Method for direct laser writing of kinoform lenses in thick layers of photoresist-type photosensitive materials (versions)
SUBSTANCE: laser radiation focused on the surface of a photosensitive layer is modified on depth in proportion to the power density of the radiation propagating in the photosensitive layer. Before entering a focusing lens, the laser radiation is collimated into a parallel beam whose diameter is smaller than the entrance aperture of said lens and is shifted in parallel to the optical axis by a value where one of the edges of the longitudinal section of the exposing radiation cone in the photoresist layer becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens. In the second version, an immersion liquid is further placed in the interval between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer.
EFFECT: high diffraction efficiency of kinoform lenses by reducing loss on counter slopes of zones by increasing the gradient of the slopes formed directly during direct laser writing.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
The invention relates to the field of optoelectronics and can be used for direct writing of optical diffractive elements in thick layers of photosensitive materials such as photoresists using a laser image generators.
It is known that among other diffractive elements kinoform optical elements allow the most effective to convert the given image of the input radiation. So, kinoform lenses allow up to 95...98% of the input radiation to focus at the focal point. However, in practice, when the phase profile of such elements is created using laser technology (see the VP Koronkevich, V.P. Korolkov, A.G. Poleshchuk "Laser technologies in diffractive optics", "avtometriya, No. 6, 1998, p.5) diffraction efficiency kinoform lenses significantly lower than 95...98%.
One of the major causes of the reduction in the diffraction efficiency kinoform lenses, is formed using laser technology, is the presence of relatively long reverse slopes of the phase profile zones, which scatter the radiation in the outside direction and thereby degrade the diffraction efficiency of the optical elements. The negative effect of long reverse slopes of the phase profile of the zones is demonstrated in figure 1.
For this is what the picture shows, that rays 1 are directed work rays of the Fresnel zone in the direction of the focus lens, and rays 2, due to the effect of total internal reflection from the back stingrays zone, dropped them outside direction.
Among the laser technology of forming kinoform lenses there are several types of technologies. Among them are known, for example, projection technology based on the use of rasterized photomask (Aegolius "Manufacturing relief-phase structures with continuous and multi layered profile for diffractive optics", "avtometriya, No. 1, 1992, p.66). Diffraction efficiency kinoform lenses produced by this technology lies in the range of 80%. Another type of similar technology involving the manufacture kinoform lenses with screened using x-ray masks, allows to obtain samples with a deep profile, including curved surfaces. However, obtained on the basis of this type of technology phase profiles were also characterized by a significant length of the reverse stingrays zone. So, when the period of zones equal to 50 μm, the length of the reverse stingrays zone was 10 μm (O.A. Makarov, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova et al. "A new application for X-ray lithography: fabrication of blazed dijfractive optical elements with a deep phase profile", Proc. SPIE, 1996, 2723, p.261) these figures clearly indicate significant (≈20%) rubbed the radiation due to the effect of reverse rays.
Similar values of the diffraction efficiency have samples kinoform lenses, is formed using the technology of direct laser writing in a special LDW-glass (LDW-laser direct writing, glass for direct laser writing). (V.P. Korolkov, A. I. Malyshev, VG Nikitin, A.G. Poleshchuk, A.A. Kharisov, V. Cherkashin, H. Wu, "Grayscale photomasks based on LDW-glass", "avtometriya, No. 6, 1998, p.27). For samples of lenses fabricated using this technology, it is noted that in the center of the lens, the diffraction efficiency reaches 95%, and the periphery is reduced to 80%. Much like the behavior of the efficiency of conversion of radiation is explained by the stability of the losses on the reverse slopes, the value of which remains the same for all areas of the lens, and the number of zones (and hence the number of reverse rays) on the periphery of the grow by reducing the absolute size of the working slopes. This points to the need to reduce losses by reducing the length of the reverse stingrays zone. It is also noted that the absolute value of the length of the reverse slopes of zones equal to half the width of the trace of the interaction of laser radiation with a recording material having a maximum depth.
This ratio is also valid for other known technologies of direct formation of the phase profiles in thick layers region is Teruyoshi materials (including and photoresists), implemented by using special image generators, working both Cartesian and polar coordinates. Thick layers hereafter will be considered as layers of material, thickness h which is several times the wavelength of radiation used for modification.
The aim of the invention is to increase the diffraction efficiency kinoform lenses by reducing losses on the reverse slopes of zones kinoform lenses, by increasing the slope of the generated rays almost to their limit.
As a prototype, consider the known method of writing of diffractive optical elements using a special image generator, for example, working in the Cartesian coordinate system (see electronic resource: WWW.himt.de - the Prospectus of the company "Heidelberg Instruments "(Germany) Laser Lithography System DWL 66fs"). In accordance with the known method of direct laser writing of optical diffractive elements in thick layers of photosensitive materials such as photoresists, the laser light is focused by the lens on the surface of the photosensitive layer that is moved along a given trajectory. Usually resists sufficiently transparent for the radiation to allow passage of radiation inside the layer. As a result of this upon the other layer in the field, where applies the laser light is exhibited. Exposure leads to a modification of the characteristics of the layer. These changes depend on the type of layer. Thus, the positive photoresists of the type under the influence of radiation become insensitive to certain types of stain that can easily remove that part of the resist which has not been exposed to this radiation. Conversely, a negative type photoresists exposed, become easily soluble in some stain, compared to the part of the resist which has not been irradiated. The speed of etching resists proportional to the absorbed radiation dose. The degree of difference of the speed of etching of irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the resist is characterized by a special index called the contrast of the resist. Controlling the power level of the radiation applied to a local region of the resist, produce depth adjustment track interaction detected in the subsequent etching resist.
When the work mentioned technological complex "Laser Lithography System DWL 66fs uses one of the five lenses that came with the complex, which is set before recording element and does not change during the entire session. The laser beam parameters remain unchanged for all types of work lenses. The table. 1 shows the data on these lenses.
Let the glass with refractive index n=1.5 should be made kinapharma lens with a focal length of F=120 mm for focusing radiation in the near-PCs-band (for example, λ=1,0 mm) in transmitted light.
|Characteristics of working lenses of complex Laser Lithography System DWL 66fs"|
|The lens diameter, mm||2||4||10||20||40|
|The minimum spot diameter of the recording, micron||0,6||1,0||2,5||5,0||10,0|
|Recommended step recording, nm||20||40||100||200||400|
|The depth of focus, mcm||0,6||1,7||8,0||35,0||140|
The range of variation of the widths of the zones of the Fresnel such lenses will be in the range from 1.1 μm to 4.9 mm, and geometrical depth of the phase profile in the glass for a given wavelength should be about 0.63.
If the image generator is used helium-cadmium laser with the output radiation in the UV region on the length of 325 nm, the output radiation in the cross-section is characterized by a Gaussian distribution. The nature of the distribution of the radiation intensity Ig(x, y, z) of the Gaussian beam in the vicinity of the focus point can be represented by the formula:
where P is the radiated power,
Figure 2 (solid lines) results of calculation of the emerging profile of the trace of the interaction of UV laser with a wavelength of λ=0,325 μm from the photosensitive material when the ratio F/R=40 at various speeds of movement of the layer (see S. Maruo, K. Jkuta, "Submicron stereo-lithography for the production of freely moveable mechanismsby using single-photonpolymerization", "Sensors and Actuators", 2002, vol.100, p.70-76). The results of the calculation can be set in accordance with the occasion of use in Laser Lithography System, the DWL 66 fs" lens No. 5 (PL. 1). When using these lenses on the speed of movement of the layer of about 50 μm/s is the formation of a triangular (in cross section) of track, of a width of about 4 microns and a depth of about 5 μm. The steepness of slopes average of 58°. It is easy to see that for these tasks, the formation of a highly efficient kinoforms lenses it is necessary to apply more appropriate lenses, such as lens # 2 (see Table 1), is input the second aperture, equal to 4 mm, When the diameter of the laser beam, is equal to 2 mm, this lens in the focal plane will give the track width of about 1.0 μm. The further course of radiation in the environment provides exposure of the resist to a depth of about 1.7 μm. That is, the parameters of the lens allow to expect after etching, the formation of the walls of the grooves with a slope of about 76°. But for the analyzed lenses necessary to decrease the depth of the track to the required 0.63 µm. As follows from the analysis of the curves of figure 2, in this case, reduction of dose will reduce steepness of slopes to 66°. And this will cause a decrease in the diffraction efficiency up to 85%. That is, for traditional methods of direct laser writing phase profiles kinoform lenses there are significant difficulties in terms of improving the diffraction efficiency.
In the present invention increase the diffraction efficiency is achieved by reducing losses on the reverse slopes of zones kinoform lenses, by increasing the slope of the generated rays almost to their limit.
For this purpose, the laser beam before entering the focusing lens colliery into a parallel beam with a diameter less than the input aperture of the above-mentioned lens and move parallel to the optical axis by an amount in which one of the forming longitudinal sectional imaging of the cone of radiation by the second photoresist becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens, in some cases, between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer is injected immersion liquid, for example, distilled water.
The effect of the totality of technological procedures that form the basis of the proposed method of recording, for example installation, are presented in figure 3. The radiation output of the laser 1, the collimator 2 is converted into parallel beam 3, with a diameter less than the input aperture 5 of the focusing lens bis use the rotary mirror 4 is shifted parallel to the optical axis of the lens by an amount in which one of the forming longitudinal sectional imaging of the cone of radiation in the photoresist layer 8 becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens between the output lens and the surface of the photoresist enter the immersion liquid, for example, distilled water 7.
The profile of the grooves formed in the photoresist during its displacement along the X coordinate in accordance with the proposed method of recording shown in figure 4.
The offset value is determined by the characteristics of the focusing lens 5 and 8 photoresist. Let, as analyzed above case, the use of lens # 2, the ratio of the diameter of the laser radiation and the input lens diameter is 0.5. As mentioned enter the, if the width of the grooves in the photoresist, equal to 1.0 μm, and a depth of 1.7 μm, the angle of inclination of the generatrix of the exposure of the cone will be 76° relative to the surface of the photoresist or 14° - relative to the optical axis of the lens. To one of the forming exposure of the cone spread in the photoresist vertically, i.e. parallel to the optical axis of the lens, it is necessary that the optical axis of the laser radiation was spread in the photoresist at an angle of 14° with respect to the optical axis of the lens. If the recording medium is used, the photoresist, such as SU-8, then this wavelength it has a refractive index equal to 1.67. To the optical axis of the beam of laser radiation spread in the photoresist at an angle of 14°, it is necessary directly before entry into the photoresist from the air to have the angle of the beam axis αinequal to 23.8°. This angle of the optical axis of the beam at the entrance to the recording medium is determined based on the ratio of Snell's law (see p.96, A.N. Matveev, "Optics", M. "Higher school", 1985, s):
where αcf=14°, ncf=1,67 and nin=1,0 is the refractive index of air. When the working part of the lens is equal to 0.4 mm, the angle is provided, if within vyhodnoceny lens axis of the beam will be shifted 0.17 mm. When the diameter of the output objective lens than 1 mm, this offset value is acceptable. However, if you need to compensate for blockages inverse of the slope zone of about 65°...66°, you will need to shift the axis of the beam of 0.4 mm is Similar to the offset axis of the beam will inevitably cause significant vignetting peripheral regions of the beam, which is unacceptable. In such cases, to eliminate the effect of vignetting between the output lens and the surface of the photoresist, you must enter the immersion liquid 7, for example, distilled water, having at this wavelength the refractive index of nFe=1,47. In this case, the desired displacement of the beam axis on the output objective lens will be: d=0.25 mm, which is quite acceptable. This condition is ensured with the help of a mirror 4 by parallel input shift lens the beam axis at 1.0 mm relative to the optical axis. When the displacement of the mirror 4 at 1 mm to the right relative to the optical axis of the lens is reflected from a part of the laser radiation is also shifted in the space to the right of 1 mm, resulting in a focus point of the axis of the radiation will be coming at an angle αinand after the focal plane (in the environment of the photoresist) is at an angle αcf, resulting in the left-forming exposure of the cone is oriented perpendicularly relative to the surface fot which the resist. This will form a nearly perfect triangular profiles zones positive kinoform lenses and minimize losses on the reverse slopes of zones kinoform lenses synthesized using direct laser writing. To write negative kinoform lens mirror 4 must be shifted to the left by the same amount (4 shows in broken lines).
1. The method of direct laser writing kinoform lenses in thick layers of photosensitive materials such as photoresists, consisting in the fact that with the help of laser radiation is focused on the surface of the photosensitive layer, the last change in depth is proportional to the power density of the radiation propagating in a photosensitive layer, characterized in that the laser beam before entering the focusing lens colliery into a parallel beam with a diameter less than the input aperture of the above-mentioned lens and move parallel to the optical axis by an amount in which one of the forming longitudinal sectional imaging of the cone of radiation in the layer of photoresist becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens.
2. The method of direct laser writing kinoform lenses in thick layers of photosensitive materials such as photoresists, consisting in the fact that with the help of laser radiation is focused on the surface of otechestvennoi layer, the last change in depth is proportional to the power density of the radiation propagating in a photosensitive layer, characterized in that the laser beam before entering the focusing lens colliery into a parallel beam with a diameter less than the input aperture of the above-mentioned lens and move parallel to the optical axis by an amount in which one of the forming longitudinal sectional imaging of the cone of radiation in the layer of photoresist becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens, in the interval between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer is injected immersion liquid.
SUBSTANCE: in the method, light is passed through a diffraction lens to an array of elementary lenses, wherein each elementary lens receives a portion of light and the diffraction lens has a zonal boundary covering at least part of one elementary lens. Properties of the diffraction lens are measured based on light focused by the array of elementary lenses and picked up by a detector. The measurement result is adjusted in order to compensate for the assumed optical properties of the diffraction component of the lens in the measuring system. Fuzzy spots and/or double spots can represent diffraction zones of the wave front. The centroid of the spot or the brighter of the two spots can be used to determine the transverse position of the spot. Theoretical calculations, laboratory measurements, clinical measurements and experimental images of the spots can be generated, compared and mutually checked to determine the equivalent single-focus lens.
EFFECT: using diffraction lenses to compensate for optical effects arising due to that the wave front is not smooth and continuous, and local slopes of individual zones and discontinuity on diffraction steps affect the position of the spot.
16 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves making a negative matrix 1 and removing positive copies of a linear Fresnel lens 12 therefrom. The negative matrix 1 with a negative profile 4 is made by diamond turning of a belt fastened around the side surface of a drum. The negative matrix 1 is then separated from the drum and attached to a flat substrate by the surface which is opposite the surface with the turned negative profile, in front of which a flat glass plate is then placed, having on the surface facing the negative matrix a transparent adhesive coating and on the opposite surface - an antireflection coating. Positive copies of the linear Fresnel lens 12 are made by filling the gap between the negative matrix 1 and the flat glass plate 5 with a liquid silicone elastomer (7) and then squeezing out excess amount of the liquid silicone elastomer. After curing the silicone elastomer, the linear Fresnel lens 12 is separated from the flat glass plate 5 by bending the matrix 1 and simultaneously directing a jet of compressed air on the joint between the bent negative matrix 1 and the glass plate 5 with the ready linear Fresnel lens 12.
EFFECT: improved optical quality of Fresnel lenses and reduced weight thereof.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invented method can be used for creation of complex diffracting optical elements (DOE) - Fresnel lens, kinoforms, focusers, correctors and others; the method includes coating of photoresist layer on the substrate, drying operation, exposure process, film development, thermohardening and reactive or plasma etch chemistry of the substrate by the mixture of gasses through the masking layer of the photoresist thermohardened layer; the thermoresistant photosensitive composition of poly (o-hydroxyamid) on the basis of 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and iso-phthaloylchloridum with photosensitive derivatives of 1,2-naphthoquinone diazides can be used as photoresists; the substrate warmed up to 80-90°С is coated with the photoresist; drying is executed at 90±10°С during 30-40 minutes; thermohardening is performed in vacuum ((2-4)х10-5 mm hg) with smooth increase of the temperature from 200 to 370°С within 10-15 minutes with a sequent exposure to the temperature of 370°С for 30 minutes; ionic and reactive plasma etch chemistry is executed by the mixture of gases: SiCl4+Ar, freon 12 + oxygen.
EFFECT: enhancement of accuracy of manufacturing of micro-relief on the boundaries of discontinuity of the phase function of any configuration and widening of technological capabilities.
3 cl, 1 tbl.
SUBSTANCE: method involves making negative matrices of Fresnel lenses with a square aperture from metallic workpieces coated with a layer of electrolytic copper with thickness of 0.5-3.0 mm via diamond turning of the copper coating. A 0.02-0.1 mcm thick chromium layer is deposited on the working surface of the inverse matrices and the matrices are joined by their ends into an assembly which is in form of a panel. An intermediate positive copy of the panel of Fresnel lenses is made via cathodic electrodeposition of nickel onto the working surface of the assembly. A 0.02-0.1 mcm thick chromium layer is deposited on the working surface of the intermediate positive copy of the panel. A negative copy of the panel is made through cathodic electrodeposition of nickel onto the working surface of the intermediate positive copy. A two-component silicon compound is poured between the working surface of the negative copy of the panel and the surface of silicate glass. The compound is polymerised at temperature defined by the relationship given in the formula of invention. The silicate glass with the composite lens panel is separated from the negative copy of the panel.
EFFECT: high quality of lens panels and low production costs owing to longer service life of the intermediate matrix.
2 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: kinoform profile on the working surface of a lens is made by removing material of the lens through ion etching with formation of concentric zones. Layers of material of the lens of equal thickness are removed successively, starting with the zone with the least radius for positive optical power of the kinoform element, and beginning with the zone with the greatest radius for negative optical power. Thickness of the removed layer of material is determined by the expression: where Δ is thickness of the removed layer of the material of the lens; n is refraction index of the material of the lens; λ0 is the fundamental wavelength of the spectral operating range of the lens. Radii of the concentric stepped zones are determined from the expression: W(ri) = iλ0, where ri is radius of the i-th concentric stepped zone; W is phase difference of optical radiation with wavelength λ0, caused by kinoform profile on the working surface of the lens.
EFFECT: increased diffraction efficiency of diffraction optical lenses with kinoform profile.
SUBSTANCE: multilayer lenses are used to focus solar collectors, where the said lenses consist of a support glass sheet which carries a system of coaxial glass sheets such that, the sheets of the system which form the lens packet have different diametres and/or thickness.
EFFECT: simplification of the technology of making lenses for focusing solar collectors.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of making master model for making a flat spherical Fresnel lens involves initial mechanical processing of a work piece from solid non-deformable material so as to obtain the reverse of the desired profile of the lens. For this purpose two work pieces are processed to make identical reverse spherical profiles, after which each is conventionally divided into n layers which form planes perpendicular the principal optical axis. Even layers, including the centre, are cut from the first work piece, and odd layers are cut from the second work piece, after which a cylinder is cut from each layer, the axis of which coincides with the principal optical axis, and the outer diametre is equal to the diametre of the largest opening of the corresponding layer. The obtained elements are attached by flat faces on the non-deformable flat surface symmetrically with the principal optical axis, after which a protective layer is deposited on a shaping surface.
EFFECT: invention simplifies making a master model for making Fresnel lenses and allows for doing without high-precision equipment in making the master model, while retaining accuracy of making spherical surfaces.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises fabricating Fresnel negative lens with square aperture by the diamond turning, jointing their faces into an assembly and making an intermediate panel by filling two-component silicon in between the said assembly and silicate glass, followed by silicon polymerisation. The said intermediate panel is separated from the assembly and duplicated onto the polyurethane matrix via polymerisation of two-component polyurethane in space between the said intermediate panel and sheet material. The matrix is separated, fixed on a solid base and filled with two-component silicon compound with its layer thickness exceeding the Fresnel lens profile cavity height by 0.1 mm or more. The silicate glass with primer is placed above it and excess silicon mix is squeesed out to make the thickness no less than 0.1 mm. The silicon mix is polymerized and the glass with lens panel is bent out from polyurethane matrix to be detached.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and lower costs, higher quality.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical devices for lighting purposes.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of an echelon lens with a diffusing screen. The diffusing screen is located in the first zone, while the echelon lens is located in the second zone. By changing the shape of the incident light and/or amount of light on the optical device, illuminating the optical device, the divergence angle of the light coming out of the optical device can be set between two limiting values. The first and second zones occupy concentric surfaces of the optical device with different diameters.
EFFECT: simplification of the structure, increased light output.
66 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: light signalization.
SUBSTANCE: light-dissipating lens of traffic lights post is made of transparent material in form of protection casing. External surface of casing is convex. Elementary lens cells are made onto internal surface; any cell is formed by recess in material of casing. Recess is made in form of curve, going deeper in down to up to direction; recess is disposed in plane of vertical crossing. Front surface of any cell has shape of rectangle 4. Recess is formed by concave surface, which surface forms in vertical cross section the first curve 5 which has shape of first ellipse. In horizontal cross-section the cells form second curve 6 which has shape of half of second ellipse and it goes out to front surface of cell to adjoin its face and lower sides. Lengths of shorter half-axes 7 and 8 of first and second ellipses are equal and they correspond in their value to maximal depth of recess. Length of face sides of front surface of cell makes value which is equal or longer than length of bigger half-axis of first ellipse. Length of lower and top sides of front surface of cell corresponds to length of bigger axis 10 of second ellipse.
EFFECT: improved portion of profitable used radiation; angular distribution of light in horizontal and vertical planes.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method according to the invention involves adding to a reaction mixture an effective amount of a compound which reduces protein absorption, hardening said mixture in a mould to form a contact lens and removing the lens from the mould with at least one aqueous solution.
EFFECT: making silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with low protein adsorption, which are comfortable and safe to use, and do not require high production expenses.
SUBSTANCE: monocrystals are designed for infrared equipment and for making, by extrusion, single- and multi-mode infrared light guides for the spectral range from 2 mcm to 50 mcm, wherein a nanocrystalline structure of infrared light guides with grain size from 30 nm to 100 nm is formed, which determines their functional properties. The monocrystal is made from silver bromide and a solid solution of a bromide and iodide of univalent thallium (TIBr0.46I0.54), with the following ratio of components in wt %: silver bromide 99.5-65.0; solid solution TIBr0.46I0.54 0.5-35.0.
EFFECT: reproducibility and predictability of properties, avoiding cleavage effect, resistance to radioactive, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves shaping of a reflector based on organic plastic material and non-organic substance with reflection coefficient of not less than 0.9 by preparing a mixture of initial components under pressure. As organic plastic material there used is a mixture of fluorine and polycarbonate; as non-organic substance - titanium dioxide, at the following component ratio, wt %: polycarbonate 100; fluorine 3.5-5.0; titanium dioxide 0.5-1.0. Forming can be performed by pressing at pressure of 800 to 1500 atm and at temperature of 240-270°C to thickness of not less than 2 mm or by casting at pressure of 750 to 1500 atm and at temperature of 280-290°C to thickness of at least 2 mm. Polycarbonate with melt flow-behaviour index of 2-60 g/10 min can be used as polymer material.
EFFECT: enlarging processing methods, temperature interval of processing, reducing cost and material consumption.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: antireflection film has on its surface a moth eye structure which includes a plurality of convex portions, wherein the width between the peaks of adjacent convex portions does not exceed the wavelength of visible light. The moth eye structure includes a sticky structure formed by connecting top ends of the convex portions to each other and the diameter of the sticky structure is smaller than 0.3 mcm. The aspect ratio of each of the plurality of convex portions is less than 1.0, and the height of each of the plurality of convex portions is shorter than 200 nm.
EFFECT: reduced light scattering.
29 cl, 69 dwg
SUBSTANCE: germanium monocrystals are grown in crystallographic direction  after holding at melting point for 1-2 hours, with temperature gradient at the crystallisation front in the range of (10.0÷18.0) K/cm, which provides dislocation density on the level of (2·104-5·105) per cm2.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain germanium monocrystals with considerable increase in signal reception area due to directed introduction of a given concentration of dislocations into the grown crystal and conversion of said dislocations from standard crystal defects to active elements of infrared optical devices.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: antireflection film has, on its surface, a moth-eye structure including a plurality of convex portions such that a width between vertices of adjacent convex portions is not greater than a wavelength of visible light, wherein the moth-eye structure includes a sticking structure formed when tip end portions of the convex portions are joined to each other. The diameter of the sticking structure is greater than or equal to 0.3 mcm and density of the number of sticking structures per unit area of the plane of the antireflection film is lower than 2.1 units/mcm2.
EFFECT: reduced light scattering.
29 cl, 69 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to an ophthalmic product represented by a sealed and sterilised package comprising a packaging solution and a soft hydrogel contact lens immersed in the packaging solution. The soft hydrogel contact lens comprises a polymer matrix, a first leaching polymeric lubricant and a second leaching polymeric lubricant, wherein the second leaching polymeric lubricant has an average molecular weight at least 3 times greater than the average molecular weight of the first leaching polymeric lubricant. The packaging solution contains approximately 0.1 wt % to approximately 1 wt % of a hydroxyl-containing polymer increasing the viscosity and specified in the group consisting of hydroxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and mixtures thereof, polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight of 400 or less, α-oxo-polyatomic acid or a salt thereof in an amount sufficient to provide a reduced oxidative degradability of polyethylene glycol in the packaging solution with the viscosity from approximately 2.0 to approximately 8.0 cps at 25°C, one or more buffer agents in an amount sufficient to provide a pH of the solution equal to 6.0 to 8.0, and wherein the packaging solution has an osmolality from approximately 200 to approximately 450 mOsm/kg. What is also described is a method for producing the soft contact lens.
EFFECT: helping with the initial discomfort of an individual who wears the contact lenses and comforting the above individual for a period of time longer than 6 h.
15 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves loading starting separate silver chloride and silver bromide salts into a container made of heat-resistant glass, fusing said salts to a given composition of solid solution, growing a monocrystal in a halogenating atmosphere by moving the container in a temperature gradient, cooling the grown crystal to room temperature and removing the crystal from the container; the monocrystal is then heated at a rate of 50-60°C per hour to temperature of 250-270°C, held at said temperature for 1-2 hours, cooled at a rate of 20-25°C per hour to temperature of 100-150°C and then cooled at a rate of 30-40°C per hour to room temperature.
EFFECT: reduced internal stress in the crystalline workpiece, improved optical homogeneity and reduced optical losses.
SUBSTANCE: flat lens made from leucosapphire is made from a plastically deformed workpiece, wherein the axis of symmetry of the flat lens coincides with the height of the cone of optical axes of the plastically deformed workpiece. The entrance and exit surfaces are flat and perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. The method of making the flat lens involves making a concave-convex workpiece by plastic deformation - bending the plane-parallel plate from the Z crystal cut. The lens is formed by removing an excess layer of material from the workpiece as a plane-parallel plate, perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the workpiece, which is superposed with the axis of the cone of optical axes, of a given thickness. The entrance surface of the flat lens lies at a distance x<δ from the vertex of the workpiece, where δ is the thickness of the workpiece.
EFFECT: forming a flat converging lens from leucosapphire for extraordinary beams.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mould for formation of a moth eye structure on the surface comprises a base from glass or plastic, an inorganic sublayer, a buffer layer, containing aluminium, an aluminium layer and a porous layer of aluminium oxide, having on the surface a tilted structure of moth eye with multiple grooves, the size of which in two dimensions visible in direction of the normal line to the surface makes at least 10 nm and less than 500 nm. The method includes the following stages: (a) the mould base is provided from glass or plastic, an inorganic sublayer, a buffer layer, containing aluminium, and an aluminium layer, (b) the aluminium layer is partially anodised for formation of the porous layer of aluminium oxide with multiple grooves, (c) the porous layer of aluminium oxide is exposed to etching, increasing grooves in the porous layer in size, and (d) the porous layer of aluminium oxide is anodised for growth of grooves.
EFFECT: increased adhesion between an aluminium layer and a base.
8 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex, 7 dwg
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides composition containing from about 50 to about 80% of component selected from group consisting of di(meth)acylate of ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of non-ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of propoxylated bisphenol A, epoxy(meth)acrylates of bisphenol A, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 30% of component selected from group consisting of tetrahydeofuryl (meth)acrylate, isobornyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 15% of component selected from group consisting of dipentaerythritol penta(meth)acrylate, trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated trimethylolpropane, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated glycerol, pentaerythritol tetra(meth)acrylate, bis-trimethylolpropane tetra(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa(meth)acrylate, and combinations thereof. Such composition is suited to manufacture eyeglass lenses.
EFFECT: expanded possibilities in manufacture of polymer-based lenses, including multifocal ones.
21 cl, 3 tbl, 18 ex