Apparatus and method of producing tetramer

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has: A) a fractionation area 170 in which a distillation product 180 is obtained, said product containing one or more C6 hydrocarbons to produce one or more C12 compounds; and B) an oxygenate removal area 200 for removing one or more oxygenate compounds from the distillation product 180 that has passed through the oxygenate removal area 200.

EFFECT: use of the present invention enables to minimise the hydraulic effect on upstream equipment, obtain more valuable products from hydrocarbons in said stream, minimise undesirable by-products and prolong the service life of the catalyst in primary reactors.

10 cl, 1 dwg

 

In the present application claims the priority application for U.S. patent No. 61/319236, filed on March 30, 2010.

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention mainly relates to a device receiving the tetramer and the way of its functioning.

The level of technology

In catalytic methods of obtaining C9 and tetramers C12 as raw materials can use propylene. In some situations there is a significant increase in market prices for tetramer C12, and thus, preferably a corresponding increase in production tetramers C12. Moreover, in such catalytic processes for tetramers can be formed of a significant amount of by-products - alkenes C6-C7 (hereinafter may be referred to as "olefin"), which can be sold for use outside of chemistry.

Usually in these plants after the reaction section, including many primary reactors should land fractionation. In the column of the reaction section can be obtained a product containing hydrocarbons C6+. Usually hydrocarbons C6-C9 can be recycled back to the reaction section to get more C12 alkenes based on the interaction C6 C9 alkenes and alkenes with the original propylene. However, the recirculation can increase hydraulic is the cue requirements for the first column in the plot fractionation, where hydrocarbons C1-C4 are separated from the hydrocarbons C5+. Often in such installations can be supported by a high degree of recycling of hydrocarbons C1-C4 with respect to the recirculation flow/fresh feedstock in the range of 0.6:1 to 4,0:1, by weight. The result can be additional cost escalation the first column in order to cope with the specified additional hydraulic load. In addition, the recycling can also reduce the service life of the catalyst in the reaction section, and thus, may require an additional amount of catalyst and/or a backup reactor, in order to minimize the outage, which may increase capital costs. Therefore, it would be desirable to communicate the selected fraction, enriched in one or more compounds of C6-C8, without recirculation in the primary reactors to minimize hydraulic effect on located above the downstream flow equipment, to obtain more valuable products from hydrocarbons that are in the specified stream, to minimize unwanted side products, and to increase the service life of the catalyst in the primary reactor.

However, in the specified selected fractions enriched in one or more compounds of C6-C8, can be light oxygenated link is (oxygenates). These oxygenates may include propanone, otherwise known as acetone; 2-butanone, which is otherwise known as methyl ethyl ketone; 2-propane-2-aloxiprin, otherwise known as diisopropyl ether or DIPA; and propan-2-ol, which is also called isopropyl alcohol. The presence of oxygenates can cause some problems, namely: the impact on below along the flow of production facilities using tetramer C12 as raw materials, the accumulation of recirculation heavier alcohols and ketones, the formation of carboxylic acids in the stream exiting the reactor, which can lead to corrosion of equipment and/or require expensive preventive means, and to deactivate the catalyst. In the result, it would be highly desirable to remove these oxygenates to prevent adverse effects.

Disclosure of inventions

In one embodiment may be a device for the production of tetramers. The specified device may include a fractionation zone and the zone of removal of oxygenates. In the zone of the fractionation may be obtained from the product of distillation, which comprises one or more hydrocarbons, C6 to obtain one or more compounds C12. In the zone of removal of oxygenates, you can delete one or more oxygenate compounds from products is the distillation, passed through the zone of removal of oxygenates.

Another option exercise device for the production of tetramers can include a reaction zone, the first, second, third and fourth fractionation zone, and the zone of removal of oxygenates. In the reaction zone, propylene can oligomerizate to form one or more hydrocarbon products C6+. Usually in the first zone of the fractionation turns head a stream containing one or more C4 hydrocarbons-and the bottom stream containing one or more hydrocarbons C5+. In the second zone of the fractionation may be obtained from the head stream containing one or more C8-hydrocarbons and a bottom stream containing one or more C9+of hydrocarbons. In the third zone of the fractionation may be obtained from the head stream containing one or more C11-hydrocarbons and a bottom stream that includes one or more C12+of hydrocarbons. Usually in the fourth fractionation zone turns head a stream containing one or more C14-hydrocarbons and a bottom stream containing one or more of the 15+of hydrocarbons. Usually in the area of removal of oxygenates has an adsorbent for the removal of one or more oxygen-containing compounds of the distillates obtained at least from the side of the stream in a second fractionation zone, and which pass through the zone of removal of oxygenates.

An additional embodiment of the invention can be a method of obtaining one or more tetramers. The method may include passing the distillate through the zone of removal of oxygenates to delete one or more oxygenates, which can interfere with the receipt of the product.

In the embodiments of the invention it is possible to delete one or more oxygenates from the main stream of the column that contains one or more C6+of hydrocarbons. Essentially, the removal of these oxygenates may prevent some adverse effects. These adverse effects may include:

- formation of heavier oxygenates, boiling in the range of tetramers C12, which upon fractionation can get into the tetramer product C12;

- the poisoning of catalysts in below along the flow of petrochemical processes, consuming tetramer C12 as raw materials;

- accumulation of heavier alcohols/ketones in the range boiling fraction C6-C8, which can be collected in the stream recycled to the reactor, and to degrade the selectivity of the formation of tetramers C12;

- increased formation of carboxylic acids in the stream, the walking from the reactor, with the problems of corrosion and costly preventive measures, such as the use of more expensive korrozionnostojkih metals in equipment such as piping and tanks, and reduced service life of the catalyst, and the degree of conversion of raw materials; and

- deactivation of the catalyst due to the formation of propanone and 2-butanone.

In the described embodiments of the invention these drawbacks are eliminated by removing the problem of oxygen-containing compounds. Usually tetramer product C12 can be used as a raw material for detergents, polymers or petrochemical processes. Small amounts of oxygenates can affect these processes.

Definition

The term "thread"as used in the invention, can mean a stream containing different hydrocarbon molecules, for example, alkanes with a straight chain, branched or cyclic alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes and alkynes, and optionally other substances, such as gases, such as hydrogen, or impurities such as heavy metals, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. In addition, the flow may include aromatic and non-aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, the hydrocarbon molecules can be identified by the abbreviations C1, C2, C3...Cn, where "n" means the number of carbon atoms in one or bore the channels at hydrocarbon molecules, or reduction can be used as adjectives, for example, for connections. In addition, Superscript "+" or "-can be used together with the abbreviated designation of one or more hydrocarbons, for example, C3+or C3-that is including the specified one or more hydrocarbons. For example, the abbreviation "C3+" means molecules of one or more hydrocarbons containing three and/or more carbon atoms. Moreover, the flow may include raw materials, product, waste or recycling stream.

