Raw material mixture for obtaining porous filler
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of building material and can be applied in production of artificial porous fillers for light concretes and heat-insulating fillings. Raw material mixture for obtaining porous filler includes silica-containing rock and gas-former, as gas-former, it contains mixture of aluminium oxide and silicon carbide with the following component ratio, wt %: silica-containing rock - 95.0-96.0, aluminium oxide 3.0-4.9, silicon carbide 0.1-1.0.
EFFECT: increase of porous filler strength by reduction of filler agglomeration with reduction of its water-absorption and heat-conduction.
4 ex, 1 tbl
The invention relates to the production of building materials and can be used in the manufacture of artificial porous aggregates for lightweight concrete and insulation fillings.
As aggregates for lightweight concrete using natural and artificial granular porous materials with a bulk density of not more than 1200 kg/m3when the size of grains up to 5 mm (sand) and not more than 1000 kg/m3when the size of grains 5...40 mm (crushed stone, gravel).
Specially made porous fillers are clay and its variants (changeset, ash gravel, glenealy clay, and others), agloporit, slag, pumice, granulated slag, expanded perlite and vermiculite. They are specially manufactured in the form of gravel, crushed stone and sand as a result of thermal processing of clay, ash, slag and other mineral raw materials.
Famous raw mix for the production of porous aggregate (as of the USSR №1805117, IPC SW 18/06, publ. G.), consisting of siliceous rocks (Tripoli, diatomite, flask), alkaline hydroactive, nitrates and nitrites of alkali metals, fluoride of sodium.
The main feature of the known raw mix is that the compound is produced when the siliceous rocks, to obtain a porous aggregates are waste products.
The lack of raw mix of s No. 1805117 is necessary to enter in the compound except hydroaccumulator alkaline obtained from spent soda solution, additionally expensive scarce additives nitrates of alkali metals and sodium fluoride.
Closest to the present invention is the raw material mixture to obtain a porous filler (patent RF №1813080, IPC SW 14/04, 18/04, publ. 30.04.1993 year), including silica-containing rock as aggregate and slag production of ferrosilicon as a blowing agent.
The disadvantage of the raw material mixture by the RF patent №1813080 is his lack of strength due to the fact that at high temperature firing (1180-1250°C) does not exclude the possibility of sintering of the granules placeholder.
The technical problem solved by the invention, is to increase the strength of the porous aggregates by reducing the sintering of the filler while reducing its water absorption and thermal conductivity.
The problem is solved in that in the raw material mixture to obtain a porous filler, as in the prototype, uses a silica-containing rock and blowing agent. In contrast to the prototype, as a blowing agent, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon carbide in the following ratio, wt.%:
Use as a blowing agent mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon carbide with a predominance of aluminum oxide will provide reduction of sintering. It is found experimentally that when the claimed ratio of components is reduced contact between the aggregate granules. The alumina during sintering is extruded onto the surface of the granules, enveloping them. Since the melting point of aluminum oxide is 3000°C, considerably higher than the firing temperature of the filler, the sintering of the granules does not occur, and the resulting porous material has a high strength.
In addition, it is possible to raise the temperature expansion, which will increase the coefficient of expansion, and this in turn leads to a decrease in bulk density and decrease in the coefficient of water absorption, thermal conductivity.
Porous filler using the proposed raw mass obtained as follows.
Mountain silica rock (or waste it) are ground in a ball mill. Izmelchennoe the breed is mixed with aluminum oxide and silicon carbide in the following ratio of components, wt.%:
From a raw mixture on the plate granulator obtain spherical granules of a given size from 5 to 15 mm in diameter. Raw granules are dried at 100°C for 30 minutes, heated to 600°C for 5 minutes and calcined at a temperature of foaming 1120-1250°C for 10 minutes. In thermochemical reactions oxidation of silicon carbide results in the release of gaseous products, and swelling occurs mineral raw materials during the firing process. In the process of burning material granules enters pyroplastic condition, and aluminum oxide tends to the surface of the granules, preventing their agglomeration. The cooling of the expanded mass produce in the refrigerator, where it is cooling and heat recovery.
The proposed technological solution allows to use not only glassy volcanic rock (perlite, varsity, ash or vitalistically tuffs), and widespread igneous rocks sour and medium composition (granite, diorite, dacite, andesite, etc. without their PR is dwarfling of molding to obtain stekloprokata (raw material for foam glass). These rocks have a low melting point, so from charge on their basis it is possible to make the porous material by means of a single heating (combining the processes of melting and foaming).
This gives a twofold reduction of energy costs compared to production azurite or obtaining a foamed glass according to the traditional two-stage technology.
An important new element of the proposed solution - can be used for manufacture of building material tonnage of waste magmatic rocks screenings from crushing the rubble, final tailings and slimes mining and processing plants), and not specially welded stekloprokata of scarce materials.
A specific example of the manufacture of porous aggregates of the inventive raw mass.
Raw materials are delivered by trucks and served in the hoppers, and then dispense the components of the mixture to obtain a desired dosage of the gasifier, at the same time, along the route of the conveyor belt is electromagnetic separation of raw materials for the removal of metallic impurities. In the first drying drum is dried raw materials and primary mixing. Then the mixture is served in a vibratory centrifugal mill, where the disintegration and mechanochemical activation of the charge up to the required standard. T is relatig pellet granules are formed, served in a drying chamber, where on a grid conveyor pellets blown a constant flow of heated air. Air is heated to a temperature of 400-450aboutIs due prior to passage through the cooling furnace elements and selecting from them heat. The heated pellets fall into the lower portion of the apparatus, where the switchgear is served in the kiln. The heated granules, movable in a monolayer annular hearth, additionally heat the metal heaters to a temperature S. After firing the pellets fall into the fridge, where it is cooling and heat recovery.
Examples of specific composition of the raw mix.
albiter - 67%
diabase - 28%
aluminum oxide - 4,5%
silicon carbide - 0,5%
In this part of albiter and diabase - silica rocks.
Granite - 95%
Aluminum oxide - 4%
Silicon carbide is a 1%
In this part of the granite - silica rock. When applying this mixture increases the strength of the received material.
Diorite - 96%
Aluminum oxide is 3.5%
Silicon carbide - 0,5%
In this part of the diorite - silica rock. When applying this mixture is the temperature reduction processing.
The most important consumer properties is the product, obtained from the proposed raw mix:
- high strength in compression;
- low thermal conductivity;
- low water absorption;
- high sound insulation properties;
- high resistance to low temperatures;
- non-Flammability, non-toxicity.
For the manufacture of porous aggregates of the claimed mass, you can use the tonnage of waste silica rocks - wastes from the production of crushed stone in the form of screenings, stored in piles, and in the form of dust screenings stored in slurry tanks. At the same time as the blowing agent can also use waste production. For example, the aluminum oxide contained in the waste Achinsk alumina refinery, and silicon carbide is in the waste Volzhsky abrasive works. The required percentage of the ingredients in this case is obtained by dosing.
Thus, in the manufacture of the construction material of the inventive raw mixture disposed of waste in the mining industry is polluting the environment.
In addition, the resulting material is both insulating and structural material providing substantial savings.
The proposed raw mass provides the possibility of manufacturing light construction insulation mater the Ala in the form of blocks of standard dimensions, it can be used as a traditional masonry material, and its thermal and strength characteristics can reduce the consumption of ordinary brick five times, at a constant thermal protection structures, which reduces construction costs by 20-30%.
The main characteristics of the material obtained from the inventive raw mix are shown in table 1.
|Tested||The requirements of GOST 9758-86|
|The compressive strength of cylinder||12,9 kg/cm21.3 IPA||not less than 1.0 MPa|
|Water absorption||2-8 %||no more than 30%|
|Resistance to the silica dissolution||3,1%||loss by boiling 5%|
|Thermal conductivity, W/m*K||0,06-0,30|
|Resistance to alkaline dissolution||35 mmol/l||the limit value of 50 mmol/l|
Raw mix for the production of porous filler comprising silica-containing rock and a blowing agent, characterized in that the blowing agent it contains a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon carbide in the following ratio, wt.%:
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for preparation of frost resistant wall building stones and monolithic walls, including a binder, a filler - an ash and slag mixture, a foaming agent, a chemical additive - Relamix. Type 2, calcium carbide, the binder used is represented by the following components jointly ground to the size of less than 250 m2/kg: an ash and slag mix from burning of coal in furnaces of a boiler house or a thermal power plant cooled by dry method, a hardening activator - alkaline reagents of sodium or potassium, or carbonates of these metals or lime or mixtures of the specified reagents, and calcium sulfate dihydrate, and the filler is an ash and slag mixture from burning of coal in furnaces of a boiler house or a thermal power plant, cooled by the dry method, and clay, and additionally the mixture contains spent engine oil, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified ash and slag mixture for a binder 14-19, specified activator of hardening 3-6, specified calcium sulfate dihydrate 4-6, foaming agent 0.3-0.6, Relamix. Type 2 0.1-0.2, calcium carbide 0.5-4.0, clay 5-10, spent engine oil 0.2-0.4, specified ash and slag filler - balance.
