Machine for pipeline cutting
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: machine for cutting of pipelines, preferably caissons from a storage tank, comprises a body and a rotor covering the cut pipe, with a metal cutting device fixed on it. The machine body is made in the form of a circular ball step-bearing, the fixed part of which is attached to the rotary board of the storage tank together with the drive for rotation of the movable part, coaxially and elastically fixed to the rotor flange. The rotor is made in the form of a cylindrical thin-walled hollow column that covers a caisson, with a rotary stem fixed on it, at the end of which a small-size driving cutting machine is attached with an abrasive disc.
EFFECT: creation of a reliable and comparatively cheap machine for cutting and trimming of pipelines, in particular, caissons in unavailable zones of radiation-hazardous facilities at the depth of at least 3 metres from the outer surface of the facility to provide for nuclear and radiation safety.
4 cl, 7 dwg
The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy, in particular to equipment and techniques for radioactive waste management, and can be used when implementing the process described in the document "Technology of cutting and unloading of the caisson with defective fuel tank starboard storage PTB "Lepse" GCLI 3330-035-2011", developed by JSC "find alternative solutions, as well as in the application for invention No. 2012124358/07(037296) 13.06.2012, the Invention can also be used for cutting pipelines in remote areas of the petrochemical and gas industry and General engineering.
Currently in temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)located, for example, floating technical bases and ships with nuclear support (ATO), there is a large number of defective irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), previously loaded into the temporary custody is not in a regular canisters, and caissons due to the high degree of destruction of these SFA and representing welded into the bottom of storage tanks, thin-walled cylindrical tubes (corpora) with diameter of 500 mm and above. Such stores include, for example, placebase "Lepse", in storage tanks 8 caissons are defective SFA.
Because of the maladjustment of the caissons for the storage of spent fuel assemblies during loading, it is impossible on the ensure nuclear safety step "grid" location SFA in the cavity of the caissons, therefore, the load was often done with the use of force on SFA, which resulted in damage to the fuel and suspension SFA, so using the regular methods of SNF impossible. Pulling SFA to such defects of the caisson can lead to further destruction and uncontrolled secretion into the environment of radioactive substances that will adversely affect radiation safety for personnel and the environment. Considering the above, the caisson together with loaded defective SFA, to be drawn from the storage tank using a special machine for cutting (trimming) the lower part of the casing (pipe) in conditions of high zaglublennosti and zataskannost for pass and installation of the cutting device.
Known pipe cutting device according to the patent of Russian Federation №2041032 C1, intended for cutting pipes and processing of the edges of thick-walled pipes for welding when performing repair work on power, heat, oil, and other objects in the field, as well as in engineering enterprises. Pipe cutting device includes a movable body configured to accommodate the girth of the processed pipe, with an annular shelf on one surface which has a support roller bearing movably the case, which is fixed to instrumental calipers with feeding screw and the cutting tool, and on the front surface, which is made from the flange, in which are placed, with free-slip digit circuit, a single row of links which interacts with stars, kinematically connected with the chassis by screws instrumental calipers, and the second with stars attached, respectively, to the output and input shafts of the gear drive feed and cone reference movement, the housing and also the housing of the main motion drive mounted on another end of the annular shelf stationary casing and the movable body is made a crown of internal gears that interact with the gear mounted on the output shaft of the main drive traffic associated with the engine, movable and immovable of the case is made detachable, and instrumental calipers and gear drive feed and cone reference displacements provided with mechanisms circuit-open kinematic chain.
The mass of individual components of the device allows you to perform the Assembly and disassembly of the entire device manually. Dimensions and design of the device does not allow its use in conditions of zataskannost and difficult access into the cutting zone.
The disadvantage of the disorder are limited technological capabilities. The device cannot be mounted and installed in working position with the passage through the previously cut, narrow, annular hole size from 500 mm and with limits of its width T=60-80 mm, what is the hole in the tube plate around the caisson, in the complex of zataskannost and cutting at a depth of not less than 3 metres. The size of the width of the annular hole is T=60-80 mm, since all floating technical bases and ships ate the distance between the wall of the storage tanks and the wall of the caisson matches the specified size.
Also known machine for cutting pipe for RF patent No. 2041030 C1 closest to the technical nature of the claimed and adopted as the prototype. The machine is designed for cutting pipes in the repair and can be used for cutting "coil" pipelines for the project. The machine includes a stationary split housing, drive covering the processed pipe, rotor, with a fixed spring-loaded holders, provided with adjustable in the radial direction by stops to set the desired depth of the groove, the holders of the rotor is made in the form of a cutting head and provided with a means to ensure optimal and constant depth of cut grooves made in the form of a spring plate radial flow, through which the tool holder is fixed is and the rotor, and roller located in front of the cutter in the same plane and having its profile, with adjustable stops holders made in the form of another roller located in a plane offset from the cutter and the first roller.
The disadvantage of the machine prototype is that its technological capabilities are also limited. The machine can not be mounted and installed in the working area with the passage through the narrow annular opening recyclable radiation-dangerous object on the depth of cutting of the casing (pipe) not less than 3 meters.
The objective of the proposed invention is the development of reliable and inexpensive machine for cutting or pruning of pipelines, in particular caissons, in the inaccessible areas of the radiation-dangerous objects at a depth of not less than 3 metres from the outer surface of ensuring nuclear and radiation safety.
The main technical result, which provides a task is the possibility of cuts or cutting of pipelines, primarily caissons, with high accuracy and with ensuring nuclear, radiation and industrial safety of operating personnel.
Obtaining the specified technical result is ensured by the fact that the machine for the cutting of pipelines, primarily to the military caissons from the storage tank, contains the body and covering the cut tube rotor with a fixed cutting device. In addition, the machine body is made in the form of a circular ball thrust bearing, the stationary part is fixed on the rotary plate of the storage tank with the drive rotation of the movable part, coaxially and elastically connected with the flange of the rotor has the form of a cylindrical thin-walled hollow columns, covering the caisson, with fixed thereto a rotary rod, the end of which is fixed a small drive cutting machine with an abrasive wheel.
Other differences are that: - cutting device representing the small-sized motorized cutting machine, equipped with:
- restrictive washer on the abrasive wheel;
swinging rod is provided with a fixing position;
- on the inner surface of the rotor near the cutting zone, a minimum of 3 spring-loaded ball retainers, with emphasis on the outer surface of the structure cutting caisson.
The execution of the vehicle body in the form of a circular ball thrust bearing with fixing fixed part on the rotary plate tank coaxially to the axis of the casing, and the movable part is coaxially elastically attached to the flange of the rotor, i.e. with a hollow thin-walled column, - assures proper alignment and precise smooth running (rosarot) columns around the caisson from the rotation mechanism, and the introduction coverage of the caisson column with a fixed rotary rod, provided at its end compact drive a cutting machine with an abrasive wheel,gives the opportunity to have a (omit) the column in a narrow width T=60-80 mm circular hole, and hold in the start box of the abrasive wheel in the wall of the caisson in its depth with the required cutting force and the subsequent circular whirling motion (twisting) of the cutting machine with abrasive wheel around the caisson, thereby to perform a full circular cut or trim the caisson.
Equipment abrasive wheels cars restrictive washer with a specified outside diameter provides for cutting the output of the abrasive disc to a certain predetermined depth of cut in the wall of the casing, thereby preventing the cutting edges of the abrasive disc to the inside of the casing and hence the impossibility of cutting defective fuel assemblies located in the caisson.
Equipment rotary rod device fixing the position when cutting abrasive wheel allows you to perform the initial box in the caisson stick force at a certain depth, and fix the rod and including a circular whirling motion (twisting) of the column, to produce a complete cut of the caisson.
Running on the surface of the rotor near the cutting zone at least three spring-loaded ball catches, with an emphasis on the outside is again caisson reduces runout of the rotor, thereby increasing the precision of the cut.
The invention is illustrated in the following graphic figures:
Figure 1 - General view of the machine for cutting caisson (pipeline).
Figure 2 - View And a top view of a machine for cutting caisson (pipeline).
Figure 3 - cross Section b-B, section gearing rotation of the movable part of the thrust bearing machine for cutting caisson (pipeline).
4 is a View, a view of the spring-loaded ball latch.
5 is a cross-Section G-G, installed on a column rotatable rod with a cutting machine.
6 is a diagram of the positions of installation of the machine for cutting caisson on the rotary plate.
Fig.7 is a Kinematic diagram of a machine for cutting caisson (pipeline).
Machine (1, 2, 3 and 7) represents the case made in the form of a circular ball thrust bearing 1, coaxially to the axis of the casing 2, and is fixed on the rotary plate 3 tank store your stationary part 4 together with the drive mechanism of rotation 5 of the movable part 6 of the thrust bearing, which is centered fastened with a ring gear 7 of the rotation mechanism drive 5 (i.e. mechanism of circular rotation). In turn on the ring gear 7 evenly spaced mounting 8 nodes with the passage through the hole D1 in the ring gear flange 9 fixed concentric rotor of the machine, representing a cylindrical thin-walled hollow column 10. On the column with the maximum is closer to the surface and parallel to the axis of the column in the bearings 11 mounted swivel rod 12 attached to the lower end of the stirrup-banding connection compact electric drive (straight or angled) cutting machine 13 (serial production) with a fixed abrasive wheel 14 with a restrictive washer 15; and the top swivel rod is equipped with a manual handle for input, rotating abrasive wheels cars cut in the wall of the caisson, and a clamping device 16 fixing the position of the rod with the index limb, i.e. cutting abrasive wheel in a caisson. Crown gear 7, which engages with the gear 17 of the mechanism of rotation of the actuator movable part 6 of the thrust bearing, which provides a circular flow of the cutting machine, and therefore abrasive wheels 14 around the cut or cutting caisson (Figure 4 and 5).
Covering the caisson, column 10 of the tubular design - which is the most optimal in the technological and prochesta relations, and objetivas mounted in the lower part of the column and near the cutting area three ball detents 18 on the outer diameter of the caisson, create the necessary rigidity to the column with the reduction of its beats in the cutting process of the caisson, and with it the upper part of the column spring-loaded mounting 8 nodes, connecting the column with the movable part 6 of the thrust bearing, is achieved accuracy, fluency passage and precision long column through the narrow dimensions T=60-80 mm annular hole D3 in the tube plate around the caisson, and adavale and sustainable precise turning with a cutting machine in the cutting process of the caisson on the large depth of the location of at least 3 meters
The sequence of installation positions of the machine and its operation is as follows:
In the beginning being installed, the fastening bolts 19 and alignment relative to the axis of the caisson ball thrust bearing 1 Assembly with the drive mechanism of rotation 5 and the toothed engagement of the crown 7 and the gear 17 (I, 6). Then I drop the column 10 in Assembly with the cutting machine 13 in the area segments or cutting caisson by successive passage through technological hole D2 rotary plate tank store next ring width T=60-80 mm hole D3 tube plate to the stop flange 9 columns with bore D1 in the ring gear 7 and the subsequent attachment with spring-loaded mounting of nodes 8 to the crown of the thrust bearing 1 (Position II-IV 6). Lowering the column 10 is then carried out using a crane with MicrodriveTM, and the control operation is performed using the TV's setup.
Optionally, if the dimensions of the machine 13 will be greater than the width of the slot T in the tube plate to pass is the corresponding local aperture is a slot. Then the machine is ready to perform pruning or cutting the wall of the caisson.
Then start the electric machine 13 and with a reversal of a hand crank swivel rod 12, a rotating abrasive circle 14 in the machine 13 is inserted into the wall cutting the constituent and cut caisson until it stops its bounding washer 15 in the wall, then this is the position of the rotary rod 12 is fixed clamping device 16, and then activates the drive mechanism of turn 5 (circular feed) cutting machine 13 to complete segments or cutting the wall of the casing set depth.
If necessary, the replacement abrasive disc 14 is accomplished by dismantling and lifting to the desired height above the rotary plate store, with the raising of the column is carried out with a crane with micromodem and control - using television installation.
In the end, pushing the machine to its original position from the cutting zone opposite the pivot rod 12, the machine is ready for removal.
The present invention provides a reliable and relatively inexpensive machine for cutting and trimming pipes, in particular of caissons in inaccessible areas of the radiation-dangerous objects at a depth of not less than 3 metres from the outer surface of the object with ensuring nuclear and radiation safety.
1. Machine for cutting pipe, mainly caissons from the storage tank, comprising a housing and covering the cut tube rotor with a fixed cutting device, wherein the machine body is made in the form of a circular ball thrust bearing, the stationary part is fixed on the rotary plate of the storage tank together with mechanismo the rotation of the movable part, coaxially and elastically connected with the flange of the rotor has the form of a cylindrical thin-walled hollow columns, covering the caisson mounted on it a turning rod, on the end of which is fixed a small drive cutting machine with an abrasive wheel.
2. Machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the cutting device has a restrictive washer with an abrasive wheel.
3. Machine according to claim 1, wherein the rotary rod is provided with a fixing position.
4. Machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the rotor near the cutting zone is set not less than 3 ball spring-loaded clamps with emphasis on the outer surface of the structure cutting caisson.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes construction of inspection wells in a reservoir bed, their equipment with facilities of water lift, facilities to measure level and pressure of subsurface water in them, to pump subsurface water from them, performance of physical and chemical tests of pumped subsurface waters. During pumping a volume of subsurface water is extracted from the well, and this volume is less than the one contained in its borehole, density of the extracted subsurface water is measured, afterwards it is supplied back into the well in the interval, from which it was pumped, measurement of subsurface water pressure is carried out along piezometric tubes lowered into a well filter and filled by water with available density, afterwards water density is determined in the reservoir bed.
EFFECT: improved validity of produced data and elimination of hydrodynamic mode disturbances in wells in process of monitoring.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to separation of fluids by evaporation. Proposed method comprises evaporation of solvent from solution film formed on rotary drum inner surface. Solution is fed inside drum to allow displacement of solution toward unloading side. Solvent vapors are collected and condensed. Heat power consumed for solvent evaporation, drum rpm and level of solution inside the drum are selected provided concentrated product is discharged in the form of fluid. Flow rate of solution fed into drum is to be calculated by mathematical tools.
EFFECT: sufficient quality of concentrated product and solvent condensed vapors provided in continuous operation without drop in efficiency in wide range of concentrations of solutions.
11 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of recycling nuclear energy materials and specifically to methods of cleaning uranium hexafluoride from ruthenium fluorides, and can be used in returning uranium, extracted from spent nuclear fuel, into the fuel cycle of light water reactors. The method of cleaning uranium hexafluoride from ruthenium fluorides involves reaction of gaseous uranium hexafluoride with a sorbent, the sorbent used being porous granules of sintered metal powder of nickel or nickel which contains up to 10 wt % copper.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient cleaning of uranium hexafluoride from ruthenium fluorides at low temperatures, safety and simplification of the process, and also enables to reuse the sorbent after regeneration.
5 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of underground disposal of biohazardous waste water in geological formations with no distinct waterproof stratums above production level includes drilling of injection well and pumping of biohazardous waste water in production level. Injection well is drilled inclined directed, in the interval of production level bore of injection well is drilled parallel to bedding at a distance from bottom of production level equal to 0.1-0.2 of production level thickness, and observation well is drilled on water-bearing level located below level with groundwater used for drinking and technical needs.
EFFECT: preventing penetration of disposed biohazardous waste water in above located water-bearing levels.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises treatment of radioactive wastes solutions by alkaline metal hydroxides or carbonates to pH 1, extraction of tri-n butyl phosphate in inert diluter to convert rare-earth and transplutonium elements into extracts and their separation from cesium-strontium fraction, flushing of said extract by solution of aluminium nitrate and adding flushing solution to feed water. Hydrogen peroxide is added to radioactive wastes solution at neutralisation stage.
EFFECT: higher reliability of treatment.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in use for recovery of extragent of solutions of bicarbonates of univalent strong bases, and namely sodium bicarbonate, tetraethylamine or guanidine, or solutions of carbonates of univalent weak bases or mixture of carbonates and bicarbonates of univalent weak bases, such as hydrazine or methylamine, which are resistant to heating.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing the number of extragent operating cycles.
14 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing and decontaminating highly active pulp and can be used at radiochemical plants. The method of dissolving silicon-containing pulp involves dissolving silicic acid in an alkali solution, wherein a sodium alkali solution is added to the pulp with density not greater than the density of the pulp, and the obtained alkaline pulp is treated with nitric acid.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the process of dissolving silicon-containing pulp without heating and stirring, and enables to achieve a higher degree of dissolution of plutonium when treating silicon-containing pulp.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to feeding solution into container accommodating hazardous wastes, in particular nuclear wastes. In the method, solution is fed into container immovably connected with the first and the second reservoirs. The first reservoir communicates with container via the first hole, the second reservoir - via the second one. In this process, solution flow is subjected to forced continuous circulation in circulation circuit. During this circulation, the second flow of solution is drawn which is less intensive than the first flow, and delivered to container. Solution appearance in the second reservoir is detected. When this appearance is detected solution bleeding from circulation circuit is terminated. Device for implementation of the method contains solution circulation circuit consisting of vessel for solution storage, pump for solution transfer connected with the vessel, source pipeline to transfer solution exiting the pump, return pipeline to transfer solution to the vessel, and discharge pipeline following the source pipeline. The device also contains the first and the second reservoirs immovably connected with container against holes made in its wall, and sensor detecting solution appearance in the second reservoir. In this structure, circulation circuit contains bleeding device connecting source, return and discharge pipelines, and cutoff of discharge pipeline from the circuit is performed by on-off valve installed at the inlet of discharge pipeline. Herewith, source and return pipelines provide continuous solution circulation, and bleeding device provides drawing part of solution flow circulating in the circuit and its delivery to discharge pipeline.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides better container filling when there is no reliable information on wastes volume in it, and better insulation.
