Perfected heat pump for high-purity bottom product

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to separation of hydrocarbons. Unit for stripping of first component from the mix comprises distillation column with rectifier section with top steam flow outlet, section with bottom fluid flow outlet and raw stock section with stock inlet arranged between rectifier section and evaporator section, reboiler of bottom residue for re-evaporation of bottom fluid flow coming from evaporator section, upper steam flow condensation section, lateral steam bleed pipe, heat pump-compressor with inlet communicated with said lateral bleed pipe and outlet, second reboiler-heat exchanger with fluid side communicated with bottom flow from evaporator section and steam side communicated with outlet of heat pump-compressor.

EFFECT: efficient distillation, higher purity of bottom product, power savings.

9 cl, 4 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to the separation of hydrocarbons. More specifically, the present invention relates to an improvement in energy use for the separation of hydrocarbon components, which when distilled have similar boiling point.

The level of technology

Separation of hydrocarbons is a basic process in the oil industry. The oil is a mixture of many hydrocarbon compounds, and these compounds are separated and used for various purposes, such as fuel, lubricants, raw materials for polymer plants, etc. One way split in the oil industry is distillation. Distillation is a method of separation based on the difference in relative volatility of the components in the mixture and, consequently, on the difference in the composition of the liquid mixture and the vapor formed from the liquid mixture. In the standard method of continuous distillation, comprising many steps, this difference in composition creates the possibility for partial separation at each step. The liquid and vapor phases are sent to different stages and then give the new liquid and steam phases, all of which have various structures.

In distillation systems, there is one problem, which is that they consume a lot of energy is AI and inefficient from the point of view of usage and energy consumption. Improvements in design can significantly reduce energy consumption. With rising energy prices and increasing demands to reduce emissions of CO2related to energy consumption, there is an urgent need for more effective distillation structure.

Brief disclosure of the invention

The present invention provides a more efficient use of energy in the distillation mixture. Improved distillation provides increased cleanliness of the cubic product, reducing at the same time, the number of external energy supplied to the re-evaporation of the cubic stream in order to generate steam for the distillation of lighter components from the CC thread.

Installation of the present invention includes a distillation column, the top of the reflux condenser and the reboiler for the cubic content. Distillation column is a distillation section with an inlet opening for access flow intermediate the pair. The installation also contains a heat pump compressor for compressing a stream of intermediate pair and a second reboiler, heat exchanger. The second reboiler, heat exchanger vaporizes part of the cubic flow at the same time cooling the compressed stream intermediate the pair. The cooled compressed stream intermediate the pair returned to the rectification section of the column and evaporated CBM flux is diverted back to the bottom of the evaporating section of the distillation column.

Other objectives, advantages and applications of the present invention will become apparent to experts from the following detailed description and drawings.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 - diagram of one of the embodiments of the invention.

2 is a diagram of one of the embodiments with additional heat pump-compressor to compress the top of the steam flow.

Figure 3 - diagram of one of the alternative options for implementing the instant evaporation of the bottom liquid.

4 is an alternative option scheme implementation with instant evaporation of the bottom liquid.

Detailed disclosure of the invention

The separation of the fluid is well known in the technique, and the separation by distillation is a common method of separating two or more liquids. The process of distillation is based on the principle that different fluid components in a mixture have different volatility and, hence, there is a certain equilibrium in which the concentration of the more volatile components in the vapor phase is higher than the concentration of these components in the liquid phase.

In the process of continuous distillation of the basic equipment includes a distillation column with number plates and the top of the condenser and the reboiler of the cubic content. Typically, the distillation column is vertically oriented and the new cylindrical container and includes an input for receiving intended for separation of a fluid medium, the rectification section above the entrances of the evaporating section located under the fluid medium. Plates are usually a sieve trays or bubble cap plates or other plates which provide flow through them liquid and allow to penetrate through them upward a couple.

In the process of distillation exist in the vapor phase, which rises up the column, and the liquid phase, which moves to the bottom of the column. The liquid flows through the plate down next to the following plates, while the steam passes through the plates in contact with the liquid. This causes a shift in equilibrium and, consequently, the phase composition on the move up or down the column. At the bottom of the column, the liquid partially evaporates, forming a steam stream that continuously moves to the top of the column, while the remainder is given as a flow cubic product. In the top of the column vapor condenses, part of it is returned to the column, forming a continuous flowing in the bottom of the column a liquid stream, and the remainder is given in the form of condensate or distillate.

However, the distillation can absorb a lot of energy and involve many steps or plates, depending on the properties of the components in the partial mixture. This is especially important for mixtures of liquids that have similar boiling point, at which helicene number of steps to implement the desired separation.

If the cubic product requires a high purity can save energy by compressing streams intermediate vapor from the rectification section for re-evaporation of the cubic flow. The present invention provides an efficient re-evaporation of the cubic flow. Installation for the distillation separation of the present invention shown in figure 1. Installation includes distillation column 10 to the input 12 for raw materials, the rectification section 20, located above the entrance 12 for raw materials and with the outlet 22 to the top of the steam flow, and evaporation section 30 located at an input 12 for raw materials and with the outlet 32 for the cubic liquid flow. The installation also includes a reboiler 40 cubic content for re-evaporation of the cubic liquid flow and the upper section 50 of condensation to condense the top of the steam flow. The installation also includes a lateral steam dispenser 60 of section 20 of the rectification. Side steam dispenser 60 leads to the heat pump compressor 62, which is the vapor compression from the side of the steam dispenser 60. The compressed steam is supplied to steam towards the second reboiler-heat exchanger 64. Part of the bottom liquid is fed to the liquid side of the second reboiler-heat exchanger 64. Waste liquid re-evaporates, forming steam and the raw material which is fed into the bottom of the evaporating section 30 Perego is Noah column 10. The compressed vapor is mainly condensed and the condensed steam from reboiler-heat exchanger 64 is sent to the input section 20 of the rectification distillation column 10.

For efficiency reasons, when the installation is designed to produce cubic products with a high degree of purity, the rectification section 20 can be reduced in size by steaming through the side steam dispenser 60 and the side steam dispenser 60 may be placed above the lowest plates located in section 20 of the rectification. Raw materials are given the opportunity to separate into liquid and formed from the raw material vapor and the removal of steam passing through the rectification section 20 reduces the volumetric flow of vapor and liquid through the rectification section 20 above the lateral steam dispenser. As a result of removal of the intermediate stream to compress the compression ratio is reduced, which saves energy due to the fact that the compressor operates at a lower load.

Through the use of compression intermediate steam flows to re-evaporation of the cubic content achieved a significant reduction required for distillation columns of the external energy. The compression of the intermediate steam flow reduces the compression ratio and provides energy savings by reducing equipment. The composition of the steam flows from the top of the column will be different and this is the case of the compression ratio will be higher. The invention is particularly useful in the separation of loved ones components having similar boiling point. For example, when the separation of propane-propylene mixture, the distillation is carried out at elevated pressures, and due to the proximity of properties to a high degree of separation would require a large number of steps or plates in the distillation column. The compression of the intermediate streams withdrawn from the rectification section, can add a significant amount of energy for re-evaporation of the cubic flow. If you want to clear only the propane stream, the rectification section may be smaller in size and compressed streams withdrawn from the rectification section, will have sufficient heat in order to vaporize a portion of the cubic content.

In another embodiment, which is shown in figure 2, the installation also includes a second heat pump compressor 52 to compress the top of the steam flow. Top steam flow passes through the vapor-liquid separator 54 where the steam is conducted to the compressor 52. Part of the liquid from the vapor-liquid separator is directed to the product, while the other part goes to irrigation liquid in the column 10. In this embodiment, the reboiler 40 CC content is a reboiler, heat exchanger, compressed upper steam flow p is admitted to the steam side of the heat exchanger, and part of the bottom liquid is fed to the liquid side of the heat exchanger-reboiler 40. The compressed vapor is at least partially condensed and re-directed to the top of the column 10. The condensed liquid is under pressure and passes through pressure reducing valve, then when entering the top section 20 of the rectification column 10, the liquid partially evaporates. The condensed liquid may either enter into a separate hole in the top of the rectification section, or it may enter through the inlet for irrigation. The steam leaves through the exit 22 of the section 20 of the rectification, and the liquid is used as irrigation for section 20 of the rectification. Excess condensed liquid from the vapor-liquid separator 54 is pumped by pump 58 to storage or to other operating installation within petrochemical enterprises.

The installation further includes a third reboiler 42, also known as the end of the reboiler. The third reboiler 42 produces additional heat, when there is not enough heat from the first reboiler-heat exchanger 40 and the second reboiler-heat exchanger 64.

A part of the compressed upper steam flow can be skipped through the end of the capacitor 56. This part is condensed and sent to a vapor-liquid separator after passing through the reducing valve, a second Yes is pressure to pressure vapor-liquid separator. The condensed liquid partially undergoes instantaneous evaporation, and the remaining liquid is added to the irrigation in the column 10.

Use end of the capacitor 56 depends on the number of compressed upper pair, which do not need to submit in the reboiler 40. This is determined by the requirements with respect to heat load reboiler 40 and the amount of compressed upper pair, which must be condensed.

The invention also provides a way to separate the less volatile component in the mixture, when kubulau product to meet high requirements in terms of cleanliness. When the heat pump compressor intermediate steam flows can be used to supply heat to the heating of the cubic flow for the distillation column. The method includes the direction of the mixture to the raw section of the distillation column, which has over the resource section includes a rectification section, and under the resource section of the evaporation section. In this way creates the upper steam stream and blue stream. The upper part of the steam stream is condensed, resulting in a condensed upper stream. Part of the condensed upper flow is directed into the upper portion (head portion) of the rectification section as irrigation (flegma) for the distilling process. Part of the cubic flow is directed to the first is in the reboiler, where the flow is at least partially vaporized and the vaporized bottoms distillation stream is directed into the lower part of the evaporating section.

The method also includes the outlet side of the steam flow from the intermediate stage of the rectification section and the supply side of the steam flow in the heat pump compressor, where the steam flow is compressed with the formation of a pressure side of the steam flow. Compressed steam side stream is fed to the steam side of the second reboiler-heat exchanger and used to heat part of the cubic stream that is fed to the liquid side of the second heat exchanger. CBM thread re-evaporates, forming a steam stream that is sent to the bottom of the evaporating section. Compressed steam side stream is cooled and partially or completely condensed, after which it is directed to the inlet section of the rectification column. Condensed compressed steam side stream passes through a reducing valve and its transmission to the distillation column is subjected to partial instantaneous evaporation, resulting in a raw side stream that is partially liquid and partially vapor.

In one alternative implementation of the method top steam flows into the vapor-liquid separator, resulting in the formation of steam flow and liquid sweat is to, which is used as irrigation. The steam flows into the upper pump-compressor, resulting in a compressed upper steam flow. Compressed upper steam flow as a result of compression is heated and used for re-evaporation part of the cubic flow. In this embodiment, the first reboiler heat exchanger is on the steam side of which is supplied compressed upper steam flow. Part of the cubic stream is fed to the liquid side of the first reboiler, resulting in part of the cubic flow evaporates, forming the bottom of the steam flow. After this bottom steam flows into the bottom of the evaporating section. Compressed upper steam stream is cooled, and a portion of this stream is condensed. Preferably, the first reboiler had the size and operated in conditions in which condensed all compressed upper steam stream.

Condensed upper steam stream is at high pressure and before filing up (the head part) of the rectification section of the column passes through a reducing valve. The condensed stream during its feed to the column undergoes instantaneous evaporation, and part of the liquid after flash evaporation plays the role of flow irrigation for rectification section. Formed by instantaneous evaporation kondensirovannogo the flow of steam is supplied in a vapor-liquid separator.

In one alternative implementation of the improved cleaning of the cubic flow includes lowering the pressure of the cubic flow and re-evaporation of the cubic flow with reduced pressure, resulting in a bottom of the steam flow. As follows from figure 3, the unit comprises a casing 10 having a rectification section 20 with the outlet 22 to the top of the steam flow, the evaporator section 30 with the outlet 32 for the cubic liquid stream and a raw partition to the input 12 for raw materials, which is located between the section 20 of the distillation and evaporation section 30. The installation also includes reboiler section, which, in turn, includes a device 46 for reducing the pressure of the cubic liquid flow, the first reboiler 40, liquid side of which communicates via a fluid environment having a reduced pressure kubovy flow, and steam fitting communicates via a fluid from the upper steam flow, as well as the first heat pump compressor 70 which is connected by fluid from the liquid side of the first reboiler. Top steam stream which is condensed in the first reboiler 40, served in a vapor-liquid separating drum and communicates via a fluid environment with the top section 20 of the rectification.

The installation further includes a lateral outlet 60 for exhaust steam flow from section 20 of the rectification. B what does the steam dispenser 60 is communicated in fluid with the steam side of the second reboiler 64. The liquid side of the second reboiler 64 communicates via a fluid environment having a reduced pressure liquid kubovy thread. Liquid CBM flow with reduced pressure can be abstracted from the cubic liquid stream, which already has been reduced in pressure when passing through the reducing device 46, or it may be a separate part of the cubic liquid stream which is passed through the second reducing device (not shown). The second heat pump compressor 72 is communicated in fluid with re-evaporated kubovy flow and forms a compressed bottom steam stream that is sent to the bottom of the evaporating section 30.

Reducing device 46 may be a valve Joule-Thomson or any other device to reduce the pressure of the cubic liquid flow. Another device involves the transmission of fluid through the turbine to actuate the motor to, and recover some of the energy which is consumed in the process of reducing the pressure.

The method for implementation of this option involves feeding the mixture in the raw materials section of the distillation column 10. Distillation column 10 is operated in such a way as to create steam flow up the column 10, and the liquid flow down the column 10, and the upper steam flow out through the outlet 22 of the section 20 of rectifica the AI and CBM liquid flow out through the outlet 32 of the evaporating section 30. Part of the cubic liquid stream is passed through a reducing device 46 with the formation of the cubic flow with reduced pressure. CBM flow with reduced pressure is applied to the first reboiler 40 on the liquid side of reboiler. Top steam stream is fed to the steam side of the first reboiler 40. The top vapor stream condenses, forming as a result of this condensed stream and blue stream at a reduced pressure to evaporate, forming a bottom of the steam flow. Condensed upper thread is fed up (the head part) of section 20 of the rectification as irrigation.

CBM flow with reduced pressure re-vaporized in the reboiler 40, forming the bottom of the steam flow. The rest of the vaporized liquid in the VAT flow with reduced pressure is separated and collected, and then returns to the bottom of the evaporating section 30. Since the liquid is at a lower pressure, the fluid pressure is increased by a pump 74 to a pressure sufficient for admission of fluid in the evaporator section 30. The separation of the liquid and vapor re-heated liquid is used to prevent the fluid entering the heat pumps-compressors 70, 72. Bottom steam stream is compressed using a heat pump compressor 70 with the formation of the compressed bottom of the steam flow. Bottom steam the stream is directed into the bottom of the evaporating section 30 to produce heat and steam for the distillation of the more volatile components of the fluid, moving down the distillation column 10.

The second part of the cubic liquid stream is passed through a device for reducing the pressure of the fluid. For this second part may be a separate reducing device, such as a single valve, or this part can be discharged from the first part of the bottom liquid after its passage through the reducing device. Regulation of the driving force, which is the temperature required for heat transfer and the resulting re-evaporation of the second part of the cubic liquid stream is provided by the second reducing device. The second part passes through the second reboiler 64, where this second part evaporates with the formation of the second bottom of the steam flow. Not evaporated part of the second part of the cubic liquid stream is separated, collected and pumped back into the bottom of the evaporating section 30 by a pump 74. The second bottom steam stream is compressed using a second heat pump compressor 72, resulting in a second compressed bottom steam flow. The second compressed bottom steam flow is served afterwards in the bottom of the evaporating section 30 to add additional steam for the refining process. The remainder of the cubic liquid flow is CBM product that has a high purity.

Steam side stream from titsa through a side opening 60 in the distillation column 10 and then passes through the steam side of the second reboiler 64, where is the condensation of the steam side stream. Condensed side stream is served afterwards in the distillation column 10 as the side of the liquid raw material. Preferably, the steam side stream was given near the bottom of the section 20 of the rectification.

Figure 4 shows another alternative to the above option implementation. Installation includes distillation column 10 having a rectification section 20 and the evaporator section 30. In addition, the installation includes a device 46 for reducing the pressure of the cubic liquid stream and a first reboiler 40 having a liquid side chamber connected in fluid with liquid kubovy flow with reduced pressure. The upper part of the steam flows to the steam side of the first reboiler 40, where the top vapor stream is condensed, and the liquid VAT residue evaporates. Not evaporated portion of the liquid of the cubic flow separates, is collected and pumped back into the bottom of the evaporating section 30. The pump 74 increases the pressure not evaporated liquid collected from the first reboiler 40, up to at least pressure the lower part of the evaporation zone 30. The flow of evaporated VAT residue shrink using a heat pump compressor 70, thereby producing a compressed steam flow and submit it to the bottom (in the cube) evaporator section 30. Condensed upper steam flow is ran the px section 20 of the rectification as irrigation. Preferably, the condensed upper steam flow was applied initially in the vapor-liquid separation tank 54. Part collected in the tank 54 of the liquid is taken as the head of the distillate, and the remainder is returned to the top section 20 of the rectification.

The installation further includes an opening 60 for removal of the intermediate liquid stream from the column 10. Preferably, the hole 60 were in the evaporator section 30 of the column. The intermediate liquid stream is passed through the second reducing device 66, resulting in the formation of an intermediate liquid stream at a reduced pressure. The intermediate liquid stream with a reduced pressure is communicated in fluid with the liquid side of the second reboiler 64, where the evaporation of at least part of the liquid. Not evaporated portion of the intermediate liquid stream is separated, collected and returned to the Stripping section 30. Not evaporated liquid portion from the second reboiler 64 is passed through the second pump 76 to a pressure sufficient for returning the liquid to the column 10. Not evaporated liquid part can be returned to the rectification section near or below the pin holes 60 for the liquid. In one embodiment, the implementation of this part is returned together with the liquid derived from the first reboiler. The second part of the upper steam pot is ka served on the steam side of the second reboiler 64, where this second part at least partially condensed. The evaporated intermediate stream is compressed using a second heat pump compressor 72, after which the compressed intermediate pairs is returned to the column 10. Preferably the return of steam to the column 10 in a position above the plates, with which the intermediate liquid stream is discharged through the hole 60. Condensed upper steam flow reported by the fluid to the top of the rectification section, where the condensed stream is returned as irrigation.

The method involves the use of upper steam flow to re-evaporation of the cubic liquid stream and an intermediate liquid stream. The liquid streams are passed through a reducing device and evaporate at lower temperatures. Evaporated streams are then compressed, as a result of which the steam is heated. The heated and compressed vapor then returns to the distillation column to provide the rising steam for distillation light ends moving down the liquid.

In the specified embodiment, the mixture is fed in the raw materials section of the distillation column. Distillation column has an outlet in the top section 20 of the rectification to the top of the steam flow and the outlet at the bottom of the evaporating section 30 for the cubic liquid flow. Part of the cubic stream Ave is started up through the reducing valve 46 to the first reboiler 40, where is the heat transfer from the upper part of the steam flow. CBM stream evaporates, and the upper steam stream is condensed. Evaporated bottoms distillation stream is compressed using a heat pump compressor 70 with the formation of the compressed and heated cubic steam flow. CBM steam flows into the bottom of the evaporating section 30 for supplying the heat for the distillation of the components of the liquid descending down the column 10. Condensed upper steam stream is fed to the top section 20 of the rectification as irrigation.

The method further includes the removal of liquid flow from the intermediate holes 60 in the column 10 and the transmittance of the intermediate liquid flow through the reducing valve 66, resulting in the formation of an intermediate liquid stream at a reduced pressure which is fed to the second reboiler 64. Liquid flow with reduced pressure is subjected to heat exchange with the second part of the top of the steam flow, resulting in a liquid flow at a reduced pressure to evaporate, and the upper steam stream is condensed.

Re-evaporated intermediate vapor stream is compressed using a second heat pump compressor 72 and sent to intermediate the inlet in the column 10. Preferably, pairs did above plates, with which the intermediate liquid is led out to the pubic through the hole 60. The second part of the condensed top of the steam flows into the upper section 20 of the rectification as supplemental irrigation.

Through the use of heat compressed intermediate flow of energy in the process of distillation is used more efficiently, which may allow further reduce the size of the distillation column below the intermediate casing, as in this case through the evaporator section below the intermediate exhaust are reduced steam and liquid flows.

Although the invention is described using the fact that in this application is regarded as the preferred options for implementation, it should be clear that the invention is not limited to the disclosed variant implementation, and designed to cover various modifications and equivalent arrangements included in the scope of the attached claims.

1. Installation for the distillation separation of the first component from a mixture containing:
distillation column (10)containing the rectification section (20)having access to the top of the steam flow, the evaporator section (30)having access to the cubic liquid flow, and the raw material section having an inlet for raw material (12) and located between the rectification section (20) and the evaporator section (30);
section reboiler the cubic content for re-evaporation of the cubic liquid stream coming from the flash steam is the second partition (30);
the upper section (50) condensation condensation upper steam flow coming from the rectification section;
side steam dispenser (60) from the rectification section (20);
the heat pump compressor (62)having an input that communicates via a fluid with a side steam dispenser (6), and an output; and
the second reboiler-air heat exchanger (64)having a liquid side chamber connected in fluid with kubovy flow from the evaporator section (30), and steam side, a built-in fluid with the outlet of the heat pump compressor (62).

2. Installation according to claim 1, additionally containing a second heat pump compressor (52)having an input which is connected by fluid from the upper steam flow, and an outlet through which the pump-compressor) is formed of the upper compressed steam stream.

3. Installation according to claim 2, in which section reboiler the cubic content comprises a heat exchanger (40)having a liquid side chamber connected in fluid with kubovy flow from the evaporating section, and a steam side chamber connected in fluid from the upper compressed steam flow.

4. Installation according to claim 2, additionally containing a capacitor (56)having an input which is connected for fluid to exit the second heat pump (52), and designed to condense part of the upper compressed steam flow.

5. Installation according to claim 4, in which the capacitor (56) what is a limit to the condenser.

6. Installation according to claim 2, additionally containing vapor-liquid separation tank (54) for separating, with the input of which is connected in a fluid environment with the output from the rectification section (20), and the output of which is connected by fluid from the inlet of the second heat pump compressor (52).

7. Installation according to claim 1, additionally containing a third reboiler (42) for re-evaporation of additional fluid from the CC thread.

8. Installation according to claim 1, in which the lateral steam dispenser (60) is located above the lower plate of the rectification section (20).

9. Installation according to claim 1, additionally containing a side entrance into the rectification section (20) and in which the output of the heat pump compressor is communicated in fluid with the side entrance to the rectification section (20).



 

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14 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of producing and purifying vinylaromatic monomers, involving: a) feeding a stream consisting of an aromatic hydrocarbon, together with a stream essentially consisting of C2-C3 olefin, into an alkylation section; b) feeding reaction products coming from the alkylation section into a first separation section; c) outputting from the first alkylation section a first stream consisting of unreacted aromatic hydrocarbon, which is fed for reuse into the alkylation section, a second stream essentially consisting of monoalkylated aromatic hydrocarbon, a third stream essentially consisting of dialkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, fed into the transalkylation section, and a fourth stream essentially consisting of a mixture of polyalkylated aromatic hydrocarbons; d) feeding the second stream from step (c) into a dehydrogenattion section; e) feeding reaction products coming from the dehydrogenation section into a second separation/purification section, comprising at least one distillation column; f) outputting a stream consisting of a vinylaromatic monomer with purity of over 99.7 wt % from the top part of the said at least one distillation column, characterised by that: after first cooling with return of heat leaving the dehydrogenation step and after washing with spray water, the gas is fed into the cladding of a bundle of pipes of a heat exchanger lying vertically or horizontally, in whose pipes cooling fluid flows, where gas condenses in the heat exchanger; gas is fed from the bottom part of the heat exchanger with liquid obtained through condensation, which flows counterflow and comes out of the heat exchanger completely or partially, as well as from the bottom part of the jacket of the heat exchanger, and which is fed into a second separation/purification section (e); possible gas and uncondensed substances are output from the top part of the jacket of the heat exchanger.