EFFECT: improved frost resistance of products from the proposed mix.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: raw mix contains the following components, wt %: argillites - 69.0-74.8; diopside-containing rock - 10-15; crushed glass - 9.5-10.5; building gypsum - 4.92-5.1; alumnium powder - 0.58-0.6; sodium hydroxide, 2H solution - 29.6-30.0% above 100%, of dry mixture, V/G - 0.42-0.45.
EFFECT: increased strength of porous items with preservation of their density and temperature of annealing.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for fabrication of gas concrete includes the following components, wt %: portland cement 140 - 150, lime 140 - 150, marshalite 480 - 520, gypsum 0.5 -1, aluminium powder 2.5 - 3, superplasticiser S-3 0.3 - 0.5, water 480 -520.
EFFECT: reduced time of autoclave treatment, increased strength of products from gas concrete.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of heat-insulating foamed building materials. Finely ground rock is mixed with mineral binder, correction additives, a foaming agent and water. The rock used is gaize, the mineral binder is slag-portland cement, the stabilising additive is a mixture of polyacrylamide gel and carbamide-formaldehyde liquid, taken in ratio of 1:1, and the fluxing agent is low-melting frit. The foaming agent is foaming agent PO-6TS or PB-2000. Before mixing, the gaize and frit are ground to specific surface area of 3500-4000 cm2/g. The stabilising additive is used to prepare foam. The moulded articles are fired at temperature of 950°C. Components of the initial mixture are in the following ratio, wt %: rock - 45.5-47.0; mineral binder - 6.5-7.0; stabilising additive - 0.8-0.9; fluxing agent - 15.0-17.0; foaming agent - 0.6 5-0.7; water - the balance.
EFFECT: low heat conductivity and sorption moistening, high strength and wider raw material base for producing foamed glass-ceramic articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to structural materials, specifically to formation of pores in gypsum mixtures, and can be used in the industry of structural materials. In the method of preparing a gas-forming agent for formation of pores in gypsum mixtures, involving mixing calcium carbonate, aluminium sulphate and water, a prepared salt solution consisting of aluminium sulphate and water is mixed with calcium carbonate which is ground to specific surface area of 250-280 m2/kg, with the following ratio of dry components, wt %: aluminium sulphate 30-35.7, calcium carbonate 64.3-70.
EFFECT: obtaining foamed gypsum of low density and heat-conductivity.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of building materials and specifically to production of foam concrete. The method of producing a crude mixture for making foam concrete involves preparing a dry mixture from 500 DO portland cement and quartz sand, which is pre-dried and ground to specific surface area of not more than 2400 cm2/g, and simultaneously mixing with said portland cement in a mechanical activator, structuring water and adding a modifying additive - a combination of aluminosilicate microspheres and one- or multi-layered carbon nanotubes in ratio of 1:10, adding the obtained aqueous solution to the dry mixture and mixing for 5 minutes, adding aluminium powder, caustic soda and mixing for 3 minutes, with the following ratio of components, wt %: 500 DO portland cement 20-75, quartz sand 20-75, said modifying additive 0.1-6.0, aluminium powder 0.007-0.5, caustic soda (per dry substance) 0.0005-0.005, water - the balance. In the method of producing a crude mixture for making foam concrete, polypropylene or metal fibre can be added to the mixture in amount of 0.003%.
EFFECT: high safety of producing the crude mixture, high strength and frost-resistance of foam concrete.
2 cl, 1 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used in making articles from foamed concrete. The method of producing foamed concrete involves preparation of a concrete mixture, adding a foaming agent - aluminium powder, ultrasonic treatment of the mixture, subsequent moulding and hardening. After preparation of the concrete mixture, resonator centres are formed therein in form of separate accumulations of fine particles, for which crude aluminium powder is added to the mixture and a low-speed mixing mode is set - blade rotational speed of 180 rpm. The mixture undergoes ultrasonic treatment, crude aluminium powder is added to the mixture and a high-speed mixing mode is set - blade rotational speed of 620 rpm. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: obtaining foamed concrete articles with improved structural and mechanical properties.
4 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production porous aggregate for concrete. The mixture for making porous aggregate contains the following in wt %: montmorillonite clay 89.7-92.3; dolomite 6.0-9.0; sulphite-alcohol wort 1.3-1.7.
EFFECT: high frost resistance.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials, particularly foamed gypsum compositions used to make light heat-insulating materials with a porous structure. The composition for making foamed gypsum articles contains the following in wt %: gypsum plaster 29.0, phosphogypsum 29.0, nonionic surfactant OP-7 0.01, tartaric acid 0.1, iron sulphate 0.003, 25% aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution 0.01, dimethylvinylethynylcarbinol 0.001, water - the balance.
EFFECT: gypsum-based foamed material, having high strength, low specific weight, high heat-insulating and frost-resistance properties.
SUBSTANCE: composition of raw mix for manufacturing of nonautoclave-hardening aerated concrete contains the following components, wt %: portland cement 35.30-49.40, limestone 2.6-2.65, aluminium powder 0.06-0.10, calcium chloride 0.18-0.25, limestone crushed down to specific surface of 300-700 m2/kg 12.40-26.50, water - balance.
EFFECT: stabilisation of a process of aerated concrete mixture aeration, improved operational characteristics of an aerated concrete, reduction of its prime cost with simplification of mixture composition.
1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: building material technology, in particular heat-retention concretes.
SUBSTANCE: cellular concrete mixture contains (mass %) Portland cement 15-30; lime 15-20; aluminum powder 0.03-0.10; silica component (e.g. ground quartz sand) 30-42; alkali inverted slurry, obtained from technological waste from green body cutting, 15-20, gypsum 1.5; and balance: water. Claimed mixture is obtained by preparation and mixing in blender of Portland cement, lime, aluminum powder, ground quartz sand, alkali inverted slurry. In this method slurry is outwashed with water into vessel wherein constant mixing and dispersion are carried out, charged in blender, dosed and mixed with other components in following sequence: ground quartz sand, said alkali inverted slurry, Portland cement, lime, additionally gypsum, aluminum powder. Optionally part of alkali inverted slurry is fed from vessel into slime bath for further agitation and homogenizing.
EFFECT: cellular concrete with improved physical and technical characteristics; stimulation of production process; decreased cost of product.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: construction materials industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of construction materials industry, and primarily, with production of heat-resistant foam-ceramic materials. The method of production of foam-ceramic items provides for mixing of a fine-ground clay, a filler, a fiber, water and a foaming agent, molding of items, heating and calcination. In the capacity of the fiber use a basalt fiber or an asbestos fiber, or glass-fiber, and in the capacity of the filler - a ground glass or a burnt at the temperature of no less than 550°C, preferably 600°C, clay, in the capacity of foaming agent - a separately prepared foam. Additionally they enter a plasticizer, a liquid glass, phosphoric acid. Heating of items molded at a drying, is conducted at the temperature of 35-45°C, and their calcination - at the temperature of from above 940°C, preferably - 980°C. The ratio of the mixture compounds makes (in mass %): the clay 46-56, filler - 7.8-12.8, the liquid glass - 0.07-0.77, the indicated fiber - 0.39-0.43, the plasticizer - 0.13-0.23, phosphoric acid - 0.13-0.38, foam - 2.6-3.8, water - the rest. The technical result is an increase of strength, expansion of the source of raw materials of the initial components used for production of the foam-ceramic items and utilization of the man-caused waste products.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased strength, expanded source of raw materials of the initial components for production of the foam-ceramic items, utilization of the man-caused waste products.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprise preparing cellular concrete mixture, filling the mixture, staying the mixture for a time period, dismounting the formwork, cutting, and autoclave treating. The cutting is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, when the mixture reaches plastic strength, A1, the "crust" is cut out. In the second stage, upon the strength reaches the plastic strength A2, the article is cut into blocks of given sizes The ratio of the strength values should be A1/A2 = 3.2-4.1. The cut concrete part is used for preparing cellular concrete mixture. The mixture for cellular concrete comprises cement, sand, water, aluminum powder, and lime. The water mass required for preparing the mixture is determined form the formula proposed.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying water and cement or water, cement, and sand to the cavitation mixer, mixing the ingredients in the presence of an activator during 5-15 min, introducing the dry blowing mixture to the solution produced, and further mixing during 15-60 s. The dry blowing mixture is composed of, in mass %, 70 of cement, 12 of pigment aluminum powder, 12 of water-soluble aluminum powder, 2 of antifreeze plasticizer, and 4 of water.
EFFECT: reduced cost and enhanced efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: mixture comprises cement or cement and filler, water and blowing mixture provided with plasticizer. The dry blowing mixture is composed of, in mass %, 70 of cement, 12 of pigment aluminum powder, 12 of water-soluble aluminum powder, 2 of antifreeze plasticizer, 4 of water. The mixture comprises 0.3125-1.25% of the cement mass.
EFFECT: enhanced resistance to cold.
2 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns manufacture of aerated concrete suitable for structural-insulation parts used in construction of residential, public, and industrial buildings up to two floors high and having no internal framework. Composition contains, wt %: cement, non-washed and non-ground sand 31-42, aluminum powder 0.10-1.0, caustic soda 0.05-0.45, and water - the balance. Manufacture of aerated concrete comprises dissolving alkali component (caustic soda) in water at 65-90°C, stirring resulting solution with added thereto cement, sand, and aluminum powder, pouring thus obtained mix into mold, and keeping it therein to swell and harden.
EFFECT: increased strength of aerated concrete and reduced manufacture expenses.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: industry of building materials; production of light refractory concretes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of industry of building materials in particular, to production of light refractory concretes. The technical result is an increased strength and decreased density of newly- molded items at utilization of wastes and conservation of time of solidification. The raw mixture for production of the light refractory concrete containing an aluminum powder, orthophosphoric acid of 60 % concentration, aluminous slag and additionally contains sulfate slime and vermiculite at the following components ratio (in mass %): aluminum powder - 3-4, indicated orthophosphoric acid - 22-25, aluminous slag - 40-42, sulfate slime - 12-14, a vermiculite 15 - 23.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased strength and decreased density of newly- molded items at utilization of wastes and conservation of time of solidification.
FIELD: building materials, particularly porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware.
SUBSTANCE: basic mixture in accordance to the first embodiment comprises the following components taken in % by weight: Portland cement - 50-70 and remainder is high-calcium ash obtained at heat power plant. Basic mixture in accordance to the second embodiment comprises the following components taken in % by weight: Portland cement - 40-60, sand 20-30 and remainder is high-calcium ash obtained at heat power plant. Basic mixture in accordance to the third embodiment comprises the following components taken in % by weight: Portland cement - 30-70, ammonia chloride or ammonia sulfate - 0.5-1.5 and remainder is high-calcium ash obtained at heat power plant. Basic mixture in accordance to the forth embodiment comprises the following components taken in % by weight: Portland cement - 30-70, ammonia chloride or ammonia sulfate - 0.5-1.5, bentonite - 0.25-3.0 and remainder is high-calcium ash obtained at heat power plant.
EFFECT: reduced power inputs for concrete and concrete article production, provision of undirected capillary porosity, low moisture content and shrinkage and stable time-increasing strength.
4 cl, 4 tbl
FIELD: chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: method for preparing β-sialone powder by carbothermal reduction of kaolin involves thermal treatment of charge in nitrogen atmosphere at 1710-1780°C for 5-25 min. Charge comprises a carbon component with particles size 20-500 nm. An average size of particles of prepared β-sialone powder can be regulated by using the disperse carbon component of charge with the required size of particles. Invention provides the development of rapid and simple in realization method for preparing β-sialone powder providing preparing β-sialone with the required size of particles.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
2 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: manufacture of ceramic materials of cellular structure; manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed mixture includes the following components, mass-%: microsilica, 8.06-8.31; fly ash, 56.30-58.20; aluminum powder, 0.40-0.42; detergent, 0.40-0.42; carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.81-0.98; calcium chloride, 0.17-0.19; water, 32.20-33.54. Method of manufacture of ceramic materials of high-porous structure includes preparation of mixture, molding, vibration bulging, drying at temperature of 100°C and roasting at temperature 900°C.
EFFECT: enhanced strength; low cost; extended field of application.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex