Raw material mixture for obtaining porous filler

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of building material and can be applied in production of artificial porous fillers for light concretes and heat-insulating fillings. Raw material mixture for obtaining porous filler includes silica-containing rock and gas-former, as gas-former, it contains mixture of aluminium oxide and silicon carbide with the following component ratio, wt %: silica-containing rock - 95.0-96.0, aluminium oxide 3.0-4.9, silicon carbide 0.1-1.0.

EFFECT: increase of porous filler strength by reduction of filler agglomeration with reduction of its water-absorption and heat-conduction.

4 ex, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the production of building materials and can be used in the manufacture of artificial porous aggregates for lightweight concrete and insulation fillings.

As aggregates for lightweight concrete using natural and artificial granular porous materials with a bulk density of not more than 1200 kg/m3when the size of grains up to 5 mm (sand) and not more than 1000 kg/m3when the size of grains 5...40 mm (crushed stone, gravel).

Specially made porous fillers are clay and its variants (changeset, ash gravel, glenealy clay, and others), agloporit, slag, pumice, granulated slag, expanded perlite and vermiculite. They are specially manufactured in the form of gravel, crushed stone and sand as a result of thermal processing of clay, ash, slag and other mineral raw materials.

Famous raw mix for the production of porous aggregate (as of the USSR №1805117, IPC SW 18/06, publ. G.), consisting of siliceous rocks (Tripoli, diatomite, flask), alkaline hydroactive, nitrates and nitrites of alkali metals, fluoride of sodium.

The main feature of the known raw mix is that the compound is produced when the siliceous rocks, to obtain a porous aggregates are waste products.

The lack of raw mix of s No. 1805117 is necessary to enter in the compound except hydroaccumulator alkaline obtained from spent soda solution, additionally expensive scarce additives nitrates of alkali metals and sodium fluoride.

Closest to the present invention is the raw material mixture to obtain a porous filler (patent RF №1813080, IPC SW 14/04, 18/04, publ. 30.04.1993 year), including silica-containing rock as aggregate and slag production of ferrosilicon as a blowing agent.

The disadvantage of the raw material mixture by the RF patent №1813080 is his lack of strength due to the fact that at high temperature firing (1180-1250°C) does not exclude the possibility of sintering of the granules placeholder.

The technical problem solved by the invention, is to increase the strength of the porous aggregates by reducing the sintering of the filler while reducing its water absorption and thermal conductivity.

The problem is solved in that in the raw material mixture to obtain a porous filler, as in the prototype, uses a silica-containing rock and blowing agent. In contrast to the prototype, as a blowing agent, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon carbide in the following ratio, wt.%:

Silica rock95,0-96,0
Aluminium oxide3,0-4,9
Silicon carbide0,1-1,0

Use as a blowing agent mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon carbide with a predominance of aluminum oxide will provide reduction of sintering. It is found experimentally that when the claimed ratio of components is reduced contact between the aggregate granules. The alumina during sintering is extruded onto the surface of the granules, enveloping them. Since the melting point of aluminum oxide is 3000°C, considerably higher than the firing temperature of the filler, the sintering of the granules does not occur, and the resulting porous material has a high strength.

In addition, it is possible to raise the temperature expansion, which will increase the coefficient of expansion, and this in turn leads to a decrease in bulk density and decrease in the coefficient of water absorption, thermal conductivity.

Porous filler using the proposed raw mass obtained as follows.

Mountain silica rock (or waste it) are ground in a ball mill. Izmelchennoe the breed is mixed with aluminum oxide and silicon carbide in the following ratio of components, wt.%:

Crematoria rock95,0-96,0
Aluminium oxide3,0-4,9
Silicon carbide0,1-1,0

From a raw mixture on the plate granulator obtain spherical granules of a given size from 5 to 15 mm in diameter. Raw granules are dried at 100°C for 30 minutes, heated to 600°C for 5 minutes and calcined at a temperature of foaming 1120-1250°C for 10 minutes. In thermochemical reactions oxidation of silicon carbide results in the release of gaseous products, and swelling occurs mineral raw materials during the firing process. In the process of burning material granules enters pyroplastic condition, and aluminum oxide tends to the surface of the granules, preventing their agglomeration. The cooling of the expanded mass produce in the refrigerator, where it is cooling and heat recovery.

The proposed technological solution allows to use not only glassy volcanic rock (perlite, varsity, ash or vitalistically tuffs), and widespread igneous rocks sour and medium composition (granite, diorite, dacite, andesite, etc. without their PR is dwarfling of molding to obtain stekloprokata (raw material for foam glass). These rocks have a low melting point, so from charge on their basis it is possible to make the porous material by means of a single heating (combining the processes of melting and foaming).

This gives a twofold reduction of energy costs compared to production azurite or obtaining a foamed glass according to the traditional two-stage technology.

An important new element of the proposed solution - can be used for manufacture of building material tonnage of waste magmatic rocks screenings from crushing the rubble, final tailings and slimes mining and processing plants), and not specially welded stekloprokata of scarce materials.

A specific example of the manufacture of porous aggregates of the inventive raw mass.

Raw materials are delivered by trucks and served in the hoppers, and then dispense the components of the mixture to obtain a desired dosage of the gasifier, at the same time, along the route of the conveyor belt is electromagnetic separation of raw materials for the removal of metallic impurities. In the first drying drum is dried raw materials and primary mixing. Then the mixture is served in a vibratory centrifugal mill, where the disintegration and mechanochemical activation of the charge up to the required standard. T is relatig pellet granules are formed, served in a drying chamber, where on a grid conveyor pellets blown a constant flow of heated air. Air is heated to a temperature of 400-450aboutIs due prior to passage through the cooling furnace elements and selecting from them heat. The heated pellets fall into the lower portion of the apparatus, where the switchgear is served in the kiln. The heated granules, movable in a monolayer annular hearth, additionally heat the metal heaters to a temperature S. After firing the pellets fall into the fridge, where it is cooling and heat recovery.

Examples of specific composition of the raw mix.

Composition 1.

albiter - 67%

diabase - 28%

aluminum oxide - 4,5%

silicon carbide - 0,5%

In this part of albiter and diabase - silica rocks.

Part 2.

Granite - 95%

Aluminum oxide - 4%

Silicon carbide is a 1%

In this part of the granite - silica rock. When applying this mixture increases the strength of the received material.

Part 3.

Diorite - 96%

Aluminum oxide is 3.5%

Silicon carbide - 0,5%

In this part of the diorite - silica rock. When applying this mixture is the temperature reduction processing.

The most important consumer properties is the product, obtained from the proposed raw mix:

- high strength in compression;

- low thermal conductivity;

- low water absorption;

- high sound insulation properties;

- high resistance to low temperatures;

- non-Flammability, non-toxicity.

For the manufacture of porous aggregates of the claimed mass, you can use the tonnage of waste silica rocks - wastes from the production of crushed stone in the form of screenings, stored in piles, and in the form of dust screenings stored in slurry tanks. At the same time as the blowing agent can also use waste production. For example, the aluminum oxide contained in the waste Achinsk alumina refinery, and silicon carbide is in the waste Volzhsky abrasive works. The required percentage of the ingredients in this case is obtained by dosing.

Thus, in the manufacture of the construction material of the inventive raw mixture disposed of waste in the mining industry is polluting the environment.

In addition, the resulting material is both insulating and structural material providing substantial savings.

The proposed raw mass provides the possibility of manufacturing light construction insulation mater the Ala in the form of blocks of standard dimensions, it can be used as a traditional masonry material, and its thermal and strength characteristics can reduce the consumption of ordinary brick five times, at a constant thermal protection structures, which reduces construction costs by 20-30%.

The main characteristics of the material obtained from the inventive raw mix are shown in table 1.

Table 1
TestedThe requirements of GOST 9758-86
The compressive strength of cylinder12,9 kg/cm21.3 IPAnot less than 1.0 MPa
Water absorption2-8 %no more than 30%
Resistance to the silica dissolution3,1%loss by boiling 5%
Thermal conductivity, W/m*K0,06-0,30
Resistance to alkaline dissolution35 mmol/lthe limit value of 50 mmol/l

Raw mix for the production of porous filler comprising silica-containing rock and a blowing agent, characterized in that the blowing agent it contains a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon carbide in the following ratio, wt.%:

Silica rock95,0-96,0
Aluminium oxide3,0-4,9
Silicon carbide0,1-1,0



 

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