Conductive pastes with organometallic modifiers
SUBSTANCE: conductive paste contains frit glass, a conductive material, an organic medium and one or more organometallic components which form metal oxides when burnt. The organometallic components are selected from a group comprising a metal carboxylate and a metal alkoxide, where the metal is boron, aluminium, silicon, bismuth, zinc or vanadium. When deposited on antireflecting coating on a substrate, the conductive paste is capable of penetrating the coating to form an ohmic contact with the substrate. Described also is a photovoltaic cell, having a semiconductor substrate, an antireflecting coating and lines of a conductive mesh formed from said conductive paste.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the photovoltaic cell, improved adhesion and ohmic contact between metallic elements and the substrate through antireflecting coatings.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
The technical field of the invention
Embodiments of the present invention relate to a conductive pastes containing the Frit and one or more ORGANOMETALLIC compounds and the photovoltaic elements having a line conductive mesh formed of conductive pastes, which contain the Frit and one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components.
Prior art inventions
Conductive paste or mass used for the formation of metal contacts, such as silver grid lines and bus, on the surface of substrates, such as silicon. Such substrates can be used in solar cells or photovoltaic cells, which convert solar energy into electrical energy when the solar photons of light excite electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor in a conductive area of the semiconductor. The electrons that move in a conductive area of a semiconductor, are collected in the metal contacts. Crystalline silicon solar cells in modern industry usually cover the antireflection coating to improve light absorption, which increases the efficiency of the elements. However, the ar coating also acts as an insulator, preventing the transfer of electrons from the substrate to the metal contacts. Solar cells usually cover p is brightening coating before applying the conductive paste. Ar coatings often contain silicon nitride, titanium oxide or silicon oxide.
Conductive pastes typically contain a glass Frit, conductive material and organic environment. Conductive material, typically metal particles such as silver, impart conductive properties and act as economatica after formation of metal contacts. For the formation of metal contacts the conductive paste is applied on the substrate by a printing method. The substrate is then calcined at a temperature in the range from about 650°to about 950°C. In most cases, the required sintering additive, since the applied firing temperature lower than the eutectic point of silver and silicon, and the melting point of silver. In addition, solar cells usually cover the antireflection coating before applying the conductive paste. A conductive paste should penetrate through the ar coating for the formation of metal contacts having ohmic contact with the substrate.
Conductive paste containing glass Frit to facilitate the sintering of the metal particles with the substrate and to improve the adhesion and ohmic contact is formed between the metal contact and the substrate. Depending on the composition of the glass Frit can be liquefied when firing at a temperature of from about 300°to about 600°C. When resigen the glass Frit becomes the tendency to flow in the direction of the boundary between the metal particles and anti-reflective coating, located on the substrate. Molten glass dissolves substances antireflection coating, and the silver part and the substrate. When the temperature of the molten silver and molten or dissolved substrate to crystallize from the liquid phase. As a result, some of the crystallites of silver capable of penetrating through the antireflection layer and to form an ohmic contact with the substrate. This method is called "fire-through", it facilitates the formation of low contact resistance and more durable connection between the silver and the substrate. If selected, the Frit is too aggressive, the substrate may be contaminated, thereby reducing the performance of solar cells. The selection of the suitable Frits or mixtures of Frits predecessors helps to avoid such pollution and to ensure good performance elements.
Accordingly, there is a need for a conductive paste, which improves the series resistance in the galvanic element, promotes sintering and also has the ability to improve the adhesion and ohmic contact between the metal contacts and the substrate through the antireflection coating.
Brief description of the invention
In one aspect the present invention provides a conductive paste using a glass Frit, conductive material, the organization of the mini-environment and one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components, which upon firing to form alloys of metals or metal oxides. When used in the text of this application, the terms "mass" and "pasta" are used interchangeably.
In one or more embodiments, the Frit and one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components of the conductive paste unite in mass, adapted for application to a substrate, such as a photovoltaic element that reduces the series resistance of the photovoltaic element in the same or greater extent as for photovoltaic cells coated with the masses that do not contain ORGANOMETALLIC components. When applied to the antireflection coating on a substrate, a conductive paste according to another variant implementation is able to penetrate through the ar coating for formation of an ohmic contact with the substrate.
In other embodiments, perform one or more ORGANOMETALLIC component contained in the paste in an amount sufficient for the formation of about 1 wt.% metal oxide during firing. In some versions of the conductive paste contains one or more ORGANOMETALLIC component in the amount of less than about 40 wt.%. In the private embodiment, the one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components are present in amounts less than about 15 wt.%. In a more private version of the imp is in ORGANOMETALLIC components are present in amounts less than about 8 wt.%.
In another embodiment, the invention is described paste, which uses the Frit that includes one or more of the following: bismuth oxide, silicon dioxide, boron oxide, tellurium dioxide, and combinations thereof.
One or more variants of carrying out the invention a conductive paste includes bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC component. In the private embodiment, the bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC component is present in the conductive paste in an amount of about 4 wt.%. In a more private embodiment, a conductive paste may include bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC component and the Frit containing one or more of the following: bismuth oxide, silicon dioxide, boron oxide, tellurium dioxide, and combinations thereof.