The term "area"as used in the invention may relate to the area that includes one or several hardware units and/or one or more sub-zones. Equipment may include one or more reactors or reaction apparatus, heaters, heat exchangers, piping, pumps, compressors and regulators. In addition, such unit of equipment, such as reactor, dehumidifier, or the tank may additionally include one or more zones or sub-zones.

The term "enriched"as used in the invention can typically mean a number of at least 50 mol.%, and preferably 70 mol.%, compounds or groups of compounds in the stream.

The term "substantially" (essentially)used in the invention, typically m which can mean a number, at least 80 mol.%, preferably 90%, and optimally 99 mol.%, compounds or groups of compounds in the stream.

The term "tetramer", used in the invention may refer to a linear or branched alkene, obtained by interaction of molecules alkene, such as ethylene or propylene, with the formation of alkenes with a long chain containing four links of the alkene. In particular, in one embodiment, propylene can interact with the formation of alkenes with longer chain having 12 carbon atoms, although other tetramer molecules can be included in this definition, for example, C8 tetramer derived from ethylene.

The term "oligomer"as used in the invention, may be related to the interaction of molecules of the monomer, such as an alkene, with the formation of alkenes with longer chain having 2, 3, or more parts, and may include the tetramer. As an example, propylene can interact with the formation of oligomers with 6, 9, or 12 carbon atoms.

The terms "wax" and "alkane" can be used in the invention alternately.

The terms "olefin" and "alkene" can be equally used in the invention.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a schematic representation is presented as an example of the device for tetr the measure C12.

The implementation of the invention

Refer to figure 1, which presents as an example, the device 100 to obtain the tetramer can include a reaction zone 120, the first zone 140 fractionation, the second area 170 fractionation zone 200 removal of oxygenates, the reaction zone 210 of dimerization, 300 third fractionation zone, the fourth zone 340 fractionation and a fifth area 400 fractionation. This figure can be used in any suitable form for designation of areas such as squares, rectangles, or crossed rectangle. Moreover, the terms raw stream, output stream, product and regenerating stream can be used in the text, when referring to the lines on the drawing.

The reaction zone 120 may include the first reactor 124 and the second reactor 128, and can take the raw material 110, which may be combined with stream 282, as described in the following. After that, the specified combined stream 112 can be split into threads 114 and 116, and sent to the first reactor 124, and the second reactor 128, respectively. The device 100 to obtain the tetramer can produce any suitable tetramera, such as C8, C12 and C16 tetramer, or their variations by oligomerization alkenovich monomers. In particular, the device 100 to obtain the tetramer can get as raw material, any suitable OLE the ins, such as ethylene, propylene, butene, or mixtures thereof, to obtain a tetramer, with the number of atoms from C8 to C16.

In one embodiment, the raw material 110 may be essentially propylene, and formed oligomers of propylene, such as C6 alkene, C9 alkene and/or C12 alkene, which may be linear or branched. Each reactor 124 and 128 may contain an acid catalyst, such as solid phosphoric acid catalyst. In some preferred embodiments, the implementation of the raw material can be added oxygenate, such as water. Moreover, reactors 124 and 128 can work independently, at a temperature of 50-350C and the pressure 1-7000 kPa. A typical reactor and process conditions are disclosed, for example, in U.S. patent No. 6111159 and 2120702. Additionally, each reactor 124 and 128 may receive the corresponding recirculation streams 152 and 154, the corresponding cooling streams 156 and 158, which will be described in more detail in the following. Each reactor 124 and 128 can produce, respectively, the flow 130 extending from the first reactor, and the flow 134 extending from the second reactor, which can be combined in the form of a stream 138. This combined output stream 138 can be fed into the first zone 140 fractionation. Usually combined output stream 138 may contain a variety of hydrocarbons, such as one or more using hydrocarbon is C1 +.

The first zone 140 fractionation can get raw material 138 and to make the head flow 144 that includes one or more hydrocarbon type C4-or boiling in the range of C4-and the bottom stream 160 that includes one or more hydrocarbon type C5+,or boiling in the range of C5+. The first zone 140 fractionation may include an appropriate number of distillation columns or other separating device, to obtain these relevant threads 144 and 160. Head stream 144 can be split into stream 146, the processing which will be described later, and the flow 148, which, in turn, can be split into the appropriate recycle streams 152 and 154 and the corresponding cooling streams 156 and 158. Usually, the beam 148 includes one or more C4 hydrocarbons-and cooling streams 156 and 158, which can be used to control the temperature in each of the respective reactors 124 and 128. Moreover, the composition of the stream 148 may include unreacted propylene, which can be recycled to the reaction zone 120, in the form of recycle streams 152 and 154.

As for the lower flow 160, this bottom stream 160 can be combined with the exhaust stream 234, described later, and the combined streams 160 and 234 provide raw materials 164 for the Torah zone 170 fractionation. In the second specified area 170 fractionation may be obtained from the parent stream or product 180 distillation, which is enriched in one or more hydrocarbon type C8-or boiling in the range of C8-and the bottom stream 190, which is enriched in one or more hydrocarbon type C9+or boiling in the range of C9+. Preferably the head stream or product 180 distillation may contain one or more hydrocarbons C6. Moreover, the head stream 180 may be split with the formation of flow 184 product and raw material flow 188 zone 200 removal of oxygenates, as described in further. In a typical embodiment, the head stream 180 can be enriched with hydrocarbons C5-C8 and contain 40-50 wt.% the hexene, based on the mass of the stream 180. The second area 170 fractionation may include any suitable number of distillation columns or other suitable apparatus for the separation. In one alternative embodiment, the lateral flow 186 can be withdrawn from the second zone 170 fractionation to remove, mainly one or more C8 hydrocarbons, which allows to concentrate the amount of one or more hydrocarbons C5-C7, preferably C6 alkenes, in the main stream 180. In such a situation, it may be desirable that the flow of product 184, there is actually containing one or more hydrocarbons C5-C7, has been used in other areas, for example, in the petrochemical industry. In the present example embodiment, the raw stream 160 is supplied to the zone 170 fractionation may contain 5.2 wt.%, one or more C5-C7 alkenes, providing the parent stream 180, which may contain almost 100 wt.%, one or more C5-C7 alkenes, based on the mass of the stream 180. Essentially, the head stream 180 may contain 8 wt.% C5 70 wt.% C6, and 22 wt.% C7 alkenes, based on the mass of the stream 180, and may serve as a basis for commodity flow 204, as described later.

The bottom stream 190 may be used as raw material 190 adapted to feed into a third fractionation zone 300. In this third fractionation zone 300 can get a head stream 310 that contains one or more hydrocarbon type C11-or boiling in the range of C11-and typically includes one or more C9-alkenes. In addition, the bottom stream 320 may contain one or more hydrocarbon type C12+or boiling in the range of C12+. Thus, the third fractionation zone 300 can include any suitable number of distillation columns or other devices, and can be operated under any suitable conditions, to ensure the e division.

The bottom stream 320 can be used as raw material 320 adapted to feed into the fourth zone 340 fractionation. Usually the fourth fractionation zone 340 includes any suitable number of distillation columns or other devices operating under any suitable conditions that provide the necessary separation to obtain the downstream flow 350 and the lower stream 360. Often the parent stream 350 may include one or more hydrocarbon type C14-or boiling in the range of C14-that may contain the target product of C12, such as tetramer product of C12. The bottom stream 360 can contain one or more hydrocarbon type C15+or boiling in the range 15+and can be used, for example, as fuel oil. In addition, the bottom stream 360 can receive the stream 288, as further described later.

All zones fractionation described in the invention provide separation of hydrocarbon molecules, for example, C4-and C5+or of hydrocarbons boiling in the range of C4-and C5+however , it should be understood that they can also be separated by other hydrocarbon molecules outside of these ranges, such as a relatively small amount of pentane to C4-. Usually these headaches flows or lower flows obogs what are these hydrocarbons, for example, the head stream 310 may be enriched in one or more hydrocarbons boiling in the range of C11-.

Raw stream 188, separated from the main stream 180 second zone 170 fractionation, can be directed to an area of 200 removal of oxygenates removal of one or more oxygenates. These oxygenates may contain one or more compounds of: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diisopropyl ether, and isopropyl alcohol, ketones, and alcohols boiling in the range of hydrocarbons C5-C8. Can be used in any suitable area 200 removal of oxygenates. As such, the area of removal of oxygenates 200 may contain an adsorbent, washing system, or the installation of liquid - liquid extraction. If you use washing system, such as sodium bisulfite system for washing, light alcohols and ketones can be removed from the stream 188, containing not more than 5 wt.% heavy oxygenates, in the calculation of the mass flow 188. Usually, the beam 188 may contain not more than 5 wt.%, preferably not more than 2.5 wt.%, and optimally not more than about 1 wt.% oxygenates. Typical content of oxygenates at the outlet of zone 200 removal of oxygenates may be not more than 100 ppm., by weight, preferably not more than 10 ppm., by weight, and optimally not more than 1 ppm., by weight relative to the weight okadas the second stream 204. Usually, the area 200 removal of oxygenates should be sufficient to ensure that the product meets the technical conditions on any C12 Allenby product, to avoid the accumulation of oxygenates in raw materials for the reaction zone 210 due to recycling, and to minimize the formation of carboxylic acids in the reaction zone 210. Moreover, minimizing recirculation of oxygenates can reduce the negative impact on the catalyst activity or the performance of the reaction zone 210.

This presents as an example the embodiment shown in the drawing, the area 200 removal of oxygenates can be area 200 adsorptive removal, which includes one or more, preferably two or more layers of adsorbent. As the adsorbent can be used in any molecular sieve, which may be a zeolite, silica gel or activated alumina. Typically, the molecular sieve may include zeolites X, Y, L, or a combination of both. In addition, the adsorption conditions: a temperature of 20-80C and pressure of 100-3500 kPa. Usually after adsorption layer of the adsorbent is subjected to desorption. Conditions desorption regeneration may include the temperature of 200-320C and pressure of 100-3500 kPa. The typical flow 194 regenerating agent or desorbent is in the gas phase, as discussed later. ipina area 200 removability, for example, in U.S. patent No. 5271835 or 6107526. Stream 204, out of the zone 200 removal of oxygenates can be fed to the reaction zone 210 of dimerization.

Preferably, in the reaction zone 210 dimerization one or more C6 alkenes can react with the formation of one or more C12 and higher alkenes. Generally the concentration of C6 alkene does not depend on the type of catalyst. In particular, some catalysts may have increased selectivity for the desired interaction C6 alkenes in the presence of other potentially reactive olefins, such as alkenes C7 and C8. The catalyst has activity against reactive alkenes C7 and C8 may also give side products alkenes C13 and C14, which can significantly reduce the formation of the desired alkenes C12. Usually the increase in purity C6 alkenes in the main stream 180 increases maintenance costs or capital costs for additional plates to provide the necessary separation. Removing alkenes C7 and C8 with alkenes C9 may be undesirable, for example, depending on the value of C9 alkenes. Additional side stream alkenes C7 and C8 can be extracted from the column of the second zone 170 fractionation, when it is desirable to have the head flow with a high content of C6 alkenes as si the article to the reaction zone 210 dimerization of hexene. The composition of the stream 180 can be adjusted in accordance with the catalyst in the reaction zone 210.

The reaction zone 210 of dimerization may include any suitable catalyst which may be active for the oligomerization of olefins, for example, different individual catalysts or more acid catalysts, including zeolite catalysts. The pore size of the catalyst can usually be chosen in such a way as to adjust or optimize specific product characteristics, such as degree of branching or the carbon number of the oligomers. Typically the acidity of the zeolite can be optimized, for example, by changing the relationship of silicon dioxide to aluminum oxide. Typical catalysts are disclosed, for example, in document U.S. 2006/0199987 A1. The process can proceed at a temperature 70-300C and the pressure 1200-7000 kPa. It is desirable in this process is obtained, one or more C12 oligomers.

Although not shown, the portion of the stream exiting the reactor can be recycled to regulate the temperature at the inlet of the reactor, the reaction zone 210. Usually to remove the exothermic heat of the process can be used refrigerator that provides chilled recycle stream at the inlet of the reactor.

Flow 212 leaving the reaction zone 210 of dimerization, may arrive at the device 224 t is unsportive current environment, such as a pump, and fed into the zone 230 processing. Usually area 230 processing includes cleaning device, which can be used adsorbent, such as activated charcoal, hydrotalcite, ion exchange resin, zeolite, aluminum silicate and/or silica gel. Contacting the exhaust stream 226 can be performed at a temperature of 25-160C and the pressure at which the components are in the liquid phase, for example, under pressure from 100-1800 kPa, space velocity of the liquid (you can use reduced OSPI) 5-50 h-1. Usually in the area 230 of the handle can be removed any acid, for example, trace amounts of acid, resulting from the catalyst in the conversion of oxygenates in the stream leaving the reaction zone 210. One or more common areas of treatment are described, for example, in U.S. patent No. 5689014. Stream 234, out of the zone 230 of the processing, can be combined with the bottom stream 160 of the first zone 140 fractionation, as described above.

Alkenes C6-C24 mainly alkenes C9-C12, formed by the interaction in the exhaust stream 234 may be provided in the second zone 170 fractionation in the lower stream 190, and then into a third fractionation zone 300 and the fourth area 340 fractionation that can be extracted alkenone products C9 and C12. Typically, the excess hydraulic is roizvoditelnost at the top of the column in the second zone 170 fractionation can be used by recirculation of the exhaust of the reaction flow back to the input in the column, that allows the process to a lesser degree of conversion of alkenes C6-C8 in one pass. This may limit the concentration of C12 and C13 alkenovich products in the exhaust of the reaction stream, which may reduce the degree of further interaction of these alkenes with the formation of the undesired heavier oligomers, such as one or more alkenes C18-C20. You can set the recirculation flow to optimize selectivity for hydrocarbons, C12 and C13 in the range of hydraulic restrictions at the top of the column in zone 170 fractionation. The result of the parent product flow may exceed the expense of control over the level, and it contains mainly neprevyshenie alkenes C5-C8. If you conduct the process with a lower degree of conversion per pass, you can minimize the amount of one or more alkenes C12, which further interact with the formation of the undesired heavier oligomers. If hydraulic restrictions at the top of the column in zone 170 fractionation doesn't allow us to return the waste stream from the reaction zone 210 by recycling back to the entrance of the column, you can add evaporative dryer, to obtain a lower liquid stream enriched with alkenes C12, which can be recycled to the inlet to the column, which very likely will not cause the hydraulic problems at the top of the column.

Consider the first zone 140 fractionation and flow desorbent zone 200 removal of oxygenates, where the flow is 146, which may be selected from the main stream 144 may be provided for the fifth zone 400 fractionation. In the fifth zone 400 fractionation may be obtained from the parent stream 410, which includes one or more hydrocarbons C1-C2, or boiling in the range C1-C2, and the bottom stream 420, containing one or more hydrocarbons heavier than C3, or boiling in the range of C3+. The specified lower stream 420 may contain at least 85 wt.% propane, not more than 15 wt.% propylene and not more than 0.5 wt.% isobutane. Part of the bottom stream 420 can be withdrawn as a stream 424 and directed into the zone 440 full saturation. The remaining portion, namely a stream 422, can be combined with ventilation flow 264 from zone "B" and removed from the device 100 in the form of a stream 426. This thread 426 can be used in any suitable application, such as fuel gas, liquefied petroleum gas in cylinders, or in aerosols.

Stream 424 coming in the 440 area of the complete saturation can be saturated, partially or fully, to get a regenerating agent containing one or more saturated hydrocarbons C3, or stream 450 saturated or regenerating agent. Usually in an area of 440 full saturation will occupait hydrogen stream 428 for carrying out the process of saturation. Usually in the zone 440 full saturation of the support conditions, such as temperature and pressure, provides saturation of alkenes and their significant transformation in alkanes. Examples of the catalyst may be a noble metal such as palladium, and a hydrogenation catalyst operates at a temperature of 20-80C and a pressure of 2000-3500 kPa. Example zone 440 full saturation is described, for example, in U.S. patent No. 6107526. In the zone 440 full saturation can be obtained stream 450 regenerating agent which contains one or more saturated hydrocarbons C3+. Essentially, the flow of 450 regenerating agent may contain less than 0.1 wt.% alkenes, preferably, less than 0.01 wt.% alkenes.

Stream 450 regenerating agent from zone "A" can be used for regeneration in the area 200 removal of oxygen-containing compounds. In particular, the flow of 450 regenerating agent may be combined with stream 192, containing one or more C4 hydrocarbons, including one or more C4 alkanes, with the formation of a combined commodity flow 194 zone 200 removal of oxygenates. The regeneration conditions can include a temperature of 200-300C and pressure of 100-3500 kPa. Usually, the beam 194 regenerating agent or desorbent is in the gas phase. Typically, to obtain the necessary regeneration temperature may be provided and the soaring glider and/or electric superheater. Alternatively, you can use a small heat exchanger to ensure proper heat flow 194 regenerating agent using the bottom stream from one of the zones fractionation, for example, from the first zone 140 fractionation or third zone 300 fractionation.

Usually, the beam 194 regenerating agent is a stream containing olefins and other unsaturated compounds. Alternatively can be used suitable external regenerative agent, such as fuel gas or nitrogen. The advantage of using a propane present in the device 100 is to minimise the number of additional propane.

After desorption of the layer of adsorbent exhaust stream 208 may leave the area 200 removal of oxygenates and pass through the valve 606 with a closed valve 604. Subsequently, this waste stream 208 may pass through the heat exchanger 240, such as a condenser with cooling water, with the formation of the cooled stream 244, which receives at least one evaporative drum 260. In the specified evaporative drum 260 is possible to maintain any desired pressure at which the isobutane can escape in the form of gas, and heavy oxygenates can condense in liquid form. Usually in the evaporator drum 260 can supports the th temperature of 20-70C and pressure 130-210 kPa. If regenerating agent mainly contains hydrocarbons C3, you can use a slightly higher pressure than in the case of using isobutane as the primary regenerating agent. Vent stream 264 in the zone "B" of the evaporative drum 260, after cooling, with the formation of the liquid phase and the pump can be combined with the stream 422, which may be selected from the lower stream 420 fifth zone 400 fractionation. Alternatively, if the vent stream 264 is in the gas phase, it can be routed to fuel gas or exhaust gas. Usually the vent stream 264 independently may contain one or more C4 hydrocarbons-. The bottom stream 268, which may contain one or more hydrocarbons boiling or fraktsionirovanii in the range hydrocarbons C6-C8, then may be provided at least in one of several areas. Usually one or more hydrocarbons can in fact contain one or more oxygenates, such as methyl ethyl ketone, and include hydrocarbons having less than 6 carbon atoms, but boil or practionercourse in the range hydrocarbons C6-C8.

As an example, at least part or the entire stream 282 may be recirculation zone, where it is combined with the raw material 110 to the reaction zone 120, C is by opening the valve 290 and/or valve 292. At least part of the flow 268 can be divided into threads 284 and 286 by opening the valve 292 and valve 294 and/or 296. By opening the valve 294, 286 flow can be directed into the reaction zone 500 decomposition of oxygenate.

Usually in the reaction zone 500 decomposition of oxygenates can be transformed into other compounds such as water, which can easily be separated from the hydrocarbons. Alternatively, any ketones can be gidrirovanii to alcohols. Essentially, in the reaction zone 500 decomposition of the oxygenate may be used any suitable process for the complete or partial hydrogenation to convert the oxygenates in the desired connection. Subsequently, the waste stream 502 may leave the reaction zone 500 decomposition of oxygenate, and the device 100 for use in any suitable area. By opening the valve 296 is possible to withdraw at least part of the flow 284 in the form of a stream 288, which, in turn, can be combined with the bottom stream 360 from the fourth zone 340 fractionation and used, for example, as fuel oil. Thus, the combined stream 268 can be sent, at least one of the three destinations, namely in the reaction zone 500 decomposition of the oxygenate in the feedstock 110 and the bottom stream 360, by manipulation of valves 290, 292, 294 and 296.

The waste stream 208 deserve the same can also be processed in the zone 600 decomposition of alcohol. In this typical embodiment, the valve 606 may be closed or partially open, so that at least part of the waste stream 208 desorbent could pass through the valve 604 in the form of raw stream 602 in an area of 600 decomposition of alcohol. In this zone 600 decomposition of alcohol may be aluminum oxide or any other suitable catalyst for the dehydration of alcohols to form one or more enriched ketones products boiling in the range of C5-C8. The layer of aluminum oxide to decompose the alcohol can be entered directly into the exhaust line regenerating agent, to the heat exchanger 240 to use the high temperature regeneration. Essentially, at least one evaporative drum 260 may have a drain valve to release the formed water. Stream 608 extending from the zone 600 can be extracted and directed to any desired destination of the product.

Also planned alternative implementation options. As an example, area 200 removal of oxygenates may be located below in the course of the stream from the reaction zone 210. For some catalysts oxygenates can significantly affect the selectivity of the process. In particular, the removal of oxygenates from a raw stream 204 can significantly increase the degree of conversion of alkenes C7-Si to lead to an increase in the yield of by-products - alkenes C13-C14 and reducing the desired alkenes C12. As a result, an area of 200 removal of oxygenates can optionally move down along the stream.

One or more alkenes C12 obtained in the described embodiments of the invention, can be used in the production of polymers and petrochemicals. In addition, alkenes C12 can be used as a petrochemical raw material for plasticizers C13. So, alkenes C12 can be used in the production of alkyl phenols, as part of the process of obtaining additives for lubricating oils, and as raw materials for the production of synthetic detergents. At least some of these processes, low levels of oxygenates may interfere with subsequent reactions of alkenes C12 with the formation of the desired products. Therefore, it is desirable to remove oxygenates, in order to avoid these adverse processes.

The authors suggest that based on the preceding description of the specialist in this field of technology without additional development, can use the present invention to the full extent. Therefore, the previous special options for implementation should be construed as merely illustrative, without limitation, the rest of the description of the invention in any way.

In preaches the existing specification, all temperatures are given in degrees Celsius, and all parts and percentages are given by weight, unless otherwise indicated.

From the preceding description specialist in this field technicians will be able to easily set the essential features of the present invention and, without deviating from its spirit and scope, can perform various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it for various applications and conditions.

1. The device 100 to obtain a tetramer containing:
A) an area of 170 fractionation, in which the product is obtained 180 distillation, containing one or more hydrocarbons, C6 to obtain one or more compounds C12; and
B) an area of 200 removal of oxygenates to remove one or more oxygenate compounds from the product 180 distillation, passing through an area of 200 removal of oxygenates.

2. The device 100 of claim 1, wherein the area 200 removal of oxygenates includes an area of 200 adsorptive removal.

3. The device 100 of claim 2, in which area 200 adsorptive removal contains the adsorbent.

4. The device 100 according to claims 1, 2 or 3, additionally containing an area of 230 processing below in the course of the stream from zone 200 removal of oxygenates.

5. The device 100 according to claim 4, further containing device 224 to move the fluid located above in the course of the stream from zone 230 processing.

6. The device 100 according to claim 4, in which the zone 23 of the handle is connected with an area of 170 fractionation line exhaust stream 234.

7. The device 100 according to claim 4, further containing a reaction zone 120 for the oligomerization of propylene.

8. The device 100 according to claim 7, in which area 170 fractionation is a second area 170 fractionation, and the device 100 further comprises a first zone 140 fractionation, which is adapted to receive flow 138 emerging from the reaction zone 120, and provides the head-stream 144, containing one or more C4 hydrocarbons-and the bottom stream 160, containing one or more hydrocarbons C5+.

9. The device 100 of claim 8, further comprising:
the third fractionation zone 300, which is adapted to receive the lower stream 190 from the second zone 170 fractionation; and
the fourth area 340 fractionation, which is adapted to receive the lower stream 320 of the third zone 300 fractionation.

10. The device 100 of claim 9, further comprising:
a fifth area 400 fractionation, which is adapted to receive the head of the stream 144 from the first zone 140 fractionation and providing flow 420, containing one or more hydrocarbons C3+zone 440 full saturation, which, in turn, provides a regenerating agent 450, containing one or more saturated hydrocarbons C3+.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biofuels and methods for production thereof. The method (10) of producing low metal content biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprises the following steps: contacting the metal-containing biomass-derived pyrolysis oil with an acidic ion-exchange resin having sulphonic acid active groups to obtain low metal content biomass-derived pyrolysis oil and spent acidic ion-exchange resin (14); removing the obtained low metal content biomass-derived pyrolysis oil from the spent acidic ion-exchange resin (16); and washing the spent acidic ion-exchange resin with a solvent selected from a group consisting of methanol, ethanol, acetone and combinations thereof to remove at least a portion of residual low metal content biomass-derived pyrolysis oil from the spent acidic ion-exchange resin and to retain residual solvent in the low metal content biomass-derived pyrolysis oil. Disclosed also is a method (10) of reducing metal content in the obtained metal-containing biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

EFFECT: total concentration of metals is reduced from the level of the starting pyrolysis oil, wherein other properties such as viscosity, water content and acidity basically remain unchanged after ion exchange.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of separating p-xylene from raw material flow, which contains C8-aromatic hydrocarbons and, at least, one C9-aromatic hydrocarbon component. Method includes: (a) introduction of first adsorbent, containing Y-zeolite or X-zeolite, in contact with raw material flow and first flow of desorbent, containing first desorbent with boiling temperature not lower than 150C, in first zone of adsorptive separation in order to obtain first flow of extract, which contains p-xylene and first desorbent, and first flow of raffinate, which contains depleted of p-xylene C8-aromatic hydrocarbons, C9-aromatic hydrocarbon component and first desorbent; (b) supply of first flow of extract into zone of extract distillation for obtaining second flow of desorbent, containing first desorbent, and p-xylene flow; (c) supply of first flow of raffinate into zone of raffinate distillation for obtaining third flow of desorbent, containing first desorbent and C9-aromatic hydrocarbon component, and flow of raffinate, containing depleted of p-xylene C8-aromatic hydrocarbons; and (d) supply of, at least, part of third flow of desorbent and flow of desorbent, which contains second desorbent, into second zone of adsorptive separation, containing second adsorbent, for obtaining second flow of extract, containing first desorbent and second desorbent, and second flow of raffinate, containing C9-aromatic hydrocarbon component and second desorbent. Invention also relates to device for claimed method realisation.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to separate C9-aromatic hydrocarbons in efficient way.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of separating at least one straight C4-C20 hydrocarbon from a fluid mixture containing said straight hydrocarbon and at least one branched isomer thereof. The method involves a step of bringing the fluid mixture into contact with an adsorbent which contains a porous organometallic skeletal material containing at least one at least bidentate organic compound, having a coordination bond with at least one metal ion for adsorption of the straight hydrocarbon, where the at least one at least bidentate organic compound is a monocyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic ring system and is unsubstituted or has one or more substitutes, independently selected from a group consisting of a halogen atom, C1-6-alkyl, phenyl, NH2, NH(C1-6-alkyl), N(C1-6-alkyl)2, OH, O-phenyl and OC1-6-alkyl, where the substitutes C1-6-alkyl and phenyl are unsubstituted or have one or more substitutes, independently selected from a group consisting of a halogen atom, NH2, NH(C1-6-alkyl), N(C1-6-alkyl)2, OH, O-phenyl and OC1-6-alkyl, wherein the ring system of the at least one at least bidentate organic compound is a substituted imidazole, and where said at least one metal ion is an ion of a metal selected from a group consisting of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Fe and Mn. The invention also relates to use of said porous organometallic skeletal material in the method of separating straight hydrocarbons from branched isomers thereof.

EFFECT: present invention provides an alternative, easily to make absorbent.

9 cl, 4 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical engineering and specifically to production of purified benzene. The method of purifying coking benzene from nitrogen-containing impurities is realised via selective adsorption. The sorbent used is silicon dioxide or aluminium oxide modified with nickel (II) chloride.

EFFECT: larger amount of benzene (containing not more than 0,1 ppm nitrogen) per gram of adsorbent and high rate of purification.

2 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method for removing mercury from flow of gaseous hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon cracking plant where the flow includes mercury and olefines, oxidised by-products, dienes and hydrocarbons different from dienes; the above method involves flow contact with the composition containing (a) solid porous refractory material of substrate, which has surface acidity in the range of 0.1 to 10.0 mcmol of non-reversible NH3/g of substrate, as is measured with chemical adsorption of ammonia, where substrate material has the surface area of approximately 0.1 m2/g to approximately 1.6 m2/g, and substrate material contains at least 80% of alpha-oxide of aluminium; and (b) silver in the form of reduced silver.

EFFECT: effective removal of mercury from flow of gaseous hydrocarbons.

9 cl, 19 ex, 9 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves bringing a crude organic product into contact with a solid adsorbent, where the solid adsorbent is selected from a group consisting of an oxide or hydroxide of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium, and filtering the crude organic product in order to remove the metal of the residual catalyst. The residual catalyst is selected from a group consisting of a metal halide, metal oxyhalide, alkyl metal, alkoxy metal, where the metal in the residual catalyst is selected from a group consisting of group III and group VIII metals.

EFFECT: method enables more complete removal of catalyst residue.

22 cl, 9 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in chemistry for separation in gas or liquid phase. Proposed adsorbent of O-, M- and P-isomers of alkyl(aryl)-aromatic compounds including isomers of diphenyl phenylene represents metalloorganic MOF-5-type structure. Said structure includes residues of benzene dicarboxylic acid or biphenyl dicarboxylic acid as linker while clusters of inorganic oximetallate polyhedra including zinc, copper or cobalt ions are located in lattice points.

EFFECT: higher capacity and selectivity.

3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of removing oxygenate from a stream containing 50-99.99 wt % paraffins and 0-50 wt % olefins, which involves the following steps: a) passing a supply stream containing 50-99.99 wt % of one or more starting C10-C15-paraffins, 0-50 wt % olefins and one or more oxygenates through an adsorbent layer which is an exchange alkali or alkali-earth cation of zeolite X in order to remove virtually all said oxygenates; and b) removing paraffin(s) from the adsorbent layer to obtain a clean stream.

EFFECT: use of present method enables to remove a wide range of oxygenates from raw materials, a large portion of which contains C10-C15-paraffins.

4 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of purifying alkyl aromatic compounds with an alkyl chain comprising 9-25 carbon atoms, involving the following steps: i) separation of a mixture of alkyl aromatic compounds in a fractionation column, which separates 60-85 wt % of the starting material through the top part the column to obtain a light fraction and a heavy fraction, ii) separation of the heavy fraction from step (i) in a fractionation column which works at pressure in the top part between 0 and 0.1 MPa (0-1 bar), at temperature in the bottom part between 175 and 290C and temperature in the top part between 90 and 200C, to obtain a light fraction and a heavy fraction, iii) removing chromophore precursors from the light fraction from step (ii) via percolation filtration through a fixed layer used to clean solid substance, iv) removing light by-products obtained at step (iii) using a distillation column which works at temperature between 60 and 250C, v) mixing the purified alkylate obtained at step (iv) with a light fraction obtained during distillation at step (i).

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to obtain detergents with low colour grade owing to sulphonation.

16 cl, 2 ex, 6 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for natural and associated petroleum gas conditioning for long-distance transport. The natural gas is supplied to an adsorber wherein a combined adsorbent layer and a downstream silica gel layer are charged. On the adsorber, chemisorption of sulphide traces, such as mercaptans COS and H2S is enabled. On the silica gel layer, adsorption of water vapour and hydrocarbons C6+- is observed. As an adsorbent, aluminium oxide containing 325 wt % of metal oxides of the I-II group, namely: Na, K, Pb, Cs, Cu, Ag, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd and their mixtures is used. Regeneration of the sweet gas saturated silica gel layer and adsorbent is performed at temperature 220-280C.

EFFECT: invention allows for more effective natural gas drying and treating process ensured by prevention of carbon deposits and sulphur on the surface of silica gel of a bottom layer and for longer service life of the silica gel layer.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing ethylidene norbornene (ENB). The method comprises the following steps: a) feeding dicyclopentadiene into a first reactor for the thermal cracking of dicyclopentadiene to cyclopentadiene, carried out in inert heat transfer fluid having a boiling point >230 C, said thermal cracking being carried out at a temperature lower than the boiling point of said heat transfer fluid and lies between 200C and 300 C; b) feeding said cyclopentadiene produced at step a) into a second reactor in which said cyclopentadiene reacts with 1,3-butadiene to form vinyl norbornene (VNB); c) feeding said VNB produced at step b) into a third reactor in which a catalytic isomerisation of VNB to ethylidene norbornene (ENB) is carried out; d) collecting said ENB. Said step a) is characterised by that: i) said dicyclopentadiene fed to said step a) contains primary dicyclopentadiene from cracking containing up to 10 wt % of tetrahydroindene (THI), and recycled dicyclopentadiene containing tetrahydroindene (THI) recycled from said step b) of formation of vinyl norbornene; ii) said dicyclopentadiene containing said THI is fed into said heat transfer fluid and is in contact with it for a time of less than 1 minute; iii) the formed cyclopentadiene vaporises into the gas phase established above said liquid phase and is continuously removed from said first reactor; iv) a part of said heat transfer fluid substantially free of dicyclopentadiene and rich in THI is continuously fed into a fractionation column, said THI being collected at the top of said column and said heat transfer fluid being collected at the bottom of said column; v) said heat transfer fluid purified in step iv) is recycled to said first reactor of said step a).

EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.

15 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to gas industry and can be used at gas condensate fields, immediately at sites of gas preparation for transportation or at centralised sites of preparation of instable gas condensate for transportation or processing. The invention refers to the method of obtaining liquid ethane from instable gas condensate, which involves separation of gas condensate in a rectifying column into three flows, two gas ones - methane and ethane, and one liquid - deethanised condensate, ethane gas flow separation with a side shoulder of the rectifying column, which is located on the level of gaseous phase containing ethane free from methane, and further condensation of ethane flow and extraction of liquid ethane from condensed ethane flow.

EFFECT: enlarging the range of products, improving their quality and low-temperature properties.

1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of separating an isopentane-pentane-hexane fraction during an isomerisation process, consisting of a first fractionation column for preparing material, from which the ballast product contained in the material is separated with the distillate. The residue from the bottom of the fractionation column is taken for conversion of pentanes and hexanes into isomers in an isomerisation reactor. Isomerisation products are fed into a second fractionation column for debutanisation, from where butane is removed from the top of the column and the isomerisation product is removed from the bottom of the column, said product containing reaction isomers obtained during the reaction, which are fed for separation into a third fractionation column for depentanisation, from which isopentane, recycled pentane and a hexane fraction are successively removed from the top. The recycled pentane is returned into the isomerisation reactor. The method is characterised by that the starting material used is a 75-85C fraction of straight-run gasoline, and the ballast product removed from the top of the first fractionation column is isopentane contained in the material; reaction isopentane is removed from the top of the third fractionation column for depentanisation as a distillate or with the first side cut. Excess butane is removed as the distillate. Pentane is removed with the second side cut of the depentanisation column and fed into the isomerisation reactor as a recycle stream. A mixture of isohexane and normal hexane is removed from the bottom of the depentanisation column and then fed as material into an additional fourth fractionation column for deisohexanisation, from which the isohexane fraction is removed with the distillate and recycled hexane is removed with the side cut and then fed for re-conversion into the isomerisation reactor, and higher-boiling components are removed with the residue.

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to cut the amount of energy spent in the isomerisation process on producing isoparaffins, widens the range of products and provides flexibility of the process and purity of the end products.

2 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to versions of the method of separating olefin from paraffin in the product stream from a dehydrogenation system. One of the versions involves a step (a) for feeding a stream of material essentially consisting of a mixture of at least one olefin and at least one paraffin; (b) dividing the stream of material into a first portion and a second portion; (c) feeding the first portion of the stream of material into a first separation column for products and feeding the second portion the stream of material into a second separation column for products, where the first separation column for products works at a higher pressure than the second column for products; (d) feeding at least a portion of the stream of overhead product from the second separation column for products into a heat pump with compression of the stream of the overhead product of the second product separator; and (e) feeding steam from at least one steam turbine, which activates the heat pump, into the reboiler of the first separation column for products.

EFFECT: extraction of a high-purity propylene product with lower power consumption.

17 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of processing hydrocarbon material via high-temperature fractionation involves feeding hydrocarbon material (hydrocarbon fractions) into a fractionation column with bottom heater and outlet of commercial-grade high-boiling fraction(s) from the bottom, units for outlet of fractionation gases from the top part and obtaining reflux liquid for reflux of the top of the column, a unit for outlet of calculated commercial-grade excess low-boiling fraction(s). Said method is characterised by that the reflux unit is fitted with a cooler (recuperator, recuperator-evaporator) for further cooling of the reflux liquid with control of its temperature from 12C to minus 1C from the initial temperature of reflux liquid before the cooler (recuperator, recuperator-evaporator) to the further cooling process, directly before feeding said reflux liquid for reflux.

EFFECT: invention increases propane extraction ratio, as well as the feed rate of de-ethaniser columns and other high-temperature columns.

5 cl, 6 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of separating cracking methanol gas and production of polymer grade low carbon alkene involves: (1) a compression step where cracking methanol gas enters a compression system with multi-step compression, where pressure of cracking methanol gas subjected to three-step or four-step compression reaches up to 1.1-2.5 MPaG; (2) a decontamination step in which cracking methanol gas compressed at step (1) is cleaned from impurities in a decontamination system to obtain refined cracking gas, where concentration of CO2 in the methanol cracking gas treated at the decontamination step is less than 1 ppm and/or total content of alkyne is less than 5 ppm; (3) an adsorption and separation step where refined cracking gas obtained from step (2) successively enters the column for previous removal of ethylene, an ethylene absorber, a demethaniser and an ethylene dephlegmator to obtain a polymer grade ethylene product and a C4 fraction and/or the same gas successively enters the column of the previous removal of ethylene, a de-ethaniser, a depropaniser and a propylene fractionation column to obtain a polymer grade propylene product and a C5 product.

EFFECT: use of said method enables to obtain polymer grade low carbon cracking methanol gas.

14 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of producing and purifying vinylaromatic monomers, involving: a) feeding a stream consisting of an aromatic hydrocarbon, together with a stream essentially consisting of C2-C3 olefin, into an alkylation section; b) feeding reaction products coming from the alkylation section into a first separation section; c) outputting from the first alkylation section a first stream consisting of unreacted aromatic hydrocarbon, which is fed for reuse into the alkylation section, a second stream essentially consisting of monoalkylated aromatic hydrocarbon, a third stream essentially consisting of dialkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, fed into the transalkylation section, and a fourth stream essentially consisting of a mixture of polyalkylated aromatic hydrocarbons; d) feeding the second stream from step (c) into a dehydrogenattion section; e) feeding reaction products coming from the dehydrogenation section into a second separation/purification section, comprising at least one distillation column; f) outputting a stream consisting of a vinylaromatic monomer with purity of over 99.7 wt % from the top part of the said at least one distillation column, characterised by that: after first cooling with return of heat leaving the dehydrogenation step and after washing with spray water, the gas is fed into the cladding of a bundle of pipes of a heat exchanger lying vertically or horizontally, in whose pipes cooling fluid flows, where gas condenses in the heat exchanger; gas is fed from the bottom part of the heat exchanger with liquid obtained through condensation, which flows counterflow and comes out of the heat exchanger completely or partially, as well as from the bottom part of the jacket of the heat exchanger, and which is fed into a second separation/purification section (e); possible gas and uncondensed substances are output from the top part of the jacket of the heat exchanger.

EFFECT: use of the present method reduces formation of deposits and solid body mass inside the condensation system and sometimes inside hydrogen compressors.

15 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of purifying alkyl aromatic compounds with an alkyl chain comprising 9-25 carbon atoms, involving the following steps: i) separation of a mixture of alkyl aromatic compounds in a fractionation column, which separates 60-85 wt % of the starting material through the top part the column to obtain a light fraction and a heavy fraction, ii) separation of the heavy fraction from step (i) in a fractionation column which works at pressure in the top part between 0 and 0.1 MPa (0-1 bar), at temperature in the bottom part between 175 and 290C and temperature in the top part between 90 and 200C, to obtain a light fraction and a heavy fraction, iii) removing chromophore precursors from the light fraction from step (ii) via percolation filtration through a fixed layer used to clean solid substance, iv) removing light by-products obtained at step (iii) using a distillation column which works at temperature between 60 and 250C, v) mixing the purified alkylate obtained at step (iv) with a light fraction obtained during distillation at step (i).

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to obtain detergents with low colour grade owing to sulphonation.

16 cl, 2 ex, 6 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: gas-and-oil producing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil processing and oil chemical industry and can be implemented for processing heavy hydrocarbon stock, oil, residual oil stock, and oil concentrates extracted from oil containing waste. The procedure consists in treatment of stock of over 870 kg/m3 density, in preliminary heating and in separation into benzene-diesel fumes and a residual heavy fraction. Benzene-diesel fumes are directed to fractioning where there are extracted gaseous and liquid light products and the heavy distillate fraction. The residual heavy fraction is subjected to thermolysis; fumes of thermolysis are supplied to fractioning, while residue of thermolysis is withdrawn. The heavy distillate fraction is heated to 440-500C, further it is divided into a steam phase and liquid residue; the latter is mixed with the residual heavy fraction preliminary heated to 380-420C. Produced mixture is subjected to thermolysis in a multi-section reactor. The steam phase is directed to the reactor section by section for maintaining temperature of thermolysis. Pressure in the reactor is dropped section-by-section. Residue of thermolysis is withdrawn as fuel oil or bitumen stock, or pitch.

EFFECT: processing various kinds of heavy carbon stock and increased output of light products out of it without catalytic process.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing petrochemical material which contains naphtha, containing hydrocarbons from C5 to C9+, involving catalytical cracking of starting material containing heavy hydrocarbons to form a stream of material containing naphtha, through contact of the stream of starting material of heavy hydrocarbons with a hydrocarbon cracking catalyst in a reaction zone with a fluidised bed to obtain an output stream of a range of hydrocarbon products, including light olefins; input of material containing naphtha, which contains hydrocarbons from C5 to C9+ into a separation column with a separation diaphragm and separation of said material into a light fraction which contains a compound having 5-6 carbon atoms, an intermediate fraction with compounds containing 7-8 carbon atoms, and a heavy fraction with compounds containing more than 8 carbon atoms and cracking of at least a portion of the compounds of the light fraction containing 5-6 carbon atoms to form an output stream of cracked olefins containing C2 and C3 olefins. The invention also relates to apparatus for realising said method.

EFFECT: invention improves processing streams of hydrocarbons meant for producing relatively large amounts of light olefins.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of heteropoly acid catalysts for converting oxygenates to alkenes. Described is a method of producing an alkene (alkenes) from an oxygenate starting material through dehydration in a reactor in the presence of a heteropoly acid catalyst deposited on a support, characterised by that the specific pore volume thereof satisfies the following relationship: OP>0.6-0.3 [amount of heteropoly acid catalyst/surface area of dried catalyst], where OP denotes the specific pore volume of the dried heteropoly acid catalyst deposited on the support (given in ml/g catalyst); the amount of the heteropoly acid catalyst is the amount of heteropoly acid contained in the dried heteropoly acid catalyst deposited on the support (given in micromole/g); the surface area of the dried catalyst is the specific surface area of the dried heteropoly acid catalyst deposited on the support (given in m2/g). Described is a method of converting a hydrocarbon to an alkene (alkenes), involving the following successive steps: a) converting hydrocarbon starting material in a synthetic gas reactor into a mixture of carbon oxide (oxides) and hydrogen, b) converting said mixture of carbon oxide (oxides) and hydrogen from step a) in the presence of a powdered catalyst in a reactor at temperature ranging from 200 to 400C and at pressure ranging from 50 to 200 bars into starting material containing at least one monoatomic aliphatic paraffin alcohol and/or the corresponding ether containing 2-5 carbon atoms, and c) continuing to realise the method as described above to obtain alkenes, owing to which the oxygenate starting material contains at least a portion of alcohol (alcohols) and/or ethers obtained at step b). Described is use of the heteropoly acid catalyst deposited on a support in the method of producing alkene (alkenes) from oxygenate starting material for increasing alkene selectivity and output while simultaneously preventing formation of alkanes, in the presence of the catalyst described above.

EFFECT: high efficiency of producing alkenes and low amount of alkanes formed.

20 cl, 7 tbl, 1 dwg, 19 ex

Up!