EFFECT: use of the present method reduces formation of deposits and solid body mass inside the condensation system and sometimes inside hydrogen compressors.

15 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of purifying alkyl aromatic compounds with an alkyl chain comprising 9-25 carbon atoms, involving the following steps: i) separation of a mixture of alkyl aromatic compounds in a fractionation column, which separates 60-85 wt % of the starting material through the top part the column to obtain a light fraction and a heavy fraction, ii) separation of the heavy fraction from step (i) in a fractionation column which works at pressure in the top part between 0 and 0.1 MPa (0-1 bar), at temperature in the bottom part between 175 and 290C and temperature in the top part between 90 and 200C, to obtain a light fraction and a heavy fraction, iii) removing chromophore precursors from the light fraction from step (ii) via percolation filtration through a fixed layer used to clean solid substance, iv) removing light by-products obtained at step (iii) using a distillation column which works at temperature between 60 and 250C, v) mixing the purified alkylate obtained at step (iv) with a light fraction obtained during distillation at step (i).

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to obtain detergents with low colour grade owing to sulphonation.

16 cl, 2 ex, 6 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: gas-and-oil producing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil processing and oil chemical industry and can be implemented for processing heavy hydrocarbon stock, oil, residual oil stock, and oil concentrates extracted from oil containing waste. The procedure consists in treatment of stock of over 870 kg/m3 density, in preliminary heating and in separation into benzene-diesel fumes and a residual heavy fraction. Benzene-diesel fumes are directed to fractioning where there are extracted gaseous and liquid light products and the heavy distillate fraction. The residual heavy fraction is subjected to thermolysis; fumes of thermolysis are supplied to fractioning, while residue of thermolysis is withdrawn. The heavy distillate fraction is heated to 440-500C, further it is divided into a steam phase and liquid residue; the latter is mixed with the residual heavy fraction preliminary heated to 380-420C. Produced mixture is subjected to thermolysis in a multi-section reactor. The steam phase is directed to the reactor section by section for maintaining temperature of thermolysis. Pressure in the reactor is dropped section-by-section. Residue of thermolysis is withdrawn as fuel oil or bitumen stock, or pitch.

EFFECT: processing various kinds of heavy carbon stock and increased output of light products out of it without catalytic process.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved method of obtaining, at least, one diaryl carbonate of formula (I) and/or alkylaryl carbonate of formula (IV) from, at least, one dialkyl carbonate and, at least, one aromatic hydroxy-compound of formula III , where R, R' and R" independent on each other represent hydrogen atom, linear or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, alkoxy with 1-34 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl with 5-34 carbon atoms, alkylaryl with 7-34 carbon atoms, aryl with 6-34 carbon atoms or halogen residue, and R can also stand for - COO-R'" group, in which R'" can stand for hydrogen atom, linear or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, alkoxy with 1-34 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl with 5-34 carbon atoms, alkylaryl with 7-34 carbon atoms or aryl with 6-34 carbon atoms, and R1 is linear or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, in which (a) dialkyl carbonate or dialkyl carbonates in presence of, at least, one re-esterification catalyst is subjected to interaction with aromatic hydroxy-compound or aromatic hydroxy-compounds in first reaction column, which contains, at least, one strengthening part in head part of column and, at least one reaction zone under strengthening part, which contains, at least, two sections, (b) vapour, released in head part of first reaction column, is fully or partly condensed in, at least, one condenser, (c) cube product of first reaction column is supplied into, at least, one more reaction column, which contains, at least, one strengthening part in head part of column and, at least, one reaction zone under strengthening part, and it is subjected in said column (said columns) to further conversion, (d) non-converted in reaction columns or formed during reaction dialkyl carbonate is completely or partly separated from alkyl alcohol, formed during reaction, at least, at one more stage of method, which includes, at least, one distillation column and (e) separated at stage (d) dialkyl carbonate, in case of necessity, after further purification is re-supplied into first reaction column, where additional reaction column (additional reaction columns) is equipped with one or several condensers, and that condensation heat, formed in condensation in said condensers is directly or indirectly returned to process.

EFFECT: increased method efficiency.

12 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to oil-and-gas industry and may be used for separation of hydrocarbons and liquefied gases. In compliance with this method mix of vapors is fed as condensed vapor and swirled inside vertical pipe to create countercurrent motion of swirled phase flows. Note here that condensate flows downward and from said pipe over its inner surface to get enriched with high-boiling component while vapor flows upward to escape from said pipe in axial region to get enriched with low-boiling component. Mix is fed tangentially and upward in pipe bottom while pipe inner surface is cooled to form condensate, a wet reflux, thereon. Pipe inner surface temperature is maintained to make temperature of target product, the vapor, approximate to low-boiling component boiling point. Proposed device comprises vertical cylindrical pipe with top and bottom ends, gas discharge branch pipe at top end, fluid discharge branch pipe at bottom end and means for tangential mix feed inside the pipe. Said cylindrical pipe is fitted in tangential larger-diameter pipe to form annular flow channel confined by top and bottom ends for heat carrier to circulate therein. Means for tangential mix feed inside the pipe are composed of end swirler arranged at pipe bottom end. Fluid discharge means represent clearance between inner cylindrical pipe swirler. Annular flow channel and gas discharge branch pipe accommodate temperature control means, for example, thermometers. Heat carrier flow rate regulator, for example, control valve, is arranged at annular channel.

EFFECT: higher purity of low-boiling component.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to distributors of mass flows used in hydraulic processing reactors. Proposed device comprises some horizontal self-bearing structures acting as bearing transverse parts and plate-shape panels which, when installed, make a plate tightly fitted in structure joints and between the plate and apparatus inner wall. Self-bearing structure consists of lower panel with some equal holes wherein every hole corresponds to long channel for descending flow shaped to tube or any other geometrical figure with cross-section identical to that of plate hole. Every channel has inlet for straight two-phase flow. Note here that, at least, two channels are provided with common vertical nozzle.

EFFECT: simplified design, optimised sizes, lower costs and higher efficiency.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power engineering, particularly, to research and power reactors with liquid-metal lead-bearing heat carrier. Mass exchanger comprises housing with annular cover accommodating top grate arranged above heat carrier level and solid-phase oxidizer arranged above said top grate. Mass exchanger comprises also gas distributor arranged under solid-phase oxidiser, gas consumption booster and gas feed pipeline. One part of said pipeline communicates heat carrier chamber gas cavity while its other part communicated outlet of said booster with feed pipeline communicated with gas distributor. Note here that openings are made between annular cover and top grate, partly located above heat carrier level and partly in gas cavity.

EFFECT: friendly operation, efficient feed of oxygen.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of producing at least one diaryl carbonate of formula , where R, R' and R" independently denote a hydrogen atom, a straight or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, an alkoxy with 1-34 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl with 5-34 carbon atoms, an alkylaryl with 7-34 carbon atoms, an aryl with 6-34 carbon atoms and a halogen atom, wherein R also denotes a -COO-R"' group in which R'" denotes a hydrogen atom, a straight or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, an alkoxy with 1-34 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl with 5-34 carbon atoms, an alkylaryl with 7-34 carbon atoms and an aryl with 6-34 carbon atoms, and/or an alkylaryl carbonate of formula , where R, R' and R" have values given above, R1 denotes a straight or branched alkyl with 1-34 carbon atoms, from at least one dialkyl carbonate and at least one aromatic hydroxy compound of formula , where R, R' and R" have values given above, wherein (a) dialkyl carbonate, in the presence of at least one reesterification catalyst, reacts with an aromatic hydroxy compound of formula (III), in at least one reesterification column having at least an enrichment part in the top part of the column and at least one reaction zone below the enrichment part, wherein the enrichment part has at least two sections, (b) vapour collected from the top part of the reesterification column is completely or partially condensed in at least one condenser, where at least one enrichment part of the reesterification column is provided with at least one intermediate condenser, wherein heat released during condensation occurring therein is directly or indirectly returned into the process. The invention also relates to a column for carrying out said method, having at least one inlet opening for dialkyl carbonate and at least one inlet opening for the hydroxy compound, at least one outlet opening for the gaseous end product in the top part of the column which is linked to the condenser and at least one outlet opening for the liquid bottom product in the bottom part of the column, at least one enrichment part in the top part of the column and at least one reaction zone below the enrichment part, wherein the enrichment part has at least two sections, wherein at least one enrichment part is provided with at least intermediate condenser.

EFFECT: invention enables use of one or more intermediate condensers to optimise energy integration.

14 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved carbonylation methods in order to produce acetic acid, the methods involving: (a) carbonylating methanol or reactive derivatives thereof in the presence of water, a catalyst selected from a group which includes rhodium catalysts, iridium catalysts and mixtures thereof, and methyl iodide as a promoter to form an acetic acid containing reaction mixture in the reactor; (b) separating the stream of the acetic acid containing reaction mixture into a liquid recycled stream and a crude product stream containing acetic acid, methyl iodide, methyl acetate and water; (c) feeding the crude product stream to a stripping column having a distillation zone; (d) purifying the crude product stream in the distillation zone of the stripping column to remove methyl iodide and methyl acetate and obtain a purified product stream, the purified product stream characterised lower concentration of methyl iodide and methyl acetate than the crude product stream, and wherein the step of purifying the crude product stream involves: (i) condensing overhead vapour from the distillation zone of the stripping column, (ii) decanting the condensed vapour to obtain a heavy phase mainly containing methyl iodide and a light phase mainly containing acetic acid and water, and (iii) refluxing at least a portion of the condensed heavy phase to the distillation zone of the stripping column; and (iv) recycling the light phase into the reactor; and (e) drawing a purified product stream from the stripping column.

EFFECT: content of acetic acid in the overhead vapour of the stripping column and content of water in the product stream of the stripping column (side cut) is reduced, which increases efficiency of purification.

17 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing a biodegradable intermolecular cyclic diester of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acid. The method involves feeding a mixture of materials into a purification apparatus fitted with a column with a dividing wall, dividing the mixture of materials and extracting the purified diester. Said purification apparatus has the following components: a fractionating column, an outlet opening, a mass-exchange cap, a column with a dividing wall which is divided into two zones by a vertical dividing wall, an additional mass-exchange cap, an evaporator and an outlet opening on the collector side. The ratio of the length of the column with a dividing wall to the total length of the purification apparatus range from 0.5 to 0.9.

EFFECT: method enables cheap and efficient separation of diester from mixtures of materials when producing diester with high purity of material and/or optical purity.

19 cl, 9 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of flows of used materials. Proposed plant comprises the following components: a) vertical column divided into three zones: mixing zone, settling zone and mass exchange zone; b) waste discharge outlet communicated with mixing zone; c) organic material discharge outlet communicated with settling zone to remove organic phase from the plant; d) fluid transfer line communicating settling zone with mass exchange zone to transfer liquid phase from settling zone to mass exchange zone; e) vapor line communicating mass exchange zone with settling zone; f) inert gas inlet communicated with mass exchange zones, and g) waste discharge outlet communicated with mass exchange zone to allow discharge of fluid material.

EFFECT: decreased capital and operating costs.

9 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: reactor contains a bed of catalyst, mixing and distributing device above the catalyst bed through which steady flow of liquid and gas phases is directed downwards. Mixing and distributing device includes chute distributor with channels in the form of chutes and drain tubes for liquid phase, also it includes distributor plate located under chute distributor with vertical pass checkers. Chute distributor is provided with holes for inlet of gas phase and holes under it for liquid phase delivery. Number and size of holes for liquid phase delivery provides the following: upon preset delivery of fluid level on distributor plate is below holes for gas phase inlet and above holes for liquid phase delivery.

EFFECT: uniform distribution of gas and liquid phases and good transformation and selectivity of three-phase reaction.

20 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical engineering and biotechnology and can be used to intensify processes whose rate is defined by intensity of mass transfer of oxygen from gas phase to liquid phase. The method involves the following. While stirring, microdispersed particles of a solid substance with particle size 10-100 mcm, whose surface is first coated with material which increases water repellency, is added to a liquid phase in concentration of 0.25-3.0 g/l. Stirring is carried out at a rate of 100-400 rpm, which provides hydrodynamic conditions corresponding to modified Reynolds number values ReM=4000-17000. The solid substance is selected from non-porous, water-insoluble, biodegradation-resistant substances with density 0.9-4.3 g/cm3 and hardness 1-10, for example, quartz sand, graphite, titanium oxide and zirconium oxide. The material used to coat the microdispersed particles of the solid substance must have a wetting angle considerably greater than the wetting angle of the selected solid substance, must be stable in the temperature range 0-70C, insoluble in water and very soluble in organic solvents.

EFFECT: high efficiency of mass transfer of oxygen from gas phase to liquid phase.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: heat supply.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the heat supply industry and is intended for preparation of fuel, in particular, petroleum for use in the boiler rooms being a source of a heat supply of remote settlements. The installation contains: a heater-evaporator, a heat exchanger for heating up a feed stock, the fuel feed stock pump and containers of the feed stock and collection of the light fractions. At that the installation is supplied with the second feed stock pump and three in series connected to each other heat exchangers of the light fractions condensation, the first and second feed stock pumps are connected by their inlets to a feed stock container. The outlet of the first feed stock pump is connected through the feed stock heating up heat exchanger to the heater-evaporator, which by its vapors outlet is connected to the first out of three in series connected to each other heat exchangers, the last of which is connected to its container of the light fractions condensate collection. The outlet of the second feed stock pump is connected in parallel to the heat exchangers of condensation of the light fractions and through them to the heater-evaporator. Each of heat exchangers in parallel connected to each other is supplied with a thermoregulator to keep in it a constant temperature of condensation of the light fractions vapors. The first and second of in series connected heat exchangers are connected through the placed in the feed stock container coiled pipes each to its container of the light fractions collection. The heater- evaporator through the feed stock heating up heat exchanger is connected to the container for fuel collection. In the result the invention allows to upgrade quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous production of several light fractions of the feed stock, mainly petroleum. The invention ensures improvement of the quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous separate production of several light fractions of a feed stock, mainly petroleum.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of the fuel preparation for the boiler plants at simultaneous separate production of several light fractions of the feed stock, mainly petroleum.

1 dwg

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