Method for direct laser writing of kinoform lenses in thick layers of photoresist-type photosensitive materials (versions)

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: laser radiation focused on the surface of a photosensitive layer is modified on depth in proportion to the power density of the radiation propagating in the photosensitive layer. Before entering a focusing lens, the laser radiation is collimated into a parallel beam whose diameter is smaller than the entrance aperture of said lens and is shifted in parallel to the optical axis by a value where one of the edges of the longitudinal section of the exposing radiation cone in the photoresist layer becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens. In the second version, an immersion liquid is further placed in the interval between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer.

EFFECT: high diffraction efficiency of kinoform lenses by reducing loss on counter slopes of zones by increasing the gradient of the slopes formed directly during direct laser writing.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of optoelectronics and can be used for direct writing of optical diffractive elements in thick layers of photosensitive materials such as photoresists using a laser image generators.

It is known that among other diffractive elements kinoform optical elements allow the most effective to convert the given image of the input radiation. So, kinoform lenses allow up to 95...98% of the input radiation to focus at the focal point. However, in practice, when the phase profile of such elements is created using laser technology (see the VP Koronkevich, V.P. Korolkov, A.G. Poleshchuk "Laser technologies in diffractive optics", "avtometriya, No. 6, 1998, p.5) diffraction efficiency kinoform lenses significantly lower than 95...98%.

One of the major causes of the reduction in the diffraction efficiency kinoform lenses, is formed using laser technology, is the presence of relatively long reverse slopes of the phase profile zones, which scatter the radiation in the outside direction and thereby degrade the diffraction efficiency of the optical elements. The negative effect of long reverse slopes of the phase profile of the zones is demonstrated in figure 1.

For this is what the picture shows, that rays 1 are directed work rays of the Fresnel zone in the direction of the focus lens, and rays 2, due to the effect of total internal reflection from the back stingrays zone, dropped them outside direction.

Among the laser technology of forming kinoform lenses there are several types of technologies. Among them are known, for example, projection technology based on the use of rasterized photomask (Aegolius "Manufacturing relief-phase structures with continuous and multi layered profile for diffractive optics", "avtometriya, No. 1, 1992, p.66). Diffraction efficiency kinoform lenses produced by this technology lies in the range of 80%. Another type of similar technology involving the manufacture kinoform lenses with screened using x-ray masks, allows to obtain samples with a deep profile, including curved surfaces. However, obtained on the basis of this type of technology phase profiles were also characterized by a significant length of the reverse stingrays zone. So, when the period of zones equal to 50 μm, the length of the reverse stingrays zone was 10 μm (O.A. Makarov, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova et al. "A new application for X-ray lithography: fabrication of blazed dijfractive optical elements with a deep phase profile", Proc. SPIE, 1996, 2723, p.261) these figures clearly indicate significant (≈20%) rubbed the radiation due to the effect of reverse rays.

Similar values of the diffraction efficiency have samples kinoform lenses, is formed using the technology of direct laser writing in a special LDW-glass (LDW-laser direct writing, glass for direct laser writing). (V.P. Korolkov, A. I. Malyshev, VG Nikitin, A.G. Poleshchuk, A.A. Kharisov, V. Cherkashin, H. Wu, "Grayscale photomasks based on LDW-glass", "avtometriya, No. 6, 1998, p.27). For samples of lenses fabricated using this technology, it is noted that in the center of the lens, the diffraction efficiency reaches 95%, and the periphery is reduced to 80%. Much like the behavior of the efficiency of conversion of radiation is explained by the stability of the losses on the reverse slopes, the value of which remains the same for all areas of the lens, and the number of zones (and hence the number of reverse rays) on the periphery of the grow by reducing the absolute size of the working slopes. This points to the need to reduce losses by reducing the length of the reverse stingrays zone. It is also noted that the absolute value of the length of the reverse slopes of zones equal to half the width of the trace of the interaction of laser radiation with a recording material having a maximum depth.

This ratio is also valid for other known technologies of direct formation of the phase profiles in thick layers region is Teruyoshi materials (including and photoresists), implemented by using special image generators, working both Cartesian and polar coordinates. Thick layers hereafter will be considered as layers of material, thickness h which is several times the wavelength of radiation used for modification.

The aim of the invention is to increase the diffraction efficiency kinoform lenses by reducing losses on the reverse slopes of zones kinoform lenses, by increasing the slope of the generated rays almost to their limit.

As a prototype, consider the known method of writing of diffractive optical elements using a special image generator, for example, working in the Cartesian coordinate system (see electronic resource: WWW.himt.de - the Prospectus of the company "Heidelberg Instruments "(Germany) Laser Lithography System DWL 66fs"). In accordance with the known method of direct laser writing of optical diffractive elements in thick layers of photosensitive materials such as photoresists, the laser light is focused by the lens on the surface of the photosensitive layer that is moved along a given trajectory. Usually resists sufficiently transparent for the radiation to allow passage of radiation inside the layer. As a result of this upon the other layer in the field, where applies the laser light is exhibited. Exposure leads to a modification of the characteristics of the layer. These changes depend on the type of layer. Thus, the positive photoresists of the type under the influence of radiation become insensitive to certain types of stain that can easily remove that part of the resist which has not been exposed to this radiation. Conversely, a negative type photoresists exposed, become easily soluble in some stain, compared to the part of the resist which has not been irradiated. The speed of etching resists proportional to the absorbed radiation dose. The degree of difference of the speed of etching of irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the resist is characterized by a special index called the contrast of the resist. Controlling the power level of the radiation applied to a local region of the resist, produce depth adjustment track interaction detected in the subsequent etching resist.

When the work mentioned technological complex "Laser Lithography System DWL 66fs uses one of the five lenses that came with the complex, which is set before recording element and does not change during the entire session. The laser beam parameters remain unchanged for all types of work lenses. The table. 1 shows the data on these lenses.

Let the glass with refractive index n=1.5 should be made kinapharma lens with a focal length of F=120 mm for focusing radiation in the near-PCs-band (for example, λ=1,0 mm) in transmitted light.

Table 1
Characteristics of working lenses of complex Laser Lithography System DWL 66fs"
The lens diameter, mm24102040
The minimum spot diameter of the recording, micron0,61,02,55,010,0
Recommended step recording, nm2040100200400
The depth of focus, mcm0,61,78,035,0140

The range of variation of the widths of the zones of the Fresnel such lenses will be in the range from 1.1 μm to 4.9 mm, and geometrical depth of the phase profile in the glass for a given wavelength should be about 0.63.

If the image generator is used helium-cadmium laser with the output radiation in the UV region on the length of 325 nm, the output radiation in the cross-section is characterized by a Gaussian distribution. The nature of the distribution of the radiation intensity Ig(x, y, z) of the Gaussian beam in the vicinity of the focus point can be represented by the formula:

,

where P is the radiated power,is the radius of the beam beyond the focal plane,the spot radius at the focus point. Here f is the focal length of the lens, R is the radius of the beam at the entrance of the lens. We are particularly interested in that part of the cross-section of the beam in which the power density reaches a certain threshold, which results in the modification of the properties of the photoresist (in other words, is it the lighting or exposure). As the distance on either side of the focal plane of the lens is an increase in the cross-section of the beam (see figure 2, where the contour lines characterize the nature of the changes to the current diameter of the cross section of the beam) and, in this regard, there is a rapid decrease is s the part cross-section, stores conditions for exposure of the photoresist. The set of areas in which the conditions of exposure of the photoresist, was named the exposure of the ellipsoid. If the focusing is performed on the surface of the photoresist, that is a degenerate variant of the ellipsoid in the form of exposure of the cone (or exposure bells).

Figure 2 (solid lines) results of calculation of the emerging profile of the trace of the interaction of UV laser with a wavelength of λ=0,325 μm from the photosensitive material when the ratio F/R=40 at various speeds of movement of the layer (see S. Maruo, K. Jkuta, "Submicron stereo-lithography for the production of freely moveable mechanismsby using single-photonpolymerization", "Sensors and Actuators", 2002, vol.100, p.70-76). The results of the calculation can be set in accordance with the occasion of use in Laser Lithography System, the DWL 66 fs" lens No. 5 (PL. 1). When using these lenses on the speed of movement of the layer of about 50 μm/s is the formation of a triangular (in cross section) of track, of a width of about 4 microns and a depth of about 5 μm. The steepness of slopes average of 58°. It is easy to see that for these tasks, the formation of a highly efficient kinoforms lenses it is necessary to apply more appropriate lenses, such as lens # 2 (see Table 1), is input the second aperture, equal to 4 mm, When the diameter of the laser beam, is equal to 2 mm, this lens in the focal plane will give the track width of about 1.0 μm. The further course of radiation in the environment provides exposure of the resist to a depth of about 1.7 μm. That is, the parameters of the lens allow to expect after etching, the formation of the walls of the grooves with a slope of about 76°. But for the analyzed lenses necessary to decrease the depth of the track to the required 0.63 µm. As follows from the analysis of the curves of figure 2, in this case, reduction of dose will reduce steepness of slopes to 66°. And this will cause a decrease in the diffraction efficiency up to 85%. That is, for traditional methods of direct laser writing phase profiles kinoform lenses there are significant difficulties in terms of improving the diffraction efficiency.

In the present invention increase the diffraction efficiency is achieved by reducing losses on the reverse slopes of zones kinoform lenses, by increasing the slope of the generated rays almost to their limit.

For this purpose, the laser beam before entering the focusing lens colliery into a parallel beam with a diameter less than the input aperture of the above-mentioned lens and move parallel to the optical axis by an amount in which one of the forming longitudinal sectional imaging of the cone of radiation by the second photoresist becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens, in some cases, between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer is injected immersion liquid, for example, distilled water.

The effect of the totality of technological procedures that form the basis of the proposed method of recording, for example installation, are presented in figure 3. The radiation output of the laser 1, the collimator 2 is converted into parallel beam 3, with a diameter less than the input aperture 5 of the focusing lens bis use the rotary mirror 4 is shifted parallel to the optical axis of the lens by an amount in which one of the forming longitudinal sectional imaging of the cone of radiation in the photoresist layer 8 becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens between the output lens and the surface of the photoresist enter the immersion liquid, for example, distilled water 7.

The profile of the grooves formed in the photoresist during its displacement along the X coordinate in accordance with the proposed method of recording shown in figure 4.

The offset value is determined by the characteristics of the focusing lens 5 and 8 photoresist. Let, as analyzed above case, the use of lens # 2, the ratio of the diameter of the laser radiation and the input lens diameter is 0.5. As mentioned enter the, if the width of the grooves in the photoresist, equal to 1.0 μm, and a depth of 1.7 μm, the angle of inclination of the generatrix of the exposure of the cone will be 76° relative to the surface of the photoresist or 14° - relative to the optical axis of the lens. To one of the forming exposure of the cone spread in the photoresist vertically, i.e. parallel to the optical axis of the lens, it is necessary that the optical axis of the laser radiation was spread in the photoresist at an angle of 14° with respect to the optical axis of the lens. If the recording medium is used, the photoresist, such as SU-8, then this wavelength it has a refractive index equal to 1.67. To the optical axis of the beam of laser radiation spread in the photoresist at an angle of 14°, it is necessary directly before entry into the photoresist from the air to have the angle of the beam axis αinequal to 23.8°. This angle of the optical axis of the beam at the entrance to the recording medium is determined based on the ratio of Snell's law (see p.96, A.N. Matveev, "Optics", M. "Higher school", 1985, s):

. Where αin=arcsin(ncf·sinαcf)

where αcf=14°, ncf=1,67 and nin=1,0 is the refractive index of air. When the working part of the lens is equal to 0.4 mm, the angle is provided, if within vyhodnoceny lens axis of the beam will be shifted 0.17 mm. When the diameter of the output objective lens than 1 mm, this offset value is acceptable. However, if you need to compensate for blockages inverse of the slope zone of about 65°...66°, you will need to shift the axis of the beam of 0.4 mm is Similar to the offset axis of the beam will inevitably cause significant vignetting peripheral regions of the beam, which is unacceptable. In such cases, to eliminate the effect of vignetting between the output lens and the surface of the photoresist, you must enter the immersion liquid 7, for example, distilled water, having at this wavelength the refractive index of nFe=1,47. In this case, the desired displacement of the beam axis on the output objective lens will be: d=0.25 mm, which is quite acceptable. This condition is ensured with the help of a mirror 4 by parallel input shift lens the beam axis at 1.0 mm relative to the optical axis. When the displacement of the mirror 4 at 1 mm to the right relative to the optical axis of the lens is reflected from a part of the laser radiation is also shifted in the space to the right of 1 mm, resulting in a focus point of the axis of the radiation will be coming at an angle αinand after the focal plane (in the environment of the photoresist) is at an angle αcf, resulting in the left-forming exposure of the cone is oriented perpendicularly relative to the surface fot which the resist. This will form a nearly perfect triangular profiles zones positive kinoform lenses and minimize losses on the reverse slopes of zones kinoform lenses synthesized using direct laser writing. To write negative kinoform lens mirror 4 must be shifted to the left by the same amount (4 shows in broken lines).

1. The method of direct laser writing kinoform lenses in thick layers of photosensitive materials such as photoresists, consisting in the fact that with the help of laser radiation is focused on the surface of the photosensitive layer, the last change in depth is proportional to the power density of the radiation propagating in a photosensitive layer, characterized in that the laser beam before entering the focusing lens colliery into a parallel beam with a diameter less than the input aperture of the above-mentioned lens and move parallel to the optical axis by an amount in which one of the forming longitudinal sectional imaging of the cone of radiation in the layer of photoresist becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens.

2. The method of direct laser writing kinoform lenses in thick layers of photosensitive materials such as photoresists, consisting in the fact that with the help of laser radiation is focused on the surface of otechestvennoi layer, the last change in depth is proportional to the power density of the radiation propagating in a photosensitive layer, characterized in that the laser beam before entering the focusing lens colliery into a parallel beam with a diameter less than the input aperture of the above-mentioned lens and move parallel to the optical axis by an amount in which one of the forming longitudinal sectional imaging of the cone of radiation in the layer of photoresist becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens, in the interval between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer is injected immersion liquid.



 

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8 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex, 7 dwg

FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides composition containing from about 50 to about 80% of component selected from group consisting of di(meth)acylate of ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of non-ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of propoxylated bisphenol A, epoxy(meth)acrylates of bisphenol A, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 30% of component selected from group consisting of tetrahydeofuryl (meth)acrylate, isobornyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 15% of component selected from group consisting of dipentaerythritol penta(meth)acrylate, trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated trimethylolpropane, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated glycerol, pentaerythritol tetra(meth)acrylate, bis-trimethylolpropane tetra(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa(meth)acrylate, and combinations thereof. Such composition is suited to manufacture eyeglass lenses.

EFFECT: expanded possibilities in manufacture of polymer-based lenses, including multifocal ones.

21 cl, 3 tbl, 18 ex

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