Method of treating infected wounds of anterior abdominal wall
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely purulent surgery, and may be used for treating infected wounds. That is ensured by surgical treatment of suppurative focuses and exsection of necrotised tissues. Then the whole wound surface is treated with 10% colloidal nanosilver. The subcutaneous fat is infiltrated with 10% colloidal nanosilver at 0.1 ml of the solution per 1 cm2 of the wound. Additionally, the wound is covered with a sterile 10% colloidal nanosilver wipe.
EFFECT: method enables reducing the length of wound granulation and epithelisation ensured by using the biologically active colloidal nanosilver solution coating all wound layers and rendering selective action on pathogens only.
The invention relates to medicine, namely to General surgery.
Despite the rapid development of modern medicine and the use of a wide class of antiseptics for the treatment of wounds, the problem does not cease to be relevant because the issues of effective influence on the course of the wound process are solved not always successful [Postyshev VK, omelyanovski CENTURIES the ways and possibilities of prevention of infectious complications in surgery /Surgery. - 1997. No. 8. - Page 11-15]. Currently used for local treatment of purulent wounds antiseptic and antibacterial agents are often ineffective or inefficient, often have side effects that cause immunosuppression [Blind NI Postoperative wound infection: causes and consequences. // Kazan medical journal. - 2001. No. 3. - S].
Known methods of treatment of purulent wounds by washing them with solutions of various antiseptics (U.S. Pat. RF 2068263), antibiotics (U.S. Pat. RF 2008917), by surgical treatment of the wound and applying to areas with necrotic tissue powdered pepsin, (U.S. Pat. RF 2131255), preparations containing proteolytic enzymes (U.S. Pat. RF 2036658). There is a method of treatment of purulent wounds by surgical treatment and subsequent wrapping with drugs (U.S. Pat. RF 2185781). On p is pout phase of wound healing before and after surgery on the wound impose multilayer bandage, the first layer which is impregnated with a proteolytic enzyme, dissolved in 30%aqueous solution of urea, the second layer is a multi-component water-soluble ointment base, which have antibacterial and anti-dehydrating properties, the third layer hydrophobizing naphthalan ointment, and in the second phase provide free skin plastic or impose secondary seams with irrigation drainage in the residual cavity.
A common drawback of all these methods is the low efficiency of the extensive treatment of purulent diseases of soft tissues (30%), the duration of epithelization of the wound (9-12 hours), and complete epithelialization only 30-40 day.
There is a method of treatment of purulent wounds with silver (U.S. Pat. RF 2063232-prototype). The method is the fact that the plate applicator silver model in the form of a wound surface, calcined in an open flame and put directly on the wound surface. After annealing the applicator placed on the ulcer 3-5 days, then the affected surface is placed in gnotobiology insulator for 1-2 days. If necessary, this alternation to produce full recovery.
The disadvantages of this method include:
1. the complexity of the procedure is the necessity of using a special plate of the applicator of silver and so is kalevantie it on an open fire
2. the method is not designed for use at large wound surfaces (>10 cm2full epithelialization of the wound with observed only after 3-4 weeks
There is a method of treatment of purulent wounds with silver (U.S. Pat. RF 2163494), lies in the rehabilitation of a 5% aqueous solution of powergra with the addition of 1% hydrogen peroxide solution in a ratio of 10:1, which is filled rehabilitated cavity immersed waveguide and subjected to ultrasonic treatment, while conducting a flow-wash drainage.
The disadvantage of the method:
1. You add peroxide to enhance the antiseptic effects of powergra, which cannot be achieved by applying them separately.
2. Need additional exposure to ultrasound and the use of flow-irrigation and drainage, which complicates the technique of the method. Flow-washing draining cannot be implemented on the open wounds of soft tissues.
3. Cleansing wounds is provided by rehabilitation peroxide and exposure to ultrasound.
Solved in the invention the task is to develop a method of treatment of purulent wounds of the anterior abdominal wall.
The technical result that is achievable with the use of the method is to reduce the time of granulation and epithelization of the wound, due to the use of biologically AK is positive colloidal solution of nano-silver on all layers of the wound, not calling local worsening immunodeficiency due to the selective action only on pathogenic microorganisms.
The method is as follows.
Perform surgical treatment of purulent foci with excision of necrotic tissue, processing the entire surface of the wound with a 10% solution of colloidal nano-silver. To act on all layers of the wound is investirovanie subcutaneous fat tissue 10% R-m colloidal nano-silver at a rate of 0.1 ml on 1 cm2the wounds.
After using the toilet wounds, sterile cloth moistened with a 10% solution of colloidal nano-silver and leave for the day.
After cleansing the wound impose secondary stitches on the wound.
Clinical example. A patient, 32 years old, he enrolled in the Institute of JV with a diagnosis of Penetrating stab wound of the anterior abdominal wall. In an emergency procedure performed surgery: Laparotomy. Revision of the abdominal cavity, suturing wounds of the small intestine, nasointestinal intubation, sanitation, drainage of the abdominal cavity.
On the 4th day after the operation marked purulent discharge from the lower third of the p/o wounds. With wounds removed 4 suture, the wound treated with a 10% solution of colloidal nano-silver, subcutaneous fat investirovanie 10% R-m colloidal nano-silver at a rate of 0.1 ml on 1 cm2the wounds. In the wound installed sterile is alfetta soaked in 10% p-d colloidal nano-silver. After 1 day after application of the solution: the wound is completely free of purulent discharge. 2 days - marked granulation and epithelialization of the wound. Superimposed secondary seams. Complete epithelialization of wounds noted on 6 days. The wound healed by secondary intention, the sutures were removed on the 14th day, the patient in a satisfactory condition was discharged from the hospital.
As a colloidal solution of nano-silver, it is advisable to use the drug "Agbion-2" (patent No. 2341291). Agbion is a highly effective antibacterial agent based on the fine silver particles in aqueous solution. Thus the solution has a high biological activity against microorganisms and stores it in a long time. Microbiological activity in solution Agbion are not silver ions and not his uniform uncharged particle size of about 3-4 nm, and polydisperse system, consisting of a set of particles with a size distribution with its main part in the range of 5-16 nm. Biological activity against all microorganisms (taken in doses of 106, 102, 104), provides versatility of the drug.
The method of treatment of purulent wounds, including surgical treatment of purulent foci with excision of necrotic tissue and subsequent dressing, characterized in that after excision of n is cruiseaway tissues treat the entire surface of the wound 10%solution of colloidal nano-silver, infiltrate the subcutaneous fat 10%solution of colloidal nano-silver at a rate of 0.1 ml on 1 cm2the wound and the wound impose on the day a sterile cloth moistened with a 10%solution of colloidal nano-silver.
SUBSTANCE: in method for manufacturing of MIS-nanotransistor with local area for buried insulation at surface of silicone substrate of the first type of conductivity an insulating layer is formed around active regions of the transistor, a groove is formed as a basis for a stepped relief; then the first near-wall region and layer mask is formed, implantation of ions, mainly of oxygen, is performed till a layer with high concentration of oxygen and silicone oxide atoms is formed; the second near-wall region is formed, then implantation of ions of the second type is made here components with atoms with higher oxides are used which form glass with silicon dioxide; while thin buried insulation layer and active drain and source regions are formed simultaneously by annealing at temperature higher than softening point but less than glass transition temperature; for the purpose of drains and source regions insulation from each other an isolation channel is formed and insulating layer is applied to its surface; terminating regions are formed.
EFFECT: manufacturing process that allows manufacturing of MIS-nanotransistors without use of high-resolution lithography with maximum reduction of short-channel effect.
1 ex, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of multilayer gate structure manufacturing for field controlled transistors (FETs) includes formation of metal-containing layer directly at the first layer of TiN, titanium nitride, that covers areas of semiconductor substrate purposed for FETs of the first and second type; formation of protective coating by application of the second TiN-layer on top of the metal-containing layer; pattern generation at the second TiN-TiN-layer and metal-containing layer in order to cover only the first part of the first TiN-layer that covers the area designed for FETs of the first type; etching of the second part for the first TiN-layer which remains opened during pattern generation while the first part of the first TiN-layer is protected from etching due to its closure by part of the metal-containing layer with generated pattern; and formation of the third TiN-layer that covers the area of semiconductor substrate designed for FETs of the second type.
EFFECT: perfection of manufacturing technology for a multilayer gate structure.
27 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multifunctional scanning probe microscope comprises: a base (1); an approach unit (3) movably mounted on the base (1); a piezoscanner (4) situated on the preliminary approach unit (3); an object holder (5) situated on the piezoscanner (4); a sample (6) which comprises a measuring area (M) and is attached to the piezoscanner (4) by the object holder (5); a platform (9) attached to the base (1) opposite the sample (6); and an analyser mounted on the platform (9) and comprising a first measuring head (13) facing the sample (6) and adapted for probing the measuring area (M) of the sample (6). The microscope also has first and second guides (10, 11) fastened to the platform (9). The analyser has a second measuring head (16) facing the sample (6) and adapted for probing the measuring area (M) of the sample (6). The first and second measuring heads (13, 16) are movably mounted on the first and second guides (10, 11) respectively.
EFFECT: enabling fast change of measurement modes.
15 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in pressure measuring method using a resistive strain-gauge pressure sensor based on a nano- and microelectromechanical system (NiMEMS), in the measurement mode, the measured pressure value Pi is calculated by means of biharmonic spline interpolation as per control points, based on column vector W(Pe, UiZ, Upt, X1…Xn) saved at calibration stage by the following formula: Pi=GT×W, where GT - transposed column vector G; symbol "×" means matrix product. Calibration for pressure measurement is performed by recording of stresses of measurement Uiz and feed Upt diagonals of a bridge measurement chain and values X1…Xn, depending on destabilising factors, and by writing to a read-only memory of the sensor of column vector W, which is calculated as per the following formula: W=g-1×P, where P - column vector of reference values of pressure at control points; g - matrix, the elements of which are defined depending on the number of variables of conversion function. Pressure sensor based on NiMEMS, which implements the proposed measurement and calibration methods, includes a current sensor, a resistive strain-gauge pressure converter, ADC, a calculating device, a read-only memory and a digital interface. With that, the calculation device consists of a conversion unit of ADC code to a numerical voltage value, and a calculation unit of numerical pressure value.
EFFECT: improvement of pressure measurement accuracy.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: after lead-out wires are connected to contact platforms of strain-gauge elements, they are subject to action of test reduced and increased temperatures; resistances of resistive strain gauges are measuredat influencing temperatures; temperature coefficients of resistances of resistive strain gauges are determined in the range of influencing temperatures; using them, a criterion of timing stability is calculated as per the ratio of Ψτ01=|(α2+α4)-(α1+α3)|, where α1, α2, α3, α4 - temperature coefficient of resistance of the first, the second, the third, the fourth resistive strain gauge of NiMEMS respectively, and if \Ψτ01\<\ΨταΔ1\, this assembly is transferred for further operations. Besides, strain-gauge elements, jumpers, contact platforms and lead-out wires are connected to the bridge measuring chain and subject to action of test, reduced and increased temperatures; values of initial output signals of the bridge measuring chain are measured at influencing temperatures; considering them, criterion of timing stability is calculated as per the ratio of Ψτ02=|(U0T2 -U01T)(T2 -T1)-1UH -1|, and if \Ψτ02\<\ΨταΔ2\, assembly is transferred for further operations.
EFFECT: improving timing stability, overhaul period and service life.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pre-cleaning of a substrate by ionic bombardment in a glow discharge in argon atmosphere is performed at the temperature of 45-50°C during 10-15 minutes. A submicron film is formed of two components: TiN and Ti in vacuum by electric-arc sputtering of a titanium target in reaction gas-nitrogen atmosphere. The obtained submicron film is subject to bombardment with nitrogen ions at displacement on the substrate of up to - 600 V and temperature of 50-60°C during 15-20 minutes.
EFFECT: invention allows changing the content of titanium in relation to titanium nitride in the film not during the process, but after sputtering; as a result, formation of a coating based on titanium nitride of stoichiometric composition and improvement of physical and mechanical properties of items is achieved.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to paint compositions for painting surfaces operating in conditions of possible microbial contamination. The paint composition contains binder, a pigment, functional additives and/or filler, nanostructured silver particles obtained from a redox reaction using a natural polysaccharide of arabinogalactan, and a solvent.
EFFECT: invention prolongs biocidal action of the paint coat by up to 5 years and stability of silver nanoparticles during storage of the paint composition and formation of a coating therefrom.
2 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of polymer nanocomposites based on thermosetting plastic binder for space, aviation, shipbuilding and other structures. The method of producing a high-strength polymer nanocomposite with carbon nanotubes is based on the law of conformity of the minimum viscosity of a nanosuspension with maximum strength of the nanocomposite with carbon nanotubes. The method involves step-by-step addition of carbon nanotubes in amount of 0.001-0.01% of the weight of the binder into a composition of thermosetting plastic polyester binder under the action of ultrasound to form a suspension. Successive measurement of viscosity of the obtained suspension is carried out until the measured viscosity becomes equal to higher than the previous measurement value in order to determine the minimum viscosity value of the formed nanosuspension and subsequent polymerisation thereof.
EFFECT: invention enables to achieve maximum strength of the nanocomposite while adding an optimum amount of carbon nanotubes to the binder.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of high purity silicon in form of nano-size powder, which can be applied in semiconductor electronics and in nanotechnologies. Method includes synthesis of gaseous silicon monoxide through reaction of silicon dioxide with silicon and following reduction of silicon monoxide to free silicon, and synthesis of gaseous silicon monoxide is carried out at temperature lower than fusion point of silicon, gaseous silicon dioxide is condensed at temperature 400-600°C, and reduction of silicon monoxide to free silicon is carried out by annealing at temperature 950-1200°C for 2-3 hours with the following separation of silicon nanoparticles. Separation of silicon nanoparticles is carried out by etching in solution of hydrofluoric acid with following washing and drying. Regulation of sizes of silicon nanoparticles and their structure is realised by changing conditions of silicon monoxide annealing.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain silicon with particle size less than 50 nm and purity 99,999%.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in production of highly strong complex carbon threads and composition materials for auto- and/or aircraft construction. Carbon-containing component, activator and precursor of catalyst of growing carbon nanopipes are introduced in flow of gas-carrier through device for their introduction with formation of mixture. Obtained mixture is passed through vertical reactor with work chamber, heated to 1000 to 1200 °C by device for its heating. Formed nanopipes are brought out into product receiver. Mixture is supplied into reactor from bottom to top with linear speed from 50 to 130 mm/s. When said work temperature is reached in mixture flow, its linear speed is reduced to 4-10 mm/s, and before output from reactor is increased to 30-130 mm/s. Chamber of reactor is made from three successive sections - lower input 16, middle 17 and upper output 18. Diameter of section 16 constitutes from 1/3 to 1/5 from section 17 diameter, and diameter of section 18 constitutes from 1/3 to 1/4 of section 17 diameter. Output of device for mixture supply into work chamber is connected with input of lower input section 16.
EFFECT: plaints of long multi-layer and well-oriented nanopipes are obtained, stability of continuous process is ensured.
9 cl, 9 dwg, 2 tbl, 40 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, specifically to an agent showing antimicrobial activity.
EFFECT: agent possessing antimicrobial action and representing robinia (Robinia pseudaacacia L) seed essence prepared by collecting the seeds in October and extracting them three times in petroleum benzene under certain conditions.
2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to medicine, particularly to ophthalmology. One of the objects is using 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]propane-1,3-diole (compound A), its separate isomers and a mixture of the same isomers, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates and hydrates thereof for preparing an agent for treating keratoplasty or refractive keratoplasty consequences. The second object is a method of treating the keratoplasty or refractive keratoplasty consequences in an individual in need thereof that involves administering a therapeutically effective amount of 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]propane-1,3-diole (compound A), its separate isomers and mixtures of the same, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates and hydrates thereof into the above individual.
EFFECT: invention provides treating the eye disorder consequences.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, and may be used for treating septic wounds and burns. A composition possessing antibacterial action contains active metal biocomplexes with 5-nitroimidazole and β-pyridine carboxylic acid and a base providing a soft dosage form. As a gelling agent, there may be used modified cellulose derivatives, additionally comprising methyl monosilane hydrogel (enterosgel) and/or polyvinylpyrrolidone, or an alloy of polyethylene oxide-400 and polyethylene oxide-1500. As a mixture of hydrophilic substances, the base contains substances specified in a group of: polyethylene oxides, dimexide, glycerol and aerosol, may comprise at least one target additive of: anaesthetic - trimecaine, pyrromecaine, lidocaine, or a mixture thereof, a repair process stimulator - methyluracil, acemine, solcoseryl, Spirulina microalgae (Spirulina platensis), or a mixture thereof, antiseptic - miramistine, chlorhexidine digluconate, dioxidine or a mixture thereof. The composition is presented in the form of an ointment or gel.
EFFECT: invention provides the improved microcirculation in wound tissues, as well as anti-inflammatory action, repair process stimulation.
5 cl, 6 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to microencapsulation of drugs through the example of rivanol which can be used as an antimicrobial, antifungal topical preparation. A method for preparing microcaplues of rivanol in a water-soluble polymer representing polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl pyrrolidone is implemented by physical-chemical precipitation with a solvent wherein a precipitant is acetone. The process is carried out at 25°C with no special equipment required.
EFFECT: method for preparing the microcapsules of rivanol provides simplifying the process of microencapsulation.
13 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to surgery and can be used for prevention of postoperative wound suppuration. For this purpose perforated tube is placed on the bottom of wound surface and its ends are brought outside through formed on patient's skin counteropenings with further fixation of tube to skin and their hermetic closing. Starting from the following after operation day and further on 2-3 postoperative days, 100-150 ml of antiseptic solution are forced fractionally once daily into wound through one of tube ends, the second one being closed. Intra-wound hydraulic compression of antiseptic is created and increased to such a degree that partial leakage of solution between skin sutures takes place. After that, compressed second end of tube is opened and all antiseptic is drained from wound. Then, remaining wound and drainage tube content is aspirated completely. After that from 3-4 to 9-10 days washing of wound in flow manner without element of hydraulic compression is continued on the same daily single time basis.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce number of postoperative wound suppurations, thus ensuring wound healing with primary intention.
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: present invention refers to new substituted phenoxyacetic acids of general formula 1 possessing the properties of a selective antagonist inhibiting A2a adenosine receptor activity. The compounds may be used in preventing and treating central nervous system diseases, such as cognitive disorders, Parkinson's disease, or depression, tumour diseases, inflammatory processes. The invention also refers to an agent for intensification of immune response or action of drug preparations in the combination treatment of the diseases. In general formula
, R1, R2 and R3, optionally simultaneously represent hydrogen. C1-C5alkyl, C3-C5alkenyl or C3-C5-alkynyl; R4 represents hydrogen, a halogen atom, hydroxyl, C1-C3alkyl, C1-C3alkyloxy; R5 represents hydrogen, C1-C3alkyl, the group -C(O)R6;R6 represents hydroxyl, C1-C5alkyloxy, C3-C5alkenyloxy, C3-C5alkynyloxy optionally substituted by an amino group wherein the substitutes optionally identical are specified in hydrogen, C1-C3alkyl optionally substituted by a mono- or dialkylaminogroup, an alkyloxygroup, 5-6-member saturated heterocyclyl containing 1-2 heteroatoms specified in nitrogen and oxygen: pyridyl, phenyl optionally substituted by 1-3 methoxygroups; or optionally substituted 6-member, optionally annulated with 5-member unsaturated heterocyclyl, saturated heterocyclyl containing 2 nitrogen atoms wherein the substitutes are specified in C1-C3alkyl optionally substituted by 5- member heteroaryl containing 1-3 heteroatoms specified in nitrogen and oxygen; or 6- member optionally saturated heterocyclyl containing 1-2 nitrogen atom optionally substituted by C1-C3alkyl, oxo, optionally substituted by phenyl; a dashed line with an accompanying continuous line represents a single, double or triple bond.
EFFECT: preparing new substituted phenoxyacetic acids of general formula 1 possessing the properties of the selective agonist inhibiting A2a adenosine receptor activity.
15 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely surgery, and may be used for treating abscesses, festered residual cavities and ganglions. The cavity contents are daily aspirated through a catheter in laboratory animals (male rabbits) suffering simulated hepatic abscesses of the diameter of 1.5 cm. Then the abscess cavity is filled with copper nanoparticle suspension in 0.9% physiologic saline of the concentration of 1 mcg/ml. A laser light guide provided with a diffuser is placed in the cavity centre to expose to laser light at wave length 630 nm in a continuous mode, output power 35 mWt for 3 minutes.
EFFECT: method enables intensifying antimicrobial action of copper nanoparticles under laser light, starting treating without specifying an agent, suppressing pathogenic microogranisms over a relatively short time, stimulating repair processes successfully, reducing toxic action of nanoparticles on macroorganism, considerably reducing a length of treating festered cavities.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to chemical-pharmaceutical industry and represents a sorption plate containing furacilin, differing by the fact that a process for making it involves using the additional excipient therapeutic powdered Kimmeridge clay (blue) Undorovskaya, chitosan solution, dimethylsulphoxide, glycerol, acetic acid and purified water in the following proportions (wt %): furacilin 0.75 - 1.5; dimethylsulphoxide 2.5 - 5.0; blue clay 7.5 - 8.5; 98% acetic acid 1.5 - 3.0; chitosan 2.5 - 4.5; glycerol (7.5 - 8.5); purified water up to 100.0.
EFFECT: invention provides making sorption plates for ensuring wound-healing, anti-inflammatory action in medical practice and higher sorption activity.
9 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely otorhinolaryngology and may be used for treating chronic tonsillitis. That is ensured by ultrasound sanation of tonsils with the use of 0.05% chlorhexidine followed by Lugol's solution phonophoresis. The ultrasound sanation involves exposure on each tonsil for 60 seconds. The phonophoresis procedure involves contact exposure on each tonsil for 20 seconds. The therapeutic course is 10 daily procedures.
EFFECT: method provides microbiocoenosis recovery, anti-inflammatory action, reduced cicatricle changes in tonsil tissues, as well as mediated action on immunological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, specifically dermatovenerology. Baneocin ointment is used as an agent for topical treatment of infiltrative-suppurant trichophytosis capitis for 48 hours with underlying conventional systemic antimycotic therapy. The agent shows manifested antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, resolving and regenerative effect.
EFFECT: invention extends the range of topical products for treating infiltrative-suppurant trichophytosis capitis.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, and aims at treating prosthetic inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa. The affected mucosa is coated with a therapeutic agent of the following composition, wt %: sage oil - 0.1-0.2, calendula oil - 0.1-0.2, fir oil - 0.1-0.3, mint oil - 0.1-0.3, glycerol - 14.0-20.0, sodium alginate - 5.0-6.0, pectin - 4.0-6.0, polyvinyl pyrrolidone - 2.0-3.0, lidocaine hydrochloride - 1.7-2.5, silver ions - 0.001-0.004, dimexide - 0.5-1.0, red food grade dye - 0.01-0.02, purified water - up to 100. A 0.6-1.0-mm layer of the therapeutic agent is applied 2-3 times a day for 4-10 days.
EFFECT: using the declared method provides a high therapeutic effect with no discomfort to the patient.