18 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to decontaminating, cleaning and degreasing surfaces. The foam consists of a dispersion of air bubbles in a foaming aqueous solution containing: 0.1-7 mol of one or more decontaminating, cleaning and/or degreasing reactant per litre of the solution, 0.01-25 wt % with respect to total weight of the solution of solid particles of the same type or mixtures of solid particles of different types, having foaming properties. The method of producing the foam involves mixing a decontaminating, cleaning and/or degreasing active agent, solid particles having foaming properties and, optionally, a surfactant, an oxidising agent, a complexing agent, a gelating agent and/or a solid foaming agent and/or solid particles having sorption properties before generating foam.
EFFECT: increasing foam life to 24 hours, which provides higher efficiency of decontaminating, cleaning and/or degreasing surfaces.
26 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for removing radioactive film from object surface consists in formation of laser emission beam on object surface, scanning of dirty object surface by means of formed laser emission beam through film material that is transparent for laser emission; at that, the above film material is arranged between laser emission source and dirty surface of the object; after scanning is completed, film material is removed. Prior to scanning operation between object surfaces and transparent film material there created is constant electric field U by means of an electrode such that energy Ae transferred to positively charged particle in electric field exceeds kinetic energy Ak of that particle, and electric field has reverse polarity in relation to particles spread during laser deactivation; value of electric field shall exceed the following value: where k - Boltzmann constant, T - particle temperature, L - distance between treated surface and mesh, d - distance between treated surface and transparent adsorbing film, q - particle charge.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing the efficiency of radioactive film removal process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: the proposed method of removal of irradiated material from nuclear reactor plate includes the irradiated material shielding with a shield material and their following removal of both materials. The shielding is fulfilled with a granulated material. Removal of irradiated and granulated materials is carried out by means of an auxiliary tube with a grate, confining the irradiated material and permeable for granulated material. The auxiliary tube is installed into the tube of a reactor fuel channel.
EFFECT: decreasing the idle time of reactor or/and production equipment.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: soil decontamination from radionuclides by technological methods.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes soil plowing and introduction of chemical agents into it. Ground limestone or dolomite in the amount of 5 or 6 tons per ha and potassium fertilizers KCl, KNO3, or KMgCl, *6H2O in the amount of 200 kg per ha are introduced in plowed layer followed by sowing perennial grass which is mowed in autumn and placed in storage excluding migration of radionuclides.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure, enhanced degree of soil decontamination from radionuclides.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, environment protection, more particular, reduction of 137Cs level in soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing accumulating plants such as lentils and Jerusalem artichoke on contaminated soil during three vegetation periods; alienating the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period; determining soil cleaning extent from formula: Cη=(Ca-Cs/Ca)*100(%), where Cη is extent of cleaning soil; Ca is level of 137Cs in soil before planting of said accumulating plants; Cs is level of 137Cs in soil after withdrawal of the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period.
EFFECT: reduced specific activity of 137Cs in soil, increased efficiency in removal of radio nuclides and obtaining of ecologically clean plant products, reduced possibility of external and internal radiation of people.
FIELD: chemical industry; building industry; methods and the cleaning gels for the surfaces treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the surface treatment with the cleaning gel and may be used for the surface degreasing and decontamination, and also for removal of the oxide layers from the surface. The method provides for: deposition of the cleaning gel onto the treated surface; aging of the cleaning gel on the treated surface at such a temperature and relative humidity, at which the gel dries and at that there is enough time for the gel to treat the surface before the dry and solid residue forms; removal of the dry and solid residue from the treated surface by suction or by the brush. The gel includes the mixture of the pyrogenetic silica and the sedimentary silica, the cleaning agent and possibly the oxidative agent. The invention ensures regulation of the dimensions of the dry residues of the gel and the time of drying sufficient for the effective treatment of any type surface, and also allows to reduce the quantity of the drainages formed during such treatment of the surfaces.
EFFECT: the invention ensures control over the dimensions of the dry residues of the gel and the time of drying sufficient for the effective treatment of any type surface, and also allows to reduce the quantity of the drainages formed during such treatment of the surfaces.