According to another aspect of the present invention, the photovoltaic cell includes a semiconductor substrate, the antireflection coating and line conductive mesh formed from a conductive paste, which contains a Frit and one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components. A conductive paste is used in one embodiment, the photovoltaic elements were annealed to form grids containing metal oxide phase and a conductive material. In one or more versions of the conductive paste was treated to remove the organic medium and sintering of a conductive material. One options is the ant execution of the present invention a conductive paste contains a Frit, includes one or more of the following: bismuth oxide, silicon dioxide, boron oxide, tellurium dioxide, and combinations thereof. In another embodiment, one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components are present in the conductive paste in an amount sufficient to generate, during firing, at least about 1 wt.% a metal oxide. In the private embodiment, one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components are present in amounts less than about 40 wt.%. More private embodiment of the invention includes one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components in amounts less than about 15 wt.%, while more private embodiment of the invention has one or more ORGANOMETALLIC component in the amount of less than about 8 wt.%.
One or more variants of execution of the invention the photovoltaic elements include conductive paste containing bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC component. More specific embodiments of the invention have a conductive paste containing bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC component in an amount of about 4 wt.%. In an even more private versions of the photovoltaic elements is used bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC component and the Frit, which contains one or more of the following: bismuth oxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide is ora, dioxide, tellurium, and combinations thereof.
Above quite extensively outlined some of the features and technical advantages of the present invention. Specialists in the art will understand that the described private embodiments of the invention can easily be used as a basis for modifying or designing other structures or ways within the scope of the present invention. Specialists in the art will understand that such equivalent constructions do not go beyond the nature and scope of the present invention described in the accompanying claims.
Detailed description of the invention
Before the description of some illustrative embodiments of the present invention should be understood that the present invention is not limited to the details of the construction or stages of the methods described later in this text. Other embodiments of the present invention that can be implemented or performed in different ways.
Aspects of the present invention relate to conductive pastes containing one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components, at least one Frit, conductive material and other components, which will be described in more detail. In addition, more detail will also be considered aspects of nastoyascheevremya, regarding photovoltaic elements.
One or more embodiments of the present invention include conductive paste containing one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components. In General, ORGANOMETALLIC components are compounds that contain atoms of metals, including carboxylates of metals such as neodecanoate, acetates and propionate, alkoxides of metals and metal complexes, which are sparingly soluble or insoluble in water. ORGANOMETALLIC components can also contain any aromatic or aliphatic group, and they are sometimes called resinate metals, when the organic part consists of groups derived from polymers or other natural products. Other suitable ORGANOMETALLIC components include mercaptide metals. ORGANOMETALLIC components used in one or more embodiments, execution of the invention may have more than one type of metal atom.
Examples of ORGANOMETALLIC components used with one or more conductive pastes include a combination of boron-metal, aluminum-metal, silicon metal, bismuth metal, zinc-and ORGANOMETALLIC vanadium-ORGANOMETALLIC components. Sometimes metalloorganic the s and organo-metallic compound is defined as two categories. When used in the text of this application, the term "ORGANOMETALLIC compound" includes both ORGANOMETALLIC and organo-metallic compounds.
Without being bound to any theory believe that the firing of ORGANOMETALLIC components are decomposed and the organic part is removed from the conductive paste. Also may be formed of a mixture of metals or metal alloys or metal oxides. The amount of solids obtained after firing, called "the content of solids in ORGANOMETALLIC components in mass%". One or more variants of execution of the invention ORGANOMETALLIC component(s) may have a solids content of at least 0.5 wt.%. Another embodiment of the invention includes ORGANOMETALLIC component (s)having a solids content of at least 1-2 wt.%. Without being bound to any theory believe that is analogous to the use of glass Frits in conductive pastes the amount of solid substance, derived from the ORGANOMETALLIC component (components)affects the ability of the conductive paste to form an electrical conductor on the substrate or to form ohmic contact with the substrate. This ability, therefore, improves the performance of the device, including PR is leading pasta, such as the semiconductor, photovoltaic element or auto glass.
In one or more embodiments, the execution of the invention ORGANOMETALLIC components include bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC components and/or silver ORGANOMETALLIC components. Private embodiment of the invention may include one or more of bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC components, silver ORGANOMETALLIC components or boric ORGANOMETALLIC components. Another embodiment of the invention includes one or a combination of bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC components, silver ORGANOMETALLIC components, boric ORGANOMETALLIC components, aluminum ORGANOMETALLIC components, zinc ORGANOMETALLIC components and/or ORGANOMETALLIC vanadium components.
One variant of carrying out the invention to achieve the desired properties of a single element or a metal oxide or colloidal suspension of the metal can be added to the ORGANOMETALLIC components as modifiers to improve the content of any item or add new properties. For example, you can add phosphorus, P2O5or another type of phosphorus-containing compounds for the production of samoreguliruemykh (self-doping) pastes for use in solar cells.
To control the final properties can be taken into account additional factors in the development of ORGANOMETALLIC composition components. One principle involves the control of aggressiveness conductive paste on the antireflection coating and preventing contamination of the substrate. Another principle involves the selection of the temperature of thermal decomposition in the range from about 200°to about 500°C or in a different range depending on the profile of the temperature distribution during firing to provide enough time and heat for the interaction of a solid mixture formed by the decomposition of ORGANOMETALLIC component (components), with a conductive material and anti-reflective coating. You may consider using carboxylates of metals or precursors of low-temperature chemical vapor deposition ("CVD") for regulating the temperature of decomposition. The third principle involves the selection of one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components, which have a consistency suitable for printing, or which can also be used as rheology modifiers.
In one or more embodiments of carrying out the invention in the conductive paste is used conductive material such as silver powder or dispersion form. Other non-limiting examples of the right conductive materials include conductive metals, such as gold, copper and platinum in powder or dispersion form.
The connection of the silver used in one or more embodiments, the execution of the invention can be in the form of one or more finely ground powders of metallic silver or silver alloys. In other versions of the invention, silver can be added in the form of silver salts such as silver nitrate (AgNO3). One or more variants of the run-conductive material must be able to sintering at a temperature above about 500°C.
In one or more embodiments, the execution of the invention does not require the use of a conductive material, and instead of using ORGANOMETALLIC components, which upon firing to form one or more conductive metal elements. Examples of the conductive metal elements include copper, silver, gold, platinum and/or other noble metals, and combinations thereof. In one or more embodiments of carrying out the invention use a conductive material, and ORGANOMETALLIC components, which upon firing to form a conductive metal elements.
Powders of glass Frits used in one or more versions of the present invention contain one or more of the following: bismuth oxide, silicon dioxide, boron oxide,tellurium dioxide, and combinations thereof.
One particular embodiment of the invention includes a glass Frit, which contains tellurium dioxide and contains no purposefully added lead. In these versions of the invention, the term "without deliberate addition of lead" means a glass Frit containing lead in quantities of less than about 1000 ppm. In the private embodiment, the glass Frit contains tellurium dioxide in an amount of from about 0.01 wt.% up to 10 wt.%. In a more private embodiment, the glass Frit used in the present invention, includes tellurium dioxide, ZnO, Al2O3and combinations thereof. Even more private option run dioxide containing tellurium glass Frit may also include other components, such as Ag2O, Sb2O3, GeO2, In2O3P2O5V2O5, Nb2O5and Ta2O5. In additional embodiments, execution of the present invention are the oxides of alkali metals and/or oxides of alkaline earth metals such as Na2O, Li2O and/or K2O, and BaO, CaO, MgO and/or SrO, respectively.
In one embodiment, the glass Frit used in the conductive paste of the present invention, contains more than about 20% and less than about 60 wt.% Bi2O3from about 15% to about 30 mass % SiOsub> 2and from about 2% to about 9 wt.% In2About3while the glass Frit essentially does not contain Na2O. one or more variants of carrying out the invention "essentially does not contain Na2O" means that Na2O is present in the Frit in an amount in the range from about 0% to 0.2 wt.%.
The conductive paste, one or more variants of execution of the present invention also contain powders of tellurate bismuth and/or bismuth silicate. It was found that the addition of powders tellurate bismuth and/or bismuth silicate can be controlled crystallization of glass Frits due to the displacement of crystallization in the direction of lower temperatures.
Although the present invention is not linked to any theory, believe that the powders tellurate bismuth and/or bismuth silicate ensure crystallization nuclei for crystal growth. When the photovoltaic application of the glass Frit should penetrate through the antireflection layer or to dissolve it in order to ensure formation of the silver ohmic contact, however, it is desirable regulation of aggressiveness glass Frits to prevent it from penetrating through the semiconductor junction, which will lead to shunting device. In other embodiments perform using other known phases that produce the same or similar to the effect of, as telluric bismuth and/or bismuth silicate, such as titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, phosphorus compounds, and others.
A conductive paste on one or more variants of execution of the invention may also include organic media. Organic media disperses dispersed components and facilitates the transfer of the composition of the paste on the surface. In at least one embodiment, the organic carrier includes any suitable inert solvent, polymers and commonly used surfactants. Specifically, the organic carrier dissolves the polymer and disperses the conductive material and ORGANOMETALLIC components before the formation of the conductive paste with a suitable rheology. Various organic carriers, thickeners, stabilizers and/or other conventional additives, or they can be used in obtaining embodiments of the present invention. Examples of solvents include alcohols (including glycols), and esters of such alcohols, terpenes such as pine oil, terpineol and other. More specific examples of solvents include dibutyl phthalate, monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol, terpineol, isopropanol, tridecanol and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate. In some embodiments, the runtime uses ositelu, which also contain volatile liquids to promote faster drying after application to the substrate.
Examples of suitable polymers include ethylcellulose, methylcellulose, nitrocellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and other cellulose derivatives. Other examples include polymers such as esters of acrylic acid, esters of methacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohols, polyketone and polyvinylbutyral.
In a particular embodiment, use solutions of polymers such as polymethacrylates of lower alcohols, while in a more private embodiment, the carrier liquid includes ethylcellulose dissolved in solvents such as pine oil and monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol.
The ratio of organic medium and solid particles in the conductive paste, one or more execution options may vary considerably and is determined by the rheology of the final desired composition, which, in turn, is determined by the requirements of the system to screen printing. In one or more versions of the invention, a conductive paste may contain from about 50 to about 95 wt.% solids and from about 5 to about 50 wt.% organic media.
One or more embodiments of the conductive paste may further contain other additives which, known in the art, such as dyes and pigments, rheology modifiers, a means of improving adhesion, sintering inhibitors, modifiers doobidoo strength, surfactants, and so forth.
A conductive paste on one or more variants of execution of the invention can be obtained by using suitable equipment, such as three-roll mill. In at least one embodiment, the one or more ORGANOMETALLIC component, glass Frit, conductive material and organic carriers are pre-mixed and dispersed in the mill.
In another aspect of the present invention described photovoltaic cells containing semiconductor substrate, the antireflection coating on the substrate and the conductive line of the grid. One or more variants of execution of the invention line conductive mesh formed from a conductive paste containing a glass Frit, conductive material, an organic medium and one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components. One or more described in this text embodiments, conductive pastes can be used for formation of the conductive lines of the grid. One or more options perform the desired one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components, so that revogada pasta could penetrate through the ar coating on the substrate or to dissolve it and to establish ohmic contact.
In one or more versions of the invention, the semiconductor substrate may be a silicon. You can use other suitable substrate known in the art, such as doped semiconductor substrates. One or more execution options antireflection coating may include silicon dioxide, titanium oxide, silicon nitride or other coatings known in the art.
The semiconductor substrate may include monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon. Antireflection coatings can be applied to the substrate using methods of chemical deposition from the vapor phase. In some embodiments, the runtime for the application of ar coatings on the substrate using plasma enhanced methods of chemical deposition from the vapor phase. Semiconductor substrates, one or more variants of execution can also be treated or textured to reduce reflection of sunlight and increasing the degree of absorption. One or more execution options then on the surface of the substrate or on the antireflection coating is applied conductive paste by screen printing or other methods. The substrate is heated or fired to a temperature of from about 650° to 950°C for the formation of the grid lines. In one var is ante execution as otherwise described in this application, burnout allows the glass Frit to melt and penetrate through the ar coating. In one or more versions of the conductive material forms crystallites on the border of the conductors and the substrate, which improves electrical or ohmic contact between the conductors and the semiconductor substrate.
Without limiting this invention in any way, the following examples more fully described embodiments of the invention.
The fill factor, efficiency elements, and the series resistance of six photovoltaic elements containing six conductive pastes (Paste a-C and Comparative Paste a-C)printed on each item was tested to measure the performance of the device and the applied paste. Each of the pastes And Is included With silver conductive material and three different glass Frits. Glass Frits include bismuth oxide, silicon dioxide, boron oxide and zinc oxide. Comparative And Paste-With included silver conductive material and bismuth ORGANOMETALLIC component. A conductive Paste including a glass Frit, tested in the Paste And, at the same time as Conductive Pastes b and C consisted of a glass Frit, tested Pastes b and C, respectively, is O. The performance of each photovoltaic element is measured and presented in Table 1. The values obtained for the photovoltaic element of Comparative Pastes a, b and C were standardized relative to the respective Pastes a, b and C, respectively.
The test results of the solar cells with conductive pastes containing and not containing ORGANOMETALLIC components.
|Pasta||The fill factor||Efficiency||Series resistance (Ohms/cm2)|
|The Frit 1||Pasta And||1.00||1.00||1.00|
|Comparative Pasta And||1.45||1.47||0.20|
|The Frit 2||Pasta||1.00||1.00||1.00|
|The Frit 3||Pasta||1.00||1.00||1.00|
"Fill factor" and "efficiency" are the units of performance of the semiconductor. The term "fill factor" is defined as the ratio of the maximum power (Vmp×Jmp), divided by the product of the current density at short circuit (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Vocin current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells. The open circuit voltage (Voc) represents the maximum voltage generated in the idling mode. The density of short circuit current (Jsc) represents the maximum current density without load short circuit. The fill factor (FF), thus, defined as (VmpJmp)/(VocJsc), where Jmpand Vmprepresent the current density and voltage at the maximum power value.
The term "efficiency" represents the percentage of power converted (turned the Oh of the absorbed sunlight into electrical energy) and collected at the junction of the photocell and the electrical circuit. The efficiency (η) are calculated as peak power (Pm), divided by the product of the total incident radiation (E, measured in W·m-2) and the area of the device (measured in m2under standard test conditions, where η=Pm/ (E×A).
As shown in Table 1 Comparative Pastes a, b and C showed higher efficiency than Pastes a, b and C, respectively. Thus, on the basis of these results, consider that the addition of one or more ORGANOMETALLIC component in the conductive paste can improve the performance of photovoltaic element.
The reference in this description of one way of carrying out the invention", "some embodiments of the invention, one or more embodiments of the invention or a variant implementation of the invention" means that a particular feature, structure, material, or characteristic described in connection with the option of perform included in at least one embodiment of the present invention. Thus, phrases such as "in one or more embodiments of the invention, in some embodiments of carrying out the invention", "in one embodiment" or "in an embodiment" in various places of this description do not necessarily refer to one and the same variant made the I invention. In addition, private signs, patterns, materials or features may be combined in any suitable manner in one or more embodiments, the execution of the invention.
Although the invention herein has been described with reference to private embodiments of the invention, it is necessary to understand that these options only illustrate the principles and scope of the present invention. Specialists in the art will understand that various modifications and changes of method and hardware design of the present invention without departing from the scope of the essence and scope of the invention. Thus, it is assumed that the present invention includes modifications and changes which are within the scope of the attached claims and their equivalents.
1. A conductive paste for use in a semiconductor for use as a photovoltaic element containing a glass Frit, conductive material, an organic medium and one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components, which form metal oxides upon firing, where the glass Frit and ORGANOMETALLIC components are combined in a weight adapted to be applied on the substrate, the paste is adapted to reduce the series resistance in the same or greater extent than pastes which do not contain ORGANOMETALLIC components, one or more metal components selected from the group consisting of a metal carboxylate and alkoxide of metal that contain boron, aluminum, silicon, bismuth, zinc or vanadium.
2. The paste according to claim 1, where one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components are present in sufficient quantity to education during firing of the metal oxide in the amount of at least about 1 wt.%.
3. The paste according to claim 1, where one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components are present in amounts less than about 40 wt.%.
4. The paste according to claim 3 where one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components are present in amounts less than about 15 wt.%.
5. The paste according to claim 4, where one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components are present in amounts less than about 8 wt.%.
6. The paste according to claim 1, where one or more ORGANOMETALLIC components also include ORGANOMETALLIC compound of bismuth.
7. The paste according to claim 6, where the ORGANOMETALLIC compound of bismuth is present in an amount of about 4 wt.%.
8. The paste according to claim 1 or 6, where the glass Frit contains one or more of the following: bismuth oxide, silicon dioxide, boron oxide, tellurium dioxide, and combinations thereof.
9. The paste according to claim 1, where applying the paste on the anti-reflective coating on a substrate, a conductive paste capable of penetrating through the antireflection coating with the formation of the ohmic contact with the substrate.
10. Photovoltaic element containing semiconductor substrate ar coating and line conductive mesh formed from a conductive paste according to any one of claims 1 to 9, where the paste is treated to remove the organic medium and sintering of conductive materials.
SUBSTANCE: device includes at least one multilayer interference reflector and at least one resonator. In one version of the invention implementation the reflector works as a modulating element controlled by the voltage applied thereto. The stop zone edge is subjected to adjustment using electrooptic methods due to quantum-limited Stark effect in proximity to resonant mode which creates modulation of the reflector transmission factor thus entailing indirect modulation of light intensity. In another version of the invention implementation the optic field profile in the resonator represents the stop zone wavelength shift function, the device working as adjustable wavelength light radiator. In yet another version of the invention implementation at least two periodicities of refraction factor distribution are created in the reflector which enables suppression of parasitic optical modes and promotes high-speed direct modulation of intensity of light emitted by the device.
EFFECT: vertically integrated optoelectronic device serving for high-speed data transfer by way of direct or indirect modulation of emitted light intensity.
11 cl, 34 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solar elements with clarifying coats. Photoelectric layer is applied on glass substrate together with clarifying coat facing the incident light side. Plasma pyrolysis is used to produce said clarifying coat. Clarifying coat surface has roughness defined by peak elevations "d" relative to adjacent recesses and clearance "g" between adjacent peaks, or between adjacent recesses. Means elevation "d" makes about 5-60 nm while mean separation distance "g" makes approximately 10-80 nm.
EFFECT: smaller light reflection from glass substrate.
21 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: photoelectric device comprises: a front glass substrate; a semiconductor film having p-, n- and i-type layers; a film based essentially on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) lying between at least the front glass substrate and the semiconductor film, and an intermediate film lying between the TCO based film and the semiconductor film (absorber), where the intermediate film is a semiconductor and is characterised by refraction index (n) greater than that of the TCO based film, and less than that of the semiconductor film. Disclosed also is one more version of the photoelectric device and a method of making said device.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce optical reflection of solar radiation from the TCO-absorber boundary surface, thus increasing the amount of radiation which penetrates the absorber and which can be converted to electrical energy, increase the amount of radiation captured inside the absorber, reduce counter-diffusion of elements between the TCO of the front contact and the absorbing semiconductor film, or form a high-resistance buffer layer between the TCO front contact and the absorber film.
27 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: coated article, which is suitable for use as a component of a solar cell, comprises a transparent dielectric substrate, a transparent electrically conductive metal oxide layer deposited on the dielectric substrate and having refraction index less than 2.0, a light transmittance optimising intermediate layer having a refractive index between 2.3 and 3.5, deposited on top of the electrically conductive metal oxide layer, and a silicon layer having a refractive index of at least 4.5 deposited on the light transmittance optimising intermediate layer. The invention also discloses a method of making the coated article which is suitable for use as component of a solar cell, and a transparent coated glass article which is suitable for use as a component of a solar cell.
EFFECT: possibility of increasing efficiency of solar cells and competitiveness with respect to cost of the generated electrical energy compared to conventional equipment.
22 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: antireflection coating has a gradient base layer with variable refraction index directly on a glass substrate and in contact with it. The gradient layer contains a mixture of silicon oxide and titanium oxide, where there is more titanium oxide in the part of the gradient layer far from the glass substrate than closer to the glass substrate; the antireflection coating also has layer containing silicon oxide on top of the gradient layer.
EFFECT: increased output power of the solar cell.
20 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to use of a composition which contains: a) 0.1-20 wt % binder which contains a polycarbonate derivative based on geminally disubstituted dihydroxydiphenyl cycloalkane, b) 30-99.9 wt % solvent, c) 0-10 wt %, with respect to dry mass, dye or mixture of dyes, d) 0-10 wt % functional material or mixture of functional materials, e) 0-30 wt % additives and/or auxiliary substances or a mixture thereof, as jet printing ink. The invention also relates to a method of producing a composite and a composite which contains a polymer layer on which there is a jet printing layer of said composition.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at producing agents which enable to use jet printing in making counterfeit protected documents and/or valuable documents based on polycarbonate layers, and which enable to deposit jet printing layers on layers which meet all optical requirements, which can be coloured, wherein lamination does not deteriorate optical properties of the layers and said layers do not act as a separating layer and facilitate formation of a monolithic composite.
31 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to jet printing inks, particularly non-aqueous inks for jet printing. The ink for jet printing contains a pigment, binder, polyetheramide resin as a pigment dispersant, an organic solvent and an anti-corrosion agent from an imidazole group or a group of volatile anti-corrosion agents, preferably dicyclohexylamine or cyclohexylammonium cyclohexylcarbamate.
EFFECT: disclosed inks have high dispersion stability and prevent corrosion of print heads of jet printers and nozzle clogging.
8 cl, 8 tbl, 34 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed print compound in the form of print ink or print varnish includes a binding substance with a resinous component and a solvent component. The binding substance solvent represents a one-component or multicomponent saturated resin solvent and a food product or food additive of a number of monoglycerides and/or diglycerides and/or triglycerides. Preferably, the binding substance solvent component includes acetylated or esterified monoglycerides and/or acetylated or esterified diglycerides and/or acetylated or esterified triglycerides.
EFFECT: print ink solvent migration degree reduction and treatment simplification in view of the possibility of the print compound drying-out by way of absorption and re-varnishing exclusion.
4 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: printing industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to a printing item comprising a substrate and a combination of printed inks including six colours. Each of colours is defined with a full tone and a half-tone of the specified colour, at the same time each ink has a value of colour difference dE of the combined full tone L-C-H-a-b, which is less than or equal to 2, and a value dE of the combined half-tone, which is less or equal to 3.
EFFECT: invention provides for production of printing items, which reproduce patterns with high accuracy.
7 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: textiles and paper.
SUBSTANCE: non-woven fabric is proposed, on the visible surface of which the ink composition is applied comprising from about 40 wt % to about 80 wt % of the dry weight of the ink of linking agent - aziridine oligomer with at least two aziridine functional groups. Also an absorbing article is proposed comprising a liquid-permeable upper layer, an absorbing core and a liquid-impermeable lower layer that contains the specified non-woven fabric with the said applied ink composition. The application of ink on the non-woven fabric can be carried out by the method of flexography or a method of ink-jet printing.
EFFECT: printed non-woven fabric has high resistance to abrasion even in case of its contacting with fatty substance.
16 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: printing industry.
SUBSTANCE: waterless ink composition for inkjet printing contains a pigment, a polymer in an amount of 1 to 20 wt % in terms of total weight, dispersing of pigment, organic solvent, and alcohol containing an amino group in an amount of 0.01 to 3 wt % in terms of total weight. The alcohol containing an amino group is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-1-butanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol and tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane. As the polymer the ink contains polyester, acrylic resin or polyvinyl chloride. The aqueous extract of the said waterless ink composition has pH ranging from 6.0 to 10.0.
EFFECT: increased stability of its pressure injection and the absence of clogging the nozzle of the print head with achievement of high quality printing.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is an activator of adhesion of ink to a substrate, containing a product of reaction of (a) a polymer solution or synthetic resin, (b) sulphonic acid or derivative thereof and (c) a metal compound selected from a group consisting of a metal halide, metal alkoxide, metal halide-alkoxide or a condensed metal alkoxide, where the metal is titanium or zirconium. The amount of sulphonic acid or sulphonic acid salt (b) and metal compound (c) corresponds to molar ratio of SO3X, where X is a H atom or a base residue, to Ti and Zr atoms ranging from 0.25:1 to 2:1. The invention also describes printing ink containing said adhesion activator.
EFFECT: reduced yellowing and smell of ink compared to ink which contains titanium acetyl acetonate as an adhesion activator while preserving effectiveness of the adhesion activator.
22 cl, 4 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: material marking method consists in the fact that there made is paint consisting of binding agent and fine microparticles and/or microencapsulated microdrops having diameter of approximately 40 to 80 mcm. Then, the mark having surface area of about one square centimetre and containing serial registration number is printed on the product by using the above paint. The above mark is lit with the light and chaotic character of distribution, shape and sizes of fine microparticles and/or microencapsulated microdrops are fully flashed; due to which non-reproducible and distinctive background card for the introduced mark is created. And data reads composed of the above background card are subject to filtration by using stop-down lens serving for neutralisation and suppression of any possible reflection of distortion of and damage to patterns, and then the above data reads subject to filtration are identified by means of optic-digital video camera interrelated with software, and view finder. At that, video camera has the possibility of transmitting the data to registration database for further comparison and confirmation of authenticity of the product marked in such a manner.
EFFECT: marking method allows high degree of protection of the product against false fabrication and copying.
10 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: printing industry.
SUBSTANCE: ink that contains water, water-insoluble colour and multiple water-soluble organic dissolvents is applied onto a carrier. Specified dissolvents contain a good solvent for the specified colour (A) and a poor solvent for the specified colour (B) with the ratio of A to B, equal from 10:5 to 7:9. The water-soluble organic dissolvent that has maximum value Ka, identified by Bristow method, among all water-soluble organic dissolvents in the ink, relates to poor dissolvents.
EFFECT: high extent of surface coating and high density of OD image even with small quantity of ink.
3 cl, 16 dwg, 11 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ink systems for jet printing, containing a fixing composition with low corrosion activity. The invention discloses a fixing composition for jet printing, containing water or a mixture of water and at least one water-miscible organic solvent, and a polycationic fixing agent whose counterion is not a halogen, where the counterion is selected such that it reduces availability of the halogen in the fixing agent. The invention also discloses a method of applying an essentially noncorrosive ink composition and a jet system for providing ink with low corrosion activity.
EFFECT: invention reduces the negative effect of the fixing agent on components of the printing head while preserving all its useful properties.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: protection coatings.
SUBSTANCE: invention aims at protecting bank notes and security papers against counterfeiting. Optically changing pigment contains interferential multilayer structure including light-transmitting dielectric layer having at least one luminescent material. Dielectric layer is selected from of rare-earth metal, bismuth, and principal group III element trifluorides; of principal group II element difluorides; mixtures thereof; organic or organometallic compounds. Luminescent material should be selected from organic or organometallic compounds containing transition or rare-earth metal ions. Above-defined structure may contain one or more semitransparent, partly reflecting layers, one or more nontransparent, fully reflecting layers, and one or more conducting layers. Pigment is prepared by a method including physical or chemical precipitation of the dielectric layer.
EFFECT: preserved proper properties of color shift, increased reliability of protection, and ensured identification simplicity at relatively low cost.
30 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: ink-jet printing facilities and materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ink-jet printing on sheet-shaped substrates such as paper, films, and textiles. In particular, invention discloses a method for ink-jet printing on sheet-shaped substrates using aqueous ink including (i) at least one dye of formula (I): (I), wherein R1 and R2, each independently of the other, represents hydrogen atom or unsubstituted or substituted C1-C4-alkyl; R3 and R4, each independently of the other, represents unsubstituted or substituted C1-C4-alkyl; R5 and R6, each independently of the other, represents C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxy, halogen atom, hydroxyl, carboxyl, C2-C4-alkanoylamino, or sulfo group; X represents halogen atom, hydroxyl, C1-C4-alkoxy optionally substituted in alkyl residue, phenoxy optionally substituted in phenyl residue, C1-C4-alkylyhio optionally substituted in alkyl residue, phenylthio optionally substituted in phenyl ring, amino, C5-C7-cycloalkylamino optionally substituted in cycloalkyl residue, phenyl- or naphthylamino optionally substituted in aryl residue, N-C1-C4-alkyl-N-phenyl- or N-C1-C4-alkyl-N-naphthylamino optionally substituted in aryl residue, benzylamino optionally substituted in phenyl residue, morpholine, or pyperidin-1-yl; and n and m each is a number 0, 1, 2, or 3; and (ii) compound selected from polyethylene glycols with molecular mass from 150 to 400.
EFFECT: enabled producing light-resistant and moistureproof prints with elevated saturation of color.
12 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: dyes, building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sets of dye semifinished products used in preparing dyes of different designation. Invention describes the dye semifinished product with properties of fluidity and covering power that can be used in preparing a single-package latex dye stained with pigment wherein the volume content of dry matter is from about 30% to about 70% with the Schtormer viscosity value from about 50 to about 250 EK and comprising the following components: (I) at least one pigment conferring the covering power property; (II) at least one dispersing agent; (III) at least one thickening agent, and (IV) water wherein at least one dispersing agent and at least one thickening agent are compatible with at least one pigment and other dye components. Also, invention describes sets for dyes and dye lines comprising a latex polymeric binding agent. Some dyes for internal and external coating of different objects are prepared by using sets of dye semifinished products. Invention provides preparing the broad assortment of dyes of different quality for external and internal workings and with different levels of polishes and bases for carrying out the coloring from dye semifinished products and by using the minimal amount and types of the dye components. Proposed dye semifinished products can be used for architecture, industrial, polygraphic, elastomeric and non-cement coatings.
EFFECT: improved preparing method, valuable properties of dyes.
51 cl, 3 tbl, 63 ex
FIELD: printing technique.
SUBSTANCE: set and method of printing can be used for printing light-absorbing signs of protection of printed items. Set of printing ink for printing of light-absorbing signs has at least two dyes. Any dye has at least one dyeing matter, pigment of dye which absorbs visible light. Set of printing inks has first and second groups of dyes. Dyes from first group additionally have mark with preset spectral absorption characteristic, preferably with characteristic relating to absorption. Mark has absorption maximum within wavelength range of 700-900 nm, preferably, 780 nm, and the mark practically doesn't absorb light within visible spectrum of absorption. Dyes of second group has dyeing matter, dye or pigment, which absorbs light within visible light spectrum and they have the same maximum of absorption within IR-red spectrum at wavelength around 700 nm as spectral characteristic within IR-red range of mark, Method of printing signs, printed item and set of dyes, including four-color set of printing inks and IR-mark, are described.
EFFECT: reliability of identification of authenticity of item independently on color of signs.
15 cl, 5 dwg, 2 app
FIELD: printing arts; printing inks for securities; protection against falsification.
SUBSTANCE: proposed printing ink contains pigment possessing protective properties, binder and thinner; pigment contains ultra-dispersed powder of rare-earth ferrite-garnet selected from group including Y3Fe5O12, Ln3Fe5O12, YxLn3-xFe5O12, where Ln is rare-earth element, 0≤x≤3, Y3-xBixFe5O12, where 0≤x≤2 with sizes of crystallites not exceeding 100 nm in the amount not exceeding 85% of weight of ink. Optical characteristics are extended within 380-750 nm and infrared transparence is increased within 0.74-3.0 mcm.
EFFECT: enhanced identification due to magnetic properties.
8 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composition of aqueous dye used in stenciling, to a method for preparing indicated composition of stenciling, using indicated dying composition for stenciling and to securities printed using indicated dying composition. Invention describes composition of aqueous dye for stenciling containing the following components: (a) emulsion of acrylic or urethane-acrylic copolymer taken in the amount 30-70 wt-%, preferably in the amount 35-60 wt.-%, and more preferably in the amount 40-55 wt.-% of self-cross-linking emulsion of acrylic or urethane-acrylic copolymer as measured for the total mass of composition; (b) cross-linking agent taken in the amount 0.25-3 wt.-%, preferably in the amount 0.5-2 wt.-%, and more preferably in the amount 1-2 wt.-% of mass indicated cross-linking agent as measured for the total mass of composition; (c) optional catalyst; (d) optional pigments, and (e) optional additives and wherein indicated cross-linking agent comprises at least two different functional activity in a single molecule. The first functional activity is chosen by so manner to form a covalent bond with indicated polymer before printing and the second of indicated functional activities is chosen by so manner to carry out cross-linking indicated polymer for hardening printed dye. Emulsion of acrylic or urethane-acrylic copolymer is chosen from group possessing self-cross-linking property and wherein the composition shows pH from 7.0 to 8.5, preferably from 7.5 to 8.3 and more preferably from 7.5 to 8.0. Invention describes a method for preparing above said composition of aqueous dye for stenciling and comprising the following steps: (a) preparing emulsion of acrylic or urethane-acrylic copolymer; (b) optional preparing catalyst, optional pigments and optional additives; (c) preparing a cross-linking agent able to form a covalent bond under the first conditions with polymer prepared in (a), and cross-linking prepared polymer under the second conditions; (d) thorough mixing components prepared by points (a), (b) and (c) and providing interaction of polymer prepared by point (a) with a cross-linking agent prepared by point (c) under indicated first conditions; (e) regulation of pH value of the composition in the range from 7.0 to 8.5. Also, invention describes using the indicated composition of aqueous dye as a dye for stenciling and security document with signs printed by using indicated composition of aqueous dye. Proposed composition shows improved stability and improved toxicological properties in the combination and excellent stability of printed and hardened dye to chemical and physical effects.
EFFECT: improved properties of dye, improved preparing method.
14 cl, 6 ex