Heat exchanger system, turbomachine fuel circulation circuit and turbomachine
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger system through which the liquid flows comprises a heat exchanger with liquid inlet and outlet, a bypass valve with liquid inlet and outlet and a self-cleaning filter with a liquid inlet and two liquid outlets; one of the latter is meant for the filtered liquid and the other - for the unfiltered liquid. The filtered liquid outlet is connected to the heat exchanger inlet and the unfiltered liquid outlet - to the valve inlet, the heat exchanger outlet is connected downstream regarding the valve outlet.
EFFECT: heat exchanger clogging up is excluded.
9 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to a heat exchanger system through which fluid flows. Such a system can be installed in any liquid (i.e. hydraulic) circuit, in particular, in the circulation loop fuel or loop oil circulation.
This system can be used, for example, in the circuit ground fuel or aviation turbomachine (turbojet or turboprop engine) and, more specifically, in the circuit of fuel turbojet aircraft engine.
The invention relates to a heat exchanger system through which fluid flows, the heat exchanger system comprises a heat exchanger with an inlet for fluid and an outlet for liquid. During operation passes through the heat exchanger, on the one hand, the fuel coming from the fuel tank of the aircraft, and the fuel passes through these inlet and outlet for liquid, and, on the other hand, the oil circuit oil circulation lubrication system generator with built-in gear of the aircraft, and the oil passes through the other inputs and outputs to liquid heat exchanger.
The fuel has a temperature lower than the temperature of the oil which is heated by contact with the generator with built-in actuator), and the heat exchanger provides cooling oil.
Next take a closer look at, in particular,the circuit of the fuel, passing through the heat exchanger.
Clogging of the heat exchanger due to impurities (also referred to as contaminants)present in the fuel, is the potential for failure, which can occur at any time after a certain time turbojet engine. Partial clogging of the heat exchanger leads to a pressure loss, which may affect the correct operation of the system elements, downstream relative to the heat exchanger, and a complete blockage of the heat exchanger can break the circuit of the fuel and thereby cause the stop of the turbojet engine.
Among the various known types of heat exchangers that can be used in the circuit of the fuel turbine engine, it should be noted tubular heat exchangers and plate heat exchangers.
Tubular heat exchangers have a matrix structure formed by the many tubes that separate the two fluids passing through the heat exchanger. The flow area of the pipe must meet the requirements of technological feasibility. In other words, below a certain minimum internal diameter of the tubes these tubes too hard to make. The minimum inner diameter is often considerably larger than the diameter of the impurities present in the fuel, so that ver is the likely contamination of the heat exchanger of this type is low, but it exists. However, to increase thermal performance of the heat exchanger tubes usually have studs on their inner surfaces. These pins catch impurities, and caught pins impurities and gradually move the tube to a flat surface until it is not formed holes. These holes can lead to significant problems.
Plate heat exchangers have the advantage that they can be communicating sections for liquids less than that of the tubular heat exchangers, but the smaller flow areas, the higher the risk of clogging. Thus, plate heat exchangers are now used in turbojet engines little, if any are used.
Regardless of the type of heat exchanger, it is preferable that there was no need to control the clogging of the heat exchanger. This requires protection against clogging of the heat exchanger. Therefore, continuous cross-section for the fluid in the heat exchanger are such that their size was larger than the largest impurities that may be present in the liquid. Because of this, these communicating sections, as a rule, are of significant size.
The present invention is the heat exchanger, making use, if necessary, heat the ICA with a small passage cross sections for liquid, this exclusive control clogging of the heat exchanger.
To solve this task according to the invention has a system of heat exchanger through which flows the liquid containing the heat exchanger with the inlet for fluid and an outlet for fluid, the bypass valve with the inlet for fluid and an outlet for fluid and a self-cleaning filter with an inlet for liquid and two outputs for liquids, one of which is the outlet for the filtered liquid and the other is the outlet for unfiltered fluid and an outlet for filtered fluid connected to the inlet of the heat exchanger, and an outlet for filtered fluid is connected to the valve inlet, and an outlet for liquid heat exchanger connected downstream relative to the valve outlet.
Thus, the system according to the invention contains a self-cleaning filter connected to the inlet of the heat exchanger. In the beginning through this filter passes all of the liquid entering the system. The entrance of the heat exchanger thereby is input to the liquid system. The filter traps any impurities having a size larger than the cell of the weave of the filter. The accumulation of impurities leads to clogging of the filter and thereby to increase the pressure loss in the filter. When the inlet pressure by-pass valve, which increases, reaches a predefined Pirogovo the values the valve is opened. This discovery holds the pressure loss at an acceptable level and allows the fluid to flow through the valve. The fluid flow will be forced to move impurities trapped self-cleaning filter, and thereby clean the filter. In parallel, the filtering surface, freed from impurities, will allow to pass through it fluid so that the pressure loss will be reduced. The valve will slowly close, and the filter will resume its normal operation.
Regardless of the position (open or closed) by-pass valve, the heat exchanger is protected from impurities by means of a filter. Therefore, no risk of clogging of the heat exchanger, so that you can eliminate the control of its blockage. Moreover, in the case of a tubular heat exchanger with probes indicated the risk of the formation of holes in the tube is also excluded.
In addition, instead of the tubular heat exchanger you can use a plate heat exchanger with a small wall sections, which are in General smaller, lighter and has a better performance from the point of view of heat transfer in comparison with tubular heat exchanger.
Finally, because the filter is self-cleaning and the heat exchanger is protected from impurities, these elements do not need to clean (or replace) often, or perhaps even do not need to clean all that reduces maintenance costs of the system.
Another objective of the invention is to provide a circuit of the fuel measured containing the specified heat exchanger system. The invention is applicable to all types of turbomachines, ground or aircraft and, in particular, to turbojet engines for aircraft.
The invention and its advantages will become better understood after reading the subsequent detailed description, given with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:
Figure 1 - example of circuit of the fuel according to the invention;
Figure 2 - self-cleaning filter and bypass valve one possible implementation of the system according to the invention, the valve is in the closed position; and
Figure 3 is a view similar to figure 2, when the valve is in the open position.
1 schematically illustrates an example of circuit 10 of the circulation fuel for turbine engine aircraft.
In this specification, the provisions of the "upstream" and "downstream" are defined for the normal direction of fluid flow (here, the fuel passing through the circuit and system according to the invention.
The circuit 10 includes, when viewed in the direction from the side upstream to the side downstream: fuel tank 11 (in this case, the fuel tank of the aircraft); the pump 12 to the low pressure, which pumps fuel into the fuel tank 11; system heat exchanger 14 with the according to the invention, fed by pump 12; a primary filter 16, the pump 18 high pressure; a servomechanism 20, fed by the fuel pump 18, the controller 22 of the fuel fed by the pump 18; and the fuel injectors 24, located downstream relative to the controller 22. The injectors 24 are arranged in the combustion chamber of the turbojet engine.
Figure 1 also illustrates the circuit 28 oil circulation, providing lubrication electric generator (or generator with built-in drive) 26 aircraft. The system 14 of the heat exchanger according to the invention contains a self-cleaning filter 2, the heat exchanger 4 and the bypass valve 6.
Through the heat exchanger 4 passes, on the one hand, the fuel from the circuit 10 of the circulation of the fuel, and, on the other hand, the oil from the circuit 28. The fuel has a temperature lower than the temperature of the oil during operation of the turbojet engine, and a heat exchanger 4 provides the ability to cool the oil.
As shown in the drawing, the system heat exchanger 14 is located upstream relative to the main filter 16 of circuit 10 and downstream relative to the fuel pump 12 to the low pressure circuit 10. Self-cleaning filter 2 has an inlet 2A for liquid and two outputs for liquids, of which one is exit 2b for the filtered fluid, and the other is the exit 2C for unfiltered liquid.
Input 2A is the inlet for the fluid system 14, and all the fluid passing through the system, passes through the inlet 2A. In this example, this input is connected to the output of the pump 12.
Exit 2b for the filtered fluid connected to the inlet 4A of the heat exchanger 4, and the exit 2C for unfiltered fluid connected to the inlet 6A of the valve 6. In addition, exit 4b to liquid heat exchanger is located downstream relative to the outlet 6b of the valve so that the fluid leaving the system 14 contains a fluid that is released through the outlet 6b of the valve, and/or the fluid that is released through the outlet 4b of the system.
2 and 3 show in more detail an example self-cleaning filter 2 and the bypass valve 6. In this example, the filter 2 comprises a tubular filtration membrane 30 with the axis A. for Example, the membrane 30 is made of a fabric with a weave type "simple Dutch weave" or type "simple reps".
Entrance 2A for liquid filter 2 is located at one end of the membrane 30. Exit 2C for unfiltered fluid filter 2 is located at the other end of the membrane 30, exit 2b for the filtered fluid is located on the side of the membrane 30. The fluid flow passing through the inlet 2A and exiting through the exit 2b for the filtered fluid, indicated in figure 2 by the arrow F, passes through the membrane 30 (following in the direction perpendicular to the axis (A) and thereby is filtered latter. The fluid flow passing is via the entrance 2A and exiting through the exit 2C for unfiltered liquid, shown in figure 3 by the arrow F, is held inside the membrane along the axis A.
When impurities begin to contaminate the membrane 30, the fluid pressure at the exit 2C for unfiltered liquid increases, up to a certain value, after which the bypass valve 6 opens to allow fluid to pass through it. The fluid flow (arrow F')thus becomes directed along the axis And within the membrane 30. This fluid flow causes are moved with the impurities which are present on the inner surface of the membrane 30, which pollute it. Thus, the filter element 30 is cleaned from impurities. The pressure at the exit 2C for unfiltered fluid in the result decreases, and the bypass valve 6 is gradually closes until it reaches its initial closed position shown in figure 2.
When the valve is in the closed position (see figure 2), all of the liquid passing through the inlet 2A is directed to the heat exchanger 4 via exit 2b for the filtered fluid.
In the circulation loop fuel turbojet engine aircraft the size of the cells of weaving the main filter 16 typically ranges from 32 to 36 micrometers.
The mesh size of the netting self-cleaning filter 2 is preferably from 55 to 75 micrometers. The mesh size of the netting provides is illitracy particles of large size, dangerous to the heat exchanger 4, both from the point of view of wear and tear, and from the point of view blockage. In other words, particles that the filter 2 allows you to run, do not pose a threat to the heat exchanger 4. It should be noted that a self-cleaning filter 2 is located upstream relative to the main filter 16, which is natural, since he has a cell size of netting more than the main filter.
1. The system (14) of the heat exchanger through which flows the liquid containing the heat exchanger (4) to the input (4A) fluid output (4b) for liquid, characterized in that it contains a bypass valve (6) with the inlet (6A) for liquids and output (6b) for the liquid and a self-cleaning filter (2) with input (2A) for liquid and two outputs (2b, 2C) for liquids, one of which is the output (2b) for the filtered liquid and one is output (2C) for unfiltered liquid, and the yield of (2b) for the filtered fluid connected to the inlet (4A) of the heat exchanger, and the output (2C) for unfiltered fluid connected to the inlet (6A) of the valve; exit (4b) a heat exchanger connected downstream relative to the exit (6b) of the valve.
2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the filter (2) contains a filtration membrane (30)having a tubular shape around the axis A, and the liquid leaving through the exit (2b) for adfilter the bath liquid, passes through the membrane (30), and the liquid leaving through the exit (2C) for unfiltered fluid passes inside the membrane (30) along the axis A.
3. The system according to claim 2, characterized in that the inlet (2A) self-cleaning filter (2) is located at one end of the filtration membrane (30), output (2C) for unfiltered liquid is located at the other end of the membrane (30), and output (2b) for the filtered fluid is located on the side of the membrane (30).
4. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat exchanger (4) is a plate heat exchanger.
5. Circuit fuel are measured, characterized in that it contains the system (14) of the heat exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 4.
6. The circuit according to claim 5, characterized in that the system (14) of the heat exchanger is located upstream relative to the main filter (16) chain.
7. The circuit according to claim 5, characterized in that the system (14) of the heat exchanger is located downstream relative to the fuel pump (12) low-pressure circuit.
8. The circuit according to claim 5, characterized in that the mesh size of the netting self-cleaning filter (2) is from 55 to 75 microns.
9. Turbomachine, characterized in that it contains a circuit (10) circulation of the fuel according to claim 5.
SUBSTANCE: during adjustment of a sealing gap depending on temperature between a movable seal and a rotary rotor of a regenerative heat exchanger, at least one adjustment device is used, comprising several rod elements, due to interaction of which with each other sliding adjustment of the seal is developed, at the same time at least two of these rod elements are controlled separately via according chambers with the help of a control medium of alternating temperature, so that these rod elements are exposed to different temperatures. The invention also relates to a regenerative heat exchanger, where such an adjustment device may be used, and the method to adjust sealing gaps.
EFFECT: development of a simple automatic and cheap method to adjust the seal in the regenerative heat exchanger.
25 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: heat engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, particularly to heat exchangers and can be used in heat exchanging or heat-transmitting devices. Heat exchanger with case, which allows primary inlet connection, primary exhaust connection, repeated inlet connection and repeated exhaust connection, between primary inlet connection and primary exhaust connection it is located primary flow path of primary side, and between repeated inlet connection and repeated exhaust connection it is located repeated flow path of repeated side, herewith primary flow path is in condition of heat exchange with repeated flow path.
EFFECT: improvement of heat exchanger parametres, achieved ensured by auxiliary control unit passes through the intermediate space, located between primary flow path and in repeated flow path.
16 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: automatic gas heater control device relates to control and monitoring systems. It contains the following parts connected to each other: controller, relay switching panel with electromagnetic relays, voltage converter, terminal plate, and LED indicators with built-in resistors. Controller is connected to LED indicators through the terminal plate. Controller, relay switching panel, and voltage converter are connected to terminals for output.
EFFECT: simplifying the design at maintaining the required functional capabilities.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to thermal engineering and may be used in district heating systems for heating service water. Heat exchanger contains primary circuit channel located between inlet and outlet connections, secondary circuit channel located between supply pipeline assembly and return pipeline assembly, heat-conducting device between primary circuit channel and secondary circuit channel, and temperature sensor. Temperature sensor is located between secondary circuit channels close to connection with return pipeline. Besides, temperature sensor contacts with heat-conducting device or situates at small distance from it.
EFFECT: space saving in heat exchanger when temperature is measured and good results are achieved.
7 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: systems for automatic control of technological processes for cooling natural gas with use of apparatus for air cooling, possibly in after-compressing stations of gas fields in northernmost regions for sustaining optimal operation modes of air cooling apparatus for natural gas.
SUBSTANCE: system includes frequency-controlled drive unit; unit for processing measurement information and for automatic control; temperature pickups; electronic unit of temperature pickups; computing unit; two actuating devices; blowers. Signals of temperature pickups are fed through electronic unit to unit for processing measurement information and for automatic control. Said unit for processing measurement information judges (on base of inlet signals) what blowers are to be used and sends respective electric signal to computing unit. With the aid of computing unit one actuating device turns on electric motors of blowers due to their alternative connection with frequency-controlled drive and connects with AC-source electric motors of blowers. Other actuating device controls temperature of walls of heat exchange tubes in all sections of air cooling apparatus of gas and connects with frequency-controlled drive electric motor of blower of that section where temperature of walls of heat exchange tubes differs from preset value. After achieving preset temperature value of walls of heat exchange tubes of selected section, apparatus turns off electric motor of blower from frequency-controlled drive and switches it to AC source. Similar operations may be realized for electric motors of blowers if necessary.
EFFECT: simplified system for automatic control of apparatus for air cooling of natural gas.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises control of temperature of at least one of secondary flows of fluid in the secondary circuit which outflows from heat exchanger (1) by means of the primary flow in the primary circuit with the use of control members (5) and (11) that control the primary flow under the action of control unit (7), determining the difference of enthalpies of the primary flow that enters heat exchanger (1) and primary flow that leaves heat exchanger (1), measuring the secondary flow, measuring the flow in the primary circuit, and sending the parameters determined to control unit (7) for control of control members (5) and (11). As a result, the primary flow is controlled by the secondary flow so that the power supplied to the heat exchanger with the primary flow is, in fact, equal to the sum of the power required for the heating of the secondary fluid from the initial current temperature up to the specified outlet temperature, power required for the compensation of energy stored in heat exchanger (1), and power losses from heat exchanger (1). The description of the device for control of water temperature is also presented.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
13 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: heating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: space where surface of condensation locates is brought into communication with steam source and with atmosphere. Heat from surface of condensation is removed to group of individual heat consumers in such a way that heat comes to one group of consumers after another group is supplied with it due to the fact that space where surface of condensation locates is separated to a number of cavities relating in series to each other. The cavities form channel, which communicates steam source with atmosphere. Heat from parts of surface of condensation disposed at different cavities is removed separately each from another to different consumers. Device for realization of the method has vapor source connected with inner cavity of heat-exchange apparatus. The inner cavity communicates with atmosphere. Inner surface of heat-exchange apparatus communicates with atmosphere through internal cavity of at least one more heat-exchange apparatus. Heat-exchange apparatuses are connected with heat agent carriers of different consumers of heat. Internal surfaces of heat-exchanges apparatuses form at least one channel elongated in vertical direction.
EFFECT: selective heat supply from surface of condensation.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: control over high-pressure pump in gas turbine fuel feed circuit is executed by detection of feed and shutoff valve opening at fuel flow rate control valve, measurement of gas turbine rpm corresponding to opening of said valve and control over variations in said rpm to prompt high-pressure pump replacement when said rpm reaches preset threshold.
EFFECT: efficient control over high-pressure pump.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: at bench tests of two-spool gas turbine engine after renewal without disassembly of wheelspace units and parts rotor slip and takeoff thrust (power at maximum mode) are adjusted to magnitudes obtained in operation before renewal. In case said parameters fall beyond operating tolerances they are adjusted to magnitudes corresponding to closer top or bottom limits of operating tolerance..
EFFECT: stable operation of high-pressure compressor and angine thrust in operation after renewal.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in using engine inlet air temperature and compressor rotor rpm to generate control signal for actual reduced compressor rotor rpm. Magnitude of preset reduced compressor rotor rpm is set to compare it to generated actual reduced compressor rotor rpm. Note here that in case actual reduced compressor rotor rpm is smaller than preset one, compressor distributors are controlled by flow rate of air passing through compressor. Note here that in case actual reduced compressor rotor rpm exceeds preset one, compressor distributors are controlled by air compression ratio.
EFFECT: maximum efficiency and gas-dynamic stability.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in abrupt closure of fuel valve. Simultaneously, axial compressor discharge air valves are opened.
EFFECT: reduced overspeed.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises accelerating engine rotor to rotor rpm required for igniting combustion chamber, combustion chamber ignition, and reaching idling conditions maintaining preselected engine limiting parameter. Note here that T4 max is selected to make maintained parameter of engine operation. Note also that in adjustment of T4 max temperature is increased to maximum tolerable value by increasing fuel feed into combustion chamber while temperature is decreased to minimum tolerable vale by increasing air feed into combustion chamber where T4 max is maximum tolerable temperature of gas downstream of turbine.
EFFECT: faster starting and acceptable high-pressure compressor stability.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: control of gas-turbine engine (GTE) with afterburner is performed as per one of three control loops; individual control programme is specified on each loop and corrected as per certain group of sensors the readings of which are the most essential for operation exactly in that mode.
EFFECT: invention allows improving operating reliability and safety of GTE with afterburner of airborne vehicle due to reducing the time of augmented and full acceleration of GTE and expansion of safe startup area of afterburner, and providing GTE operation in wide range in optimum modes.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in gas turbine engine ACS electronic circuitry. Said gas turbine engines have free turbine and are operated integrated with gas turbine units to drive electric generators of gas turbine electric power stations. In response to signal of high-voltage switch actuation free turbine rpm is increased to 105% as well as fuel flow rate controlled by acceleration control unit unless measured free turbine rpm reaches 105%. Then, signal is generated to actuate said switch to reduce fuel flow rate unless free turbine measured rpm decreases to 100% and to keep up said rpm by appropriate fuel flow rate variation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of electric power station thanks to higher quality of ACS operation.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas turbine engine building industry and may be used in electronic automatic control systems (ACS) in gas turbine plants (GTP) used for driving electric generators (EG) in gas turbine power plants (GTPP). The control methods provides for a gas turbine power plant being additionally provided with a gas temperature limiter behind the turbine to affect gas turbine drive frequency rotation setting during operation at turbine compressor rotation frequency not far away from the given value defined for each type of GTP by calculation and experimentally.
EFFECT: improved reliability of GTP and GTPP operation due to enhance performance of ACS of GTP.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises controlling low-pressure rotor rpm, and comparing it with program magnitude to apply control signal to rpm adjustment actuator by influencing jet nozzle critical section. Note here that said low-pressure rotor program rpm is set to make the sum of low-pressure rotor rpm program magnitudes depending upon at temperature at engine inlet and engine control lever position.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of gas turbine engine operation.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: control signals are generated in every channel pro rata with deviation of controlled parameter current value from preset value to generate control signal parameters by appropriate regulators proceeding from said generated values, selecting channel with the least control signal magnitude to make it leader channel, and correcting preset controlled parameter magnitude in every said channel. Note here that said correction is performed by means of adaptation circuit that uses difference in closed channel control signals and that in assigned channel to approximate channel switching conditions to required reference conditions defined from deviations of channels.
EFFECT: eliminating controlled object output coordinates overshoot, preset amount of transition processes in system channels, longer life of controlled object.
FIELD: aircraft industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to propeller speed control system making it possible for operator to control speed of engine for matching definite index of thrust with that required in flight. According to one of versions of implementation of invention, rotational speed analog signal is supplied to flight control device. Proposed system can be made to supply digital signal to power control device. Invention is aimed at correlation of deviation of thrust indicates measured at manufacture or major repair of engine.
EFFECT: prevention of operation of engines with excess thrust.
10 cl, 4 dwg