 18 provided on the bottom 14 of the reactor, and that the upper ends of the above-mentioned nozzles are communicated with a layer of filler 12.
In a similar manner the lower ends of the combined nozzles 34 are in the area of the f gas 36, while their upper ends are communicated with a layer of filler 12.
The channels 30 provide a message cloud of gas 36 with a layer of filler 12.
Preferred is a possibility that between the plate 20 and the grid supporting the layer of filler was provided a free space.
This reduces the pressure loss on the plate in the case of circulation of the liquid and/or gas phase at high speeds.
The terms "upper(top)and lower(bottom)used in the present description should be considered in accordance with the scheme of the reactor shown in figure 1.
During operation of such reactor fuel mixture is fed to the bottom of the reactor 14 through the pipeline 16. As we ascend, the mixture distribution plate 20 contained in the gas phase is separated from the mixture. The separated gas phase is fed under the plate 20 with the formation of a cloud of gas 36 and surface 38 of the partition, the gas/liquid between the cloud of gas and free gas in the liquid phase of the working mixture.
It is understood that in accordance with the above-mentioned cloud of gas 36 is formed under the influence of pressure losses at various pipes and channels, the number, sizes and designs which are determined so that the surface 38 at best above the bottom ends of the main pipes 32 and under the lower ends of the Combi the new nozzles, and in the worst case over the lower ends of the combined nozzles, not reaching the lower surface of the plate 20.
So, in the construction shown in figure 1, not containing gas liquid L flows through the main pipe 32 and enters the layer 12; the separated gas phase G in the cloud 36, simultaneously circulates in the combined nozzle 34 and the channels 30 and enters the layer 12.
Mentioned liquid and gas phase, preferably evenly distributed over the entire area of the plates 20, pass through the layer in ascending stream in order to perform the required chemical reaction and extracted from the layer by any means known to a person skilled in the technical field.
Naturally, with the design of the reactor, according to which the surface 38 is located above the lower ends of the combined nozzle 34, the gas phase in the cloud 36 passes only through the channels 30, while the free gas from the liquid phase at the same time flows through the main pipe 32 and a pipe 34 and enters the layer 12.
Thus, due to the presence of two types of nozzles mentioned plate provides greater flexibility used values of gas and liquid.
In addition, due to the use of small nozzles height of this plate allows you to comply with the requirement of compactness Rea the Torah.
In addition, this reactor makes it possible to use a large number of ways of circulation of the gas, in particular, with increasing consumption, while coalescence of gas does not occur.
An implementation option, shown in figure 2 differs from Figure 1 that the combined nozzles 34' have a cross-section identical to the cross section of the main pipe, and the cross-flow section S2, a lower transverse flow area S1 of the main pipe 32.
Smaller bore is implemented using a narrowing of the 40 available in the combined nozzles 34'. The aforementioned narrowing of the cross section is preferably formed using a washer, preferably with a hole at the center, the outer diameter of which coincides with the inner diameter of the tube forming nozzle, and an inner diameter which allows to determine the flow area S2.
Mentioned narrowing preferably located on one or the other end of the composite pipe, but it can also be placed anywhere between the two ends of the above-mentioned nozzles.
In the embodiment shown in Figure 3, the lower ends of the combined nozzle 34", directed to the bottom of the reactor are closed, while the upper ends of save the message with a layer of the filler 12. To ensure messages clouds of gas 36 with a layer 12 in laterally the wall of the composite pipe has at least one hole 42. The said hole, in this case, which is round, has a reduced cross section S2, the size of which corresponds to the size of the same section in figure 1 or 2.
Through this hole, the lower point of which together with the bottom surface of the plate 24 defines a height H' of this branch, from the cloud 36 enters the gas phase, and then passing the combined nozzle 34 and into the layer 12.
Of course that may be provided with a number of holes 42 placed on the circle next to each other and the axis of one over the other, or both of the mentioned methods.
In addition, the hole may have a shape other than round, for example, the shape of the slit.
In the embodiment shown in Figure 4, the plate 24 has openings 44, preferably of circular shape, in which are placed coaxially to the main and combined nozzle and which form the above-mentioned channels.
As can be seen from this drawing, the main nozzles 46 and a pipe 48 is placed coaxially within one another and are aligned with the holes 44. As a consequence, the openings 44 have a radial size, a large radial dimension of the combined nozzles 48, which in turn have a radial size, a large radial dimension of the main nozzles 46.
Similarly, the height H VI the x pipe is greater the height H' of the combined nozzles, which in turn exceeds the height of the holes 44, in this case coinciding with the thickness E of the plate 24.
The upper ends of the main and combined nozzles preferably accommodated in the hole 44 so that their upper ends are in the same horizontal plane as well noticeable in figure 4.
Naturally, the person skilled in the art machinery to ensure the connection of the various nozzles with a hole may use any means, including, for example, radial crosspieces 50 soldered to the outer side surface of the main pipe and the inner side surface of the combined socket and jumper 52 soldered to the outer side surface of the combined tube and to the inner side surface of the hole 44.
In this arrangement, the flow area S1 corresponds to a diametrical section of the main pipe, the cross section S2 is the cross-sectional area between the outer lateral surface of the main pipe and the inner lateral surface of the combined nozzle, and the cross section S3 - cross-sectional area between the outer lateral surface of the combined nozzle and the side surface of the hole 44.
In accordance with mentioned above in connection with Figures 1 to 3, the cross-sectional area S1 exceeds the cross-sectional area S2, which in turn exceeds the area of the CoE is to be placed S3 or equal to it.
Thus, the lower ends of the main pipes 46 are immersed in free gas from the liquid phase, and the upper ends extend into the filler layer 12 to allow passage of the liquid phase of the said layer of filler. The space covered by the section S2 between the main nozzles and the combined nozzles, and the space covered by the section S3 between the combined pipes and holes 44, provides circulation and passage of the gas phase of the gas clouds 36 to the layer 12.
The present invention is not limited to the described examples of its implementation and covers all variants of its implementation and cash equivalents.
In particular, instead of the mixture described above, one can consider the case of flow of the liquid phase L to the bottom of the reactor by means of the first means to supply when applying the gas phase G under the distribution plate with the other means of filing with the formation of gas clouds and the interface liquid/gas.
1. The reactor for cleaning or Hydrotreating liquid load, for example for catalytic purification of crude distillates heavy oil containing at least one layer of filler (12)essentially liquid phase (L) and, essentially, the gas phase (G)at the bottom of the reactor and separated by a boundary surface (38), and the distribution plate (20)provided on minority who she least one main nozzle (32), providing circulation of the liquid phase (L) in the direction of the layer, and at least one channel (30), designed to supply the gas phase (G) in the above-mentioned layer, and characterized in that the plate (20) is also provided with at least one combined nozzle (34)intended for circulation of the liquid phase in the direction of the layer or to the gas phase in the layer.
2. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the combined pipe (34) has a height (H')which is smaller than the height (H) of the main pipe (32) and a large height (E) of the channel (30).
3. The reactor according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the combined pipe (34) has a reduced cross section of the stream (S2), a smaller orifice flow (S1) main pipe (32).
4. The reactor according to claim 3, characterized in that the combined pipe (34) is a tube, open at both ends, and the flow area of the flow (S2) of the combined pipe is a diametrical cross-section of the said tube.
5. The reactor according to claim 3, characterized in that the combined pipe (34) is a tube, open at both ends, and the flow area of the flow (S2) of the combined pipe is a narrowing (40) diametral section of the said tube.
6. The reactor according to claim 5, characterized in that the narrowing is a washer (40) with a hole, the placement is put one end of the combined pipe (34).
7. The reactor according to claim 3, characterized in that the composite pipe is a tube, closed at the bottom end, and the flow area of the flow (S2) of the combined pipe represents at least one opening (42)located in the peripheral wall of the above-mentioned socket.
8. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the main pipe (46) is located coaxially in the hole (44)in the above-mentioned plate and having a Diametric size greater than the diametrical size of the above-mentioned socket.
9. The reactor of claim 8, wherein the composite pipe (48) is placed between the main pipe (46) and a hole (44) aligned with them.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to separation of hydrocarbons. Unit for stripping of first component from the mix comprises distillation column with rectifier section with top steam flow outlet, section with bottom fluid flow outlet and raw stock section with stock inlet arranged between rectifier section and evaporator section, reboiler of bottom residue for re-evaporation of bottom fluid flow coming from evaporator section, upper steam flow condensation section, lateral steam bleed pipe, heat pump-compressor with inlet communicated with said lateral bleed pipe and outlet, second reboiler-heat exchanger with fluid side communicated with bottom flow from evaporator section and steam side communicated with outlet of heat pump-compressor.
EFFECT: efficient distillation, higher purity of bottom product, power savings.
9 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved method of obtaining, at least, one diaryl carbonate of formula (I) and/or alkylaryl carbonate of formula (IV) from, at least, one dialkyl carbonate and, at least, one aromatic hydroxy-compound of formula III , where R, R' and R" independent on each other represent hydrogen atom, linear or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, alkoxy with 1-34 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl with 5-34 carbon atoms, alkylaryl with 7-34 carbon atoms, aryl with 6-34 carbon atoms or halogen residue, and R can also stand for - COO-R'" group, in which R'" can stand for hydrogen atom, linear or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, alkoxy with 1-34 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl with 5-34 carbon atoms, alkylaryl with 7-34 carbon atoms or aryl with 6-34 carbon atoms, and R1 is linear or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, in which (a) dialkyl carbonate or dialkyl carbonates in presence of, at least, one re-esterification catalyst is subjected to interaction with aromatic hydroxy-compound or aromatic hydroxy-compounds in first reaction column, which contains, at least, one strengthening part in head part of column and, at least one reaction zone under strengthening part, which contains, at least, two sections, (b) vapour, released in head part of first reaction column, is fully or partly condensed in, at least, one condenser, (c) cube product of first reaction column is supplied into, at least, one more reaction column, which contains, at least, one strengthening part in head part of column and, at least, one reaction zone under strengthening part, and it is subjected in said column (said columns) to further conversion, (d) non-converted in reaction columns or formed during reaction dialkyl carbonate is completely or partly separated from alkyl alcohol, formed during reaction, at least, at one more stage of method, which includes, at least, one distillation column and (e) separated at stage (d) dialkyl carbonate, in case of necessity, after further purification is re-supplied into first reaction column, where additional reaction column (additional reaction columns) is equipped with one or several condensers, and that condensation heat, formed in condensation in said condensers is directly or indirectly returned to process.
EFFECT: increased method efficiency.
12 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to oil-and-gas industry and may be used for separation of hydrocarbons and liquefied gases. In compliance with this method mix of vapors is fed as condensed vapor and swirled inside vertical pipe to create countercurrent motion of swirled phase flows. Note here that condensate flows downward and from said pipe over its inner surface to get enriched with high-boiling component while vapor flows upward to escape from said pipe in axial region to get enriched with low-boiling component. Mix is fed tangentially and upward in pipe bottom while pipe inner surface is cooled to form condensate, a wet reflux, thereon. Pipe inner surface temperature is maintained to make temperature of target product, the vapor, approximate to low-boiling component boiling point. Proposed device comprises vertical cylindrical pipe with top and bottom ends, gas discharge branch pipe at top end, fluid discharge branch pipe at bottom end and means for tangential mix feed inside the pipe. Said cylindrical pipe is fitted in tangential larger-diameter pipe to form annular flow channel confined by top and bottom ends for heat carrier to circulate therein. Means for tangential mix feed inside the pipe are composed of end swirler arranged at pipe bottom end. Fluid discharge means represent clearance between inner cylindrical pipe swirler. Annular flow channel and gas discharge branch pipe accommodate temperature control means, for example, thermometers. Heat carrier flow rate regulator, for example, control valve, is arranged at annular channel.
EFFECT: higher purity of low-boiling component.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to distributors of mass flows used in hydraulic processing reactors. Proposed device comprises some horizontal self-bearing structures acting as bearing transverse parts and plate-shape panels which, when installed, make a plate tightly fitted in structure joints and between the plate and apparatus inner wall. Self-bearing structure consists of lower panel with some equal holes wherein every hole corresponds to long channel for descending flow shaped to tube or any other geometrical figure with cross-section identical to that of plate hole. Every channel has inlet for straight two-phase flow. Note here that, at least, two channels are provided with common vertical nozzle.
EFFECT: simplified design, optimised sizes, lower costs and higher efficiency.
8 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power engineering, particularly, to research and power reactors with liquid-metal lead-bearing heat carrier. Mass exchanger comprises housing with annular cover accommodating top grate arranged above heat carrier level and solid-phase oxidizer arranged above said top grate. Mass exchanger comprises also gas distributor arranged under solid-phase oxidiser, gas consumption booster and gas feed pipeline. One part of said pipeline communicates heat carrier chamber gas cavity while its other part communicated outlet of said booster with feed pipeline communicated with gas distributor. Note here that openings are made between annular cover and top grate, partly located above heat carrier level and partly in gas cavity.
EFFECT: friendly operation, efficient feed of oxygen.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of producing at least one diaryl carbonate of formula , where R, R' and R" independently denote a hydrogen atom, a straight or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, an alkoxy with 1-34 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl with 5-34 carbon atoms, an alkylaryl with 7-34 carbon atoms, an aryl with 6-34 carbon atoms and a halogen atom, wherein R also denotes a -COO-R"' group in which R'" denotes a hydrogen atom, a straight or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, an alkoxy with 1-34 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl with 5-34 carbon atoms, an alkylaryl with 7-34 carbon atoms and an aryl with 6-34 carbon atoms, and/or an alkylaryl carbonate of formula , where R, R' and R" have values given above, R1 denotes a straight or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, from at least one dialkyl carbonate and at least one aromatic hydroxy compound of formula , where R, R' and R" have values given above, wherein (a) dialkyl carbonate, in the presence of at least one reesterification catalyst, reacts with an aromatic hydroxy compound of formula (III), in at least one reesterification column having at least an enrichment part in the top part of the column and at least one reaction zone below the enrichment part, wherein the enrichment part has at least two sections, (b) vapour collected from the top part of the reesterification column is completely or partially condensed in at least one condenser, where at least one enrichment part of the reesterification column is provided with at least one intermediate condenser, wherein heat released during condensation occurring therein is directly or indirectly returned into the process. The invention also relates to a column for carrying out said method, having at least one inlet opening for dialkyl carbonate and at least one inlet opening for the hydroxy compound, at least one outlet opening for the gaseous end product in the top part of the column which is linked to the condenser and at least one outlet opening for the liquid bottom product in the bottom part of the column, at least one enrichment part in the top part of the column and at least one reaction zone below the enrichment part, wherein the enrichment part has at least two sections, wherein at least one enrichment part is provided with at least intermediate condenser.
EFFECT: invention enables use of one or more intermediate condensers to optimise energy integration.
14 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved carbonylation methods in order to produce acetic acid, the methods involving: (a) carbonylating methanol or reactive derivatives thereof in the presence of water, a catalyst selected from a group which includes rhodium catalysts, iridium catalysts and mixtures thereof, and methyl iodide as a promoter to form an acetic acid containing reaction mixture in the reactor; (b) separating the stream of the acetic acid containing reaction mixture into a liquid recycled stream and a crude product stream containing acetic acid, methyl iodide, methyl acetate and water; (c) feeding the crude product stream to a stripping column having a distillation zone; (d) purifying the crude product stream in the distillation zone of the stripping column to remove methyl iodide and methyl acetate and obtain a purified product stream, the purified product stream characterised lower concentration of methyl iodide and methyl acetate than the crude product stream, and wherein the step of purifying the crude product stream involves: (i) condensing overhead vapour from the distillation zone of the stripping column, (ii) decanting the condensed vapour to obtain a heavy phase mainly containing methyl iodide and a light phase mainly containing acetic acid and water, and (iii) refluxing at least a portion of the condensed heavy phase to the distillation zone of the stripping column; and (iv) recycling the light phase into the reactor; and (e) drawing a purified product stream from the stripping column.
EFFECT: content of acetic acid in the overhead vapour of the stripping column and content of water in the product stream of the stripping column (side cut) is reduced, which increases efficiency of purification.
17 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing a biodegradable intermolecular cyclic diester of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acid. The method involves feeding a mixture of materials into a purification apparatus fitted with a column with a dividing wall, dividing the mixture of materials and extracting the purified diester. Said purification apparatus has the following components: a fractionating column, an outlet opening, a mass-exchange cap, a column with a dividing wall which is divided into two zones by a vertical dividing wall, an additional mass-exchange cap, an evaporator and an outlet opening on the collector side. The ratio of the length of the column with a dividing wall to the total length of the purification apparatus range from 0.5 to 0.9.
EFFECT: method enables cheap and efficient separation of diester from mixtures of materials when producing diester with high purity of material and/or optical purity.
19 cl, 9 dwg, 9 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of flows of used materials. Proposed plant comprises the following components: a) vertical column divided into three zones: mixing zone, settling zone and mass exchange zone; b) waste discharge outlet communicated with mixing zone; c) organic material discharge outlet communicated with settling zone to remove organic phase from the plant; d) fluid transfer line communicating settling zone with mass exchange zone to transfer liquid phase from settling zone to mass exchange zone; e) vapor line communicating mass exchange zone with settling zone; f) inert gas inlet communicated with mass exchange zones, and g) waste discharge outlet communicated with mass exchange zone to allow discharge of fluid material.
EFFECT: decreased capital and operating costs.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: reactor contains a bed of catalyst, mixing and distributing device above the catalyst bed through which steady flow of liquid and gas phases is directed downwards. Mixing and distributing device includes chute distributor with channels in the form of chutes and drain tubes for liquid phase, also it includes distributor plate located under chute distributor with vertical pass checkers. Chute distributor is provided with holes for inlet of gas phase and holes under it for liquid phase delivery. Number and size of holes for liquid phase delivery provides the following: upon preset delivery of fluid level on distributor plate is below holes for gas phase inlet and above holes for liquid phase delivery.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of gas and liquid phases and good transformation and selectivity of three-phase reaction.
20 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat supply.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the heat supply industry and is intended for preparation of fuel, in particular, petroleum for use in the boiler rooms being a source of a heat supply of remote settlements. The installation contains: a heater-evaporator, a heat exchanger for heating up a feed stock, the fuel feed stock pump and containers of the feed stock and collection of the light fractions. At that the installation is supplied with the second feed stock pump and three in series connected to each other heat exchangers of the light fractions condensation, the first and second feed stock pumps are connected by their inlets to a feed stock container. The outlet of the first feed stock pump is connected through the feed stock heating up heat exchanger to the heater-evaporator, which by its vapors outlet is connected to the first out of three in series connected to each other heat exchangers, the last of which is connected to its container of the light fractions condensate collection. The outlet of the second feed stock pump is connected in parallel to the heat exchangers of condensation of the light fractions and through them to the heater-evaporator. Each of heat exchangers in parallel connected to each other is supplied with a thermoregulator to keep in it a constant temperature of condensation of the light fractions vapors. The first and second of in series connected heat exchangers are connected through the placed in the feed stock container coiled pipes each to its container of the light fractions collection. The heater- evaporator through the feed stock heating up heat exchanger is connected to the container for fuel collection. In the result the invention allows to upgrade quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous production of several light fractions of the feed stock, mainly petroleum. The invention ensures improvement of the quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous separate production of several light fractions of a feed stock, mainly petroleum.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous separate production of several light fractions of the feed stock, mainly petroleum.
FIELD: production of alcoholic drinks.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains evaporating tank for heating and evaporation of beer, running water cooler made in form of reservoir with conical bottom and ready product collector. Conical bottom of cooler is made so that vertex of cone is pointed upwards. Conical hole is made in upper part of conical of conical bottom. Elastic conical plug with hermetically fitted in thermometer is installed in conical hole. Ring collecting reservoir is arranged in lower part of cone over its periphery from inner side. Outer side wall of said reservoir is formed by conical surface of cooler bottom, and inner side wall, by branch pipe connected to evaporator reservoir. Bottom of ring collecting reservoir is hermetically welded to branch pipe and to conical bottom, being provided with union communicating with detachable collector of ready product. Hole is made on side surface of conical bottom in its upper part. Inlet end of coil arranged inside cooler is hermetically welded in said hole. Output end of coil is hermetically welded to outer side surface of cooler and is furnished with union communicating with ready product collector installed in holder secured on output end of coil for removal.
EFFECT: improved quality of ready product.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petroleum processing and petrochemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-size apparatuses for production of light and heavy petroleum products from petroleum feedstock. Plant comprises heat-insulated evaporation vessel provided with electroheating ring, heat-exchanger coupled with evaporation vessel, petroleum product storage vessel, and valves, said evaporation vessel is provided with secondary heating ring and said heat-exchanger is constituted by two different-volume vessels, which are connected over coils to petroleum product storage vessel also provided with heating ring. Minor heat-exchange vessel communicates with evaporation vessel space through perforated pipe and major one communicates with evaporation vessel and minor heat-exchange vessel through pumps.
EFFECT: simplified structure and increased output of motor distillates.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to regeneration of saturated glycol solution used in the natural gas pre-transportation treatment and may also be employed for separating liquid thermolabile substances, whose destruction products are corrosion-active components. Regeneration is accomplished with the aid of mass-exchange column and evaporator. Glycol solution to be regenerated is first separated into at least two portions, of which one is used in unheated state as reflux for the mass-exchange column top vapors and finally gets into evaporator, whereas the rest of the glycol solution is heated and then fed directly into evaporator. Temperature of the column top vapors is controlled by amount of the cold portion of saturated glycol solution used as reflux.
EFFECT: lowered mass-exchange column corrosion intensity.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: production of organic agents and rectification cleaning of such agents.
SUBSTANCE: proposed multi-purpose plant includes still and batch-operated packed rectifying column mounted on it and brought in communication with it; top of said column on side of vapor outlet is communicated with dephlegmator which is brought in communication with top of rectifying column on side of condensate outlet and with rectification production collecting reservoir; proposed plant is provided with two measuring reservoirs connected at their lower parts to starting solvent reservoir located above them and to still; at their upper parts they are connected to vacuum pump and to nitrogen source; measuring reservoirs are located above still for filling it by gravity; volume of measuring reservoirs ranges from 60 to 75% of still volume; dephlegmator is made in form of cylindrical water-cooled heat exchanger mounted at angle of 10 to 20° relative to level; in its lower part, dephlegmator is provided with bypass unit with combined vapor inlet and condensate outlet; bypass unit is used for connecting the dephlegmator to top of rectifying column on side of solvent vapor outlet and to point of introducing the phlegm to rectifying column and to reservoirs collecting predistillate and rectification products; besides that, dephlegmator is connected with separator for separation of water from condensate (Florence flask) which may be disconnected when necessary; water receiver is located below it and is brought into communication with it; stillage residue receiver located above still is connected to its lower part; stillage residue receiver is connected by its lower part to stillage residue utilization reservoirs; at the top it is connected to vacuum pump and to nitrogen source; predistillate and reaction qualification products are accumulated in separate reservoirs connected to column condensate outlet; plant is provided with trap for receiving non-condensed vapor of rectification products which is connected with water receiver, dephlegmator and water cooler; trap is connected to predistillate collecting reservoir; rectifying column consists of four drums of similar height hermetically interconnected together; their diameter ranges from 0.07 to 0.08 of rectifying column height; height of rectifying column ranges from 3800 to 4200 mm; volume of predistillate and stillage residue collecting reservoir is 20-30% of volume of still; volume of starting solvent reservoir is 200-300% of volume of still; rectifying column, starting solvent reservoir and rectification product collecting reservoir are made from stainless steel.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; possibility of performing thorough rectification cleaning of agents.
11 cl, 1 dwg, 9 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: processes liquid mediums separation processes; methods and devices for alcohol-water mixtures separation.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the separation processes of liquid mediums. According to the method the alcohol-water mixture is fed into the ejector under pressure, ensuring a continuous flow of the hypersonic two-phase mixture consisting of the liquid phase and the vapors evaporated from it. These vapors are removed from the inlet chamber of the ejector by its vacuumization with the help of the second hypersonic ejector, which has been included in the second loop of circulation of the working medium. The alcohol-water mixture is fed into the ejector at the temperature exceeding the temperature of the circulating medium in the independent loop by the value, which ensures at least twofold exceeding the pressure of boiling of the separated alcohol-water mixture over the pressure of boiling of the circulating working medium. The installation contains: two loops, each of which is supplied with the hypersonic ejector mounted vertically with its inlet chamber upward; the steam-gas pipe duct directly bridging the inlet chambers of ejectors of the first and the second loops. The first loop contains the pipe ducts for the feeding of the being separated medium and for withdrawal of the alcohol depleted component. The second loop contains: the withdrawing alcohol enriched component pipe duct; the circulating main with the pump and the tank for the circulating medium, in the lower part of which there is the heat exchange device. The invention allows to increase the degree of separation of the mixture at using the small-size installation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased degree of separation of the mixture at using the small-size installation.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices for hydrocarbons processing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, to the devices used for hydrocarbons processing, in particular, to the reactor containing the vertically elongated reaction chamber, having, at least, one reaction layer and the reactor internal device. At that the reactor internal device contains the essentially horizontal lower supporting grating and, at least, one distributor made in the form of the distribution plate and the means for distribution of the cooling liquid medium. The distribution device is arranged above and at a distance from the lower supporting grating and is connected with it by means of the vertical elongated supports. The lower supporting grating rests on the upper surface of the reaction layer. Besides, the invention is pertaining to the usage of such reactor in the method of the hydrocarbons processing. The technical result of the invention is arrangement of the reactor internal device at the desirable vertical level of the reaction chamber.
EFFECT: the invention ensures arrangement of the reactor internal device at the desirable vertical level of the reaction chamber.
12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil-processing industry; chemical industry; production of the spiral heads for the heat-mass exchanging and simultaneous with them reaction processes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is mainly pertaining to the oil-processing industry and chemical industry. The spiral head made in the form of the sequential rows of the spirals is installed in the packet in parallel to each other and to the flow in compliance of the dense location scheme. The adjacent and sequential spirals may be of the similar or counter rotation type. The sequential spirals are not necessary coaxial. Such location allows to form the oncoming or following movement of flows between the parallel spirals, that increases the turbulization and promotes stabilization of distribution of the dispersion particles according to their section and also to optimize selection of the design of the packet for the particular conditions of the process. The invention provides for manufacture of the layers of the spiral head by the strain of sheets, that makes it possible to organize its mass production in the wide range. Uniqueness of the spiral head ensures the effective interaction of the phases in their three possible relative movements: the direct-flow, the counter flow and the pseudo-liquefied flow.
EFFECT: the invention ensures manufacture of the layers of the spiral head by the strain of sheets, that that makes it possible to organize its mass production in the wide range and the effective interaction of the phases in their relative movements - the direct-flow, the counter flow and the pseudo-liquefied flow.
11 cl, 22 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; methods of separation of the mixtures of the liquid components.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical and petrochemical industries, in particular, to the method of separation of the mixture of the liquid components and may be used for separation of the components at the rectification installations. The method of separation of the mixture of the liquid components is realized at the installation including the rectifying column supplied with the mass-exchange devices and divided by the dead horizontal partition into two sections: the consolidating section and the exhausting section. The mixture of the liquid components is fed into the exhausting section, the vapors gained in the exhausting section are withdrawn, compressed and fed into the consolidating section; the liquid from the consolidating section through the water seal is fed into the exhausting section of the rectifying column; a part of the vat liquid is withdrawn in the form of the vat product, and the remained part is sent in the main heat-exchanger, where the distillate vapors are coming from the consolidating section of the rectifying column. The part of the formed at that distillate is taken out in the form of the distillate product, and the rest part is fed back in the form of the reflux into the consolidated section of the rectifying column. The vapors formed in the heat-exchanger are sent back into the exhausting section of the rectifying column. The rectifying column has: the connecting pipes for the liquid feeding in and the vapors withdrawal the arranged in the exhausting section; the line of the vapors intake, connected with the compressor linked with the first heat exchanger coupled with the connecting pipe for injection of the compressed vapors into the consolidating section; the connecting pipe for the liquid withdrawal from the consolidating area of the rectifying column connected through the water seal and the second heat-exchanger with the connecting pipe of the liquid injection into the exhausting section; the line of the vat liquid connected to the third main heat-exchanger; the dephlegmator connected to the consolidating section by the line of the vapor withdrawal from the rectifying column. The given invention allows to increase the savings of the heating vapor, to diminish atmospheric emissions and to reduce the amount of the waste waters.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased savings of the heating vapor, the reduced atmospheric emissions and the waste waters amount.
5 cl, 4 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: freshening of salt water for producing of sweet water from sea water.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has mass exchanging column-type unit with countercurrent flow of hot sea water and air, heater for increasing temperature of sea water to temperature at which sea water is to be introduced into mass exchanging column-type unit, condenser, and air flow inducer. Apparatus has additional heater for increasing temperature of condensate to value exceeding water temperature value at which it is introduced into mass exchanging column-type unit. Condenser is formed of second column-type mass exchanging unit with countercurrent flow of cooled condensate and gas-and-vapor mixture from first column-type mass exchanging unit. Hot condensate discharge line for discharging of hot condensate from condenser is connected to additional heater and is equipped with connection pipe for discharging of part of product condensate. Heater is made in the form of surface heat exchanger with countercurrent flow of basic sea water and condensate from additional heater. Cooled condensate output is connected to cooled condensate collecting tank which, in its turn, is connected to condenser. Apparatus has heater for additional flow of basic sea water, said heater being connected to cooled condensate collecting tank and to heated sea water collector equipped with vacuum creating unit. Apparatus has additional heater for increasing temperature of condensate. Said heater is made in the form of contact water heater with water-cooled fire box.
EFFECT: enhanced utilization of heat supplied and, consequently, increased efficiency of apparatus, reduced metal usage and decreased sizes.
3 cl, 1 dwg