22 cl, 8 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: nuclear engineering; preservation of dry, wet, and liquid radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition has resin portion of cold-cured compound ATOMIK and filler. Resin portion ingredients are as follows, parts by weight: epoxy oligomer, 100;, curing agent (aromatic amines), 38-50 furfural, 9-11. Used as filler is composition incorporating following ingredients, parts by weight: cement, 50-100; marshalite, 50-100 or bentonite, 50-100, or when they are jointly used: marshalite, 90-100 and bentonite, 90-100. Such composition provides for desired radiation resistance in absence of leaching of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-active radionuclides from preserved specimens of reactor graphite.
EFFECT: enhanced radiation stability of preserved specimens free from pits and voids, and adequate lifetime of preserved wastes; ability of their depreservation.
1 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: modeling plutonium dispersion processes in emergency explosion situations at its using entity.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method that can be used to simulate plutonium properties in case of emergency explosion involving escape of plutonium aerosols into atmosphere and to predict degree of radioactive pollution of terrain in emergency situations includes use of metal cerium as plutonium simulator in modeling processes of plutonium dispersion and escape of its aerosols into atmosphere in case of emergency explosion at using entity.
EFFECT: enhanced environmental friendliness of method.
FIELD: immobilization of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed silicate matrix for conditioning radioactive wastes has SiO2, Na2O, K2O, CaO, Fe2O3, Cr2O3, NiO, Al2O3, ZrO2, oxides of radioactive waste components including nuclear fuel fission products, U, transuranium elements. Proportion of mentioned components used in matrix is as follows, mole percent: SiO2, 60-68; sum of Na2O, K2O, Cs2O, 11-18; sum of CaO, SrO, BaO, 3-6; sum of Fe2O3, Cr2O3, NiO, 2-4; Al2O3, 1-3; ZrO2, 4-7; sum of rare-earth elements, U, and transuranium elements, 1.5; the rest, 3.
EFFECT: enhanced chemical and thermal stability of matrix.
1 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: nuclear power engineering; removing radioactive pollutants from surfaces of pieces of equipment or parts by means of circulating solutions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed process for controlling cyclic decontamination involving saturation of decontaminating solution with radionuclides includes chemical treatment of surface pollutants with decontaminating solution, checkup of solution saturation with radionuclides, termination of chemical treatment as soon as saturation of decontaminating solution with radionuclides is brought to limiting value, and removal of saturated decontaminating solution. Ionizing radiation dose rate is remotely measured by means of gamma transducers installed at reference points and chemical treatment is ceased as soon as inequality conditions are satisfied.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of process due to optimal evaluation of chemical treatment time; enhanced efficiency and quality of decontamination due to reduced secondary sorption of radionuclides.
3 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed for controlling cyclic decontamination process by determining optimal time of completing separate decontamination steps involving uninterrupted cleaning of decontaminating solutions in filters and primarily intended for removing radioactive pollutants from surfaces of equipment or separate parts by circulating solution, for instance for decontaminating inner surfaces of nuclear power reactor equipment such as coolant circuits of boiling water reactors (heavy-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK) includes chemical loosening operations and dynamic loosening conducted before and after chemical loosening operation, as well as washing to discharge radioactive pollutants from coolant circuit to filters during each loosening operation. Radioactivity level of pollutants discharged from coolant circuit is periodically checked against reference radionuclides, and each decontaminating operation is completed upon attaining following condition: . In addition, radioactivity level of pollutants discharged from coolant circuit is proposed to be calculated by sum of derived radioactivity of 3-7 reference radionuclides; 58,60Co, 54Mn, 59Fe 95Zr, and 95Nb are used as reference radionuclides.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of process control due to determining optimal time of completing separate steps, reduced decontamination time, enhanced effectiveness due to reduced secondary sorption of radionuclides.
3 cl, 13 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: recovering and degreasing liquid radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for decontaminating waste water from radioactive components incorporating in their composition dissolved and/or emulsified mineral oil, dissolved and solid particles of uranium radioactive components, and products of its decay by concentration of radioactive components and mineral oil. Prior to recovery waste water is acidified to pH = 2.5-3.0. Then iron salt based coagulant (III) and modified polyacrylamide based flocculant are introduced. After that waste water is neutralized with alkali to pH > 7 followed by centrifuging purified water and concentrate containing radioactive components and mineral oil. For final procedure concentrate is solidified and buried.
EFFECT: reduced energy requirement, enhanced speed of process.
1 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex