Liquid-permeable structured fibre cloth

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: liquid-permeable structured fibre cloth provides the optimum liquid absorption and distribution properties. The liquid-permeable structured fibre cloth comprises a first surface and a second surface, a thermoplastic fibres, a first area and a number of second discrete areas arranged around the first area. The second discrete areas form discontinuities on the second surface of the fibre cloth and comprise shifted fibres on the first surface of the fibre cloth; at least 50%, but less than 100% fibres have free ends extended aside from the first surface of the fibre cloth. The fibre cloth is characterised by a post-ageing thickness less than 1.5 mm, a vertical liquid capillary distribution height making min. 5 mm, a permeability min. 10,000 cm2 Pa·s) and a specific volume of the structured substrate min. 5 cm3/g.

EFFECT: better liquid absorption and capillary distribution.

21 cl, 29 dwg, 9 tbl

 

Scope

The present invention relates to permeable for liquids fibrous cloths, in particular permeable to liquid fibrous cloths, providing optimum properties absorption and distribution of liquid.

The level of technology

Many currently available woven and non-woven cloth, usually contain fibers made from synthetic polymers. These paintings usually made of solid fibers having a high density, typically comprising from 0.9 g/cm3to 1.4 g/cm3. A specific value specific gravity (volume or area of the canvas) is defined by the desired characteristics of the fabric, as transparency, mechanical properties, softness/airiness, or some of the properties of liquid absorption in a given thickness of the product, its durability and protective properties. Often requires a certain combination of these properties to provide the required performance fabric or products from it.

In many applications it is important that the woven or non-woven cloths made of synthetic fibers or other functional properties. In many applications the function of woven or non-woven sheets is providing the required surface quality of the product and to make it more soft and natural is authorized to the touch. In other applications the maximum functionality of the canvas is important to improve the efficacy of the product in terms of its main purpose. For example, the absorbent product is disposable, as a rule, includes top sheet of nonwoven material, the back sheet and located between the absorbent core. The top sheet of nonwoven material is permeable, allowing the fluid to pass through to the absorbent core. To prevent the passage of fluid and wetting the top of the sheet due to the overflow of the core, the absorbent liquid layer generally contains at least one layer of non-woven fabric located between the top sheet and absorbent core. In the result, the absorbing layer of non-woven fabric has the ability to take the liquid and transfer it to the absorbent core. The effectiveness of the absorbing layer in this function greatly depends on the thickness of the layer and properties of the fibres from which it is formed. However, its excessive thickness leads to a high volume product that is inconvenient for the consumer. Therefore, the thickness of the nonwoven fabric for the manufacture of such a layer is chosen from the principle of optimal compromise, so that its thickness was, on the one hand, the maximum to ensure the th maximum functionality, and the minimum to provide maximum comfort. When reducing the thickness of the absorbing liquid layer decreases its absorption capacity, resulting in a higher propagation velocity of the fluid in the plane of the material at hand from the point of inflow of liquid. The properties associated with the distribution of liquid in the material include its permeability and capillary spreading of a liquid.

Thus, there is a need in the absorbing liquid layer with sufficient thickness to absorb more liquid, on the one hand, and which is thin enough to ensure user comfort, on the other hand, while absorbing the liquid layer must provide sufficient permeability and capillary spreading of a liquid, i.e. high characteristics of the liquid distribution. In addition, it is often very difficult to keep constant the thickness of the nonwoven fabric due to exposure to different compressive forces that occur, for example, processing of the material, its storage and normal use of the product. Therefore, in many applications it is desirable to provide a non-woven fabric, which has a stable thickness, i.e. thickness, which would be stored during the processing of a material, its packaging and use. Also what about the, there is a need for a method of increasing the thickness of the nonwoven fabric, at a time close to the time of its submission on the production process of manufacturing the final product, in order to mitigate the impact on the canvas clutching efforts that occur during loading, transportation and intermediate stages of processing.

The invention

In the present invention serves permeable for liquids structured fibrous fabric containing thermoplastic fibers. Fiber fabric is characterized by a thickness after aging, less than 1.5 mm, the height of capillary distribution of the liquid in the vertical direction component of at least 5 mm, a permeability of at least 10000 cm2/(PA·s) and the specific volume constituting at least 5 cm3/, Thermoplastic fibers preferably are thermally stable and inextensible to such an extent that the mechanical treatment they rush into the plane of the blade, as will be described below, and hard so that they can withstand compressive forces during use of the product. The fibers preferably have a modulus of elasticity of at least 0.5 GPA and are thermally bonded to each other by heat treatment, resulting from nonwoven webs of such fibers can bytesperline base, which is thermally stable. Although allowable cross-sectional shape of fibers includes a solid circular shape and a hollow circular shape, other possible forms of cross-section fibers include three-brained and deltoid and any other multipartite form, increasing the surface area of the fiber and increases the capillary spreading of the liquid height.

The proposed basis of fiber fabric includes a first surface and a second surface, which are machined to give the basis of the local thickness by removing fibers from its plane, resulting in the basis of the structured fibrous web. Structured fibrous fabric contains a first region and a multitude of discrete second regions located throughout the first region. The second region form discontinuities on the second surface of the fiber fabric and shifted fibers on the first surface. Shifted fiber are fixed along the first side of the second region and separated proximally to the first surface along the second side of the second region opposite the first region, and thereby they form the free ends of the fibers extended in the direction from the first surface of the fibrous web. At least 50%, but less than the 100% shifted fibers have free ends, providing a free volume for collecting fluid.

In one of the embodiments of the permeable for liquids structured fibrous fabric includes many advanced bonded areas located throughout the first region in the areas between the second regions. Additionally bonded region can be continuously extended between the second regions, forming grooves, providing additional volume of voids to absorb fluid and channels for distribution of the liquid, which increases the permeability of the fabric to liquid.

Permeable to fluid structured fibrous fabric is intended for use in applications related to the management of fluids that require optimal properties absorption and distribution of the liquid. These applications related to the management of fluids, include products for cleaning, such as napkins for spill containment and absorbent products disposable, such as diapers, feminine hygiene products, bandages, baby bibs and products for adults suffering from incontinence.

Brief description of drawings

The above and other features, embodiments and advantages of the present invention will be clearer from the following detailed description and the e of the attached claims and accompanying drawings.

Figure 1. A schematic representation of a device for the manufacture of cloth in accordance with the present invention.

Figa. Diagram of an alternative embodiment of the apparatus for manufacturing the laminated fabric in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 2. Enlarged view of a fragment of the device shown in figure 1.

Figure 3. Axonometric view of a fragment of a structured framework.

Figure 4. Enlarged view of a fragment of a structured framework, shown in figure 3.

Figure 5. The cross-section of a fragment of a structured framework, depicted in figure 4.

6. Top view of a fragment of a structured framework, depicted in Figure 5.

7. The cross-section of a fragment of the device shown in figure 2.

Fig. Axonometric view of the device for the formation of one of the embodiments of the canvas in accordance with the present invention.

Fig.9. Enlarged axonometric view of the device for forming fabric in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 10. Axonometric view of a fragment of the structured substrate with patches shifted fibers, bonded by melting.

11. Enlarged view of a fragment of a structured framework, depicted in Figure 10.

Figa-12F. Types of fragments structured framework in accordance with the present invention, showing the different patterns of RCDs is captured and/or optionally bonded areas.

Fig. The cross-section of a fragment of a structured basis with the image attached and/or optionally bonded areas.

Fig. The cross-section of a fragment of a structured basis with the image attached and/or optionally bonded areas on opposite surfaces of a structured framework.

Fig. Micrograph of a piece of cloth in accordance with the present invention, which shows patterns in the form of tents, formed during the deformation of the fibers, due to their small offset.

Fig. Micrograph of a piece of cloth in accordance with the present invention, which shows multiple fiber breaks that occur when a greater degree of deformation of the fibers due to their offset.

Fig 17A and 17B. Micrographs of fragments of paintings in accordance with the present invention, showing the parts of the structured base, cut to determine the number of displaced fibers.

Fig. Micrograph of a piece of cloth in accordance with the present invention, showing the cutting position is shifted fibers a structured basis, subject to the limit of the bond, to determine the number of displaced fibers.

Figa-19S. Section profiled fibers.

Fig. Diagram of the device for measuring the permeability of the blade in the radial direction is in the plane of the canvas.

Figa, 21B and 21C. Components of the device for measuring the permeability of the blade in the radial direction in the plane of the blade depicted in Fig.

Fig. Scheme of a tank for liquid supply device for measuring the permeability of the blade in the radial direction in the plane of the blade depicted in Fig.

Detailed description of the invention

Definition

In the context of the present description and claims, the term "comprising" is an open term, not excluding the element to which it refers, the availability of additional, not mentioned elements and components, and the method to which it applies, additional stages.

In the context of the present description, the term "activation" refers to any technique in which the incoming engaged with each other, the teeth and grooves cause stretching in between sections of fabric. Such methods are useful for manufacturing a variety of products, including breathable film, stretchable composite materials, perforated materials and textured materials. Stretching non-woven sheets may cause a reorientation of the fibers, changing the diameter of the fibers in the cross section and/or indicator denier, a decrease in the proportion of fabric and/or controlled destruction of fibers in different parts of the canvas. One incesto used method of activation is the rolling of the fabric between the rollers with annular ridges.

In the context of the present description, the term "depth of engagement" means the degree of extension of the teeth and grooves included in engagement with each other rollers.

In the context of the present description, the term "nonwoven fabric" means a fabric having a structure of individual fibers or filaments, arranged with each other, but without forming a repeating structure, as in a woven or knitted cloths, which, as a rule, not randomly oriented fibers. Nonwoven fabrics can be produced in various ways, using, for example, processes blowing from the melt, spunbond, hydromotive, air-laying and bonding with kordofanian. The weight of nonwoven fabrics is usually expressed in grams per square meter (g/m2). The weight of the laminated cloth is the sum of the weights of its constituent layers and other additional components. The diameter of the fibers is usually expressed in micrometers; the size of the fibers may also be expressed in the dpf indicator, which represents the proportion of fibers in terms of their length. The weight of the laminated cloth, suitable for use in accordance with the present invention, can range from 6 g/m2to 400 g/m2depending on the final destination of the canvas. For example, for producing the value of the hand towel can be used two non-woven cloth, each of which has a specific weight of 18 g/m2up to 500 g/m2.

In the context of the present description, the term "fiber type spunbond" refers to fibers of relatively small diameter, manufactured by extruding molten thermoplastic material in the form of fibers of many thin, generally circular cross-section of the capillary tip, after which the fibers are subjected to refining under the action of external forces. At the time laying on the surface of the collecting fiber type spunbond in General are not sticky. Fiber type spunbond are generally continuous and have average diameters (measured at least 10 samples)larger than 7 microns, and, in particular, from about 10 microns to about 40 microns.

In the context of the present description, the term "blowing from the melt" refers to the process of forming fabric, in which molten thermoplastic material is extruded under pressure through a lot of fine, usually circular cross-section of the capillary tip. Extruded fibers are converging on them with a stream of hot gas (such as air), they picked up and transferred to the surface of the collection on which they lay was still quite sticky. In a stream of hot air fibers are elongated, reduced diameter, into the fibers. It turns out the canvas and the randomly distributed fibers. Microfiber issued from the melt, can be continuous or continuous, and their average diameter, typically less than 10 microns.

In the context of the present description, the term "polymer" generally includes, but is not limited to: homopolymers, copolymers, terpolymers, and other types of polymers, their modification and mixture. In addition, unless expressly stated restrictions, the term "polymer" includes all possible stereometric configuration of the material. Such configurations include, but are not limited to: configuration isotactic, atactic, syndiotactic and arbitrary symmetry.

In the context of the present description, the term "single fiber" means fibers formed by using one or more extruders using only one polymer. This, however, does not exclude fibers formed from one polymer, in which were introduced small amounts of additives to give it color, antistatic properties, lubricity, hydrophilicity and other properties. The data of the additive, such as titanium dioxide added for color, as a rule, may be present in the polymer in amounts less than about 5% by weight, and more than about 2% by weight.

In the context of the present description, the term "bicomponent fiber" means fiber, SFOR is new at least two different polymers, extruded through different extruders, but extruded together to form one fiber. Bicomponent fibers are also sometimes referred to as conjugate fibers or multicomponent fibers. In such fibers, the polymer components are in fact in constant positions on the cut fibers and are continuously extended along the length of the fiber. The configuration of the polymers in such a bicomponent fiber may be, for example, type "shell-core", that is, a single polymer can be surrounded by the other polymer; parallel, for example in the form of a layer cake; or type "Islands in the sea".

In the context of the present description, the term "two-part fiber" means fibers formed of at least two polymers, but extruded from the same extruder extrusion mixtures thereof. Two fibers do not have a permanent location polymeric components on the cut fibers in distinct areas are not continuously extended along the entire length of the fiber, but instead usually start and dropped arbitrarily. Two fibers are sometimes also referred to as "multi-component fibers".

In the context of the present description, the term "non-circular fibers" means fibers having non-circular cross-section, and includes a "profiled" fiber and so-called "Alekna with capillary channels". Such fibers may be hollow or may have three or deltoid in shape and are preferably fibers having capillary channels on the outer surface. The capillary channels may have different shapes in cross-section, for example U-shaped, H-shaped, C-shaped or V-shaped. One of the preferred types of fibers, capillary channel fibers are T-401 from polyethylene-terephthalate, the proposed Fiber Innovation Technologies (Johnson city, Tennessee, USA) under the trade name 4DG.

"Absorbent article" refers to devices that absorb and/or contain liquid. They include wearable absorbent articles that are placed on the body surface or in close proximity thereto for the absorption and retention of the various secretions of the body. Non-limiting examples of absorbent articles include diapers, including made in the form of panties, "educational" shorts for children, sanitary napkins, tampons, devices for persons suffering from incontinence, and other products. In addition, absorbent articles include cleaning materials and other products for cleaning.

"Is" means placing one element of the product at a certain position in relation to another element of the product. For example, a particular element is in the products view can be located in a particular place or position relative to other elements of the diaper, being executed for a unit with them, or it can be located when being executed as a separate element joined to another element of the diaper.

"Tensile nonwoven" means a fibrous non-woven fabric, which can be elongated by at least 50% without the occurrence of its rupture. So, for example, tensile considered material having an initial length of 100 mm, which can be stretched to the length of at least 150 mm at a speed of stretching, equal to 100% of the initial length per minute at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%. The material may be stretchable in one direction (for example, CD), but not tensile in the other direction (MD). Stretchable non-woven fabric in the General case contains elastic fibers.

"Vysokochetkoe nonwoven" means a fibrous non-woven fabric, which may be elongated at least 100% without the occurrence of its rupture. For example, vysokoraspolagaemym is a material that has an initial length of 100 mm, which can be stretched to the length of at least 200 mm at a speed of stretching, equal to 100% of the initial length per minute at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%. The material can be vysokoraspolagaemym in one direction (for example, CD), but not tensile or tensile in the other direction (MD). Vysokochetkoe nonwoven Polota what about in the General case contains visakorttini fiber.

"Extensible nonwoven fabric" means a fibrous non-woven fabric, a gap which occurs has yet to be achieved lengthening of 50% of the initial length. So, for example, is considered to be inextensible material having an initial length of 100 mm, which cannot be extended by more than 50 mm at a speed of stretching, equal to 100% of the initial length per minute at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%. Inextensible material is stretched in both directions: in the direction of the CD and in the direction of MD.

"Tensile fiber" means a fiber that can be stretched by at least 400% of its original length without the occurrence of its rupture, at a speed of stretching, equal to 100% of the initial length per minute, according to the results of tensile tests carried out at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%.

"Vysokochetkoe fiber" means a fiber that can be stretched by at least 500% of its original length without the occurrence of its rupture, at a speed of stretching, equal to 100% of the initial length per minute, according to the results of tensile tests carried out at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%.

"Inextensible fiber" means a fiber that can be stretched less than 400% of the original length before it breaks, at a speed of stretching, equal to 100% of the initial length of the minute, test results on stretch conducted at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%.

The terms "hydrophilic" and "hydrophilic" refers to a fibrous or non-woven material, the surface of which quickly moistened with water or saline solution. The material of the capillary absorb water or saline, can be classified as hydrophilic. One way to quantitatively measure the hydrophilicity is measuring the ability of the capillary material to absorb water in the vertical direction. In the context of the present invention is hydrophilic material, if his ability capillary absorption in the vertical direction is at least 5 mm

The term "connected" means a configuration in which this element is directly attached to the other element, and configurations in which this element is indirectly attached to another element that is directly attached to some intermediate element (or intermediate elements), which in turn is attached (attached) to another element.

"Laminate" means a structure of two or more materials bonded to each other by methods used in the art, such as adhesive bonded is e, thermal bonding, ultrasonic bonding.

"The direction of motion in the machine (MD)" means the direction parallel to the direction of movement of the fabric during its manufacture. Directions within ±45° with respect to the MD also are directions in the car. "The direction transverse to the direction of motion in the machine (CD)" means a direction essentially perpendicular to the direction MD and lying in the plane formed by the canvas. Directions within ±45° with respect to the CD also considered the directions transverse to the direction of motion in the car.

The terms "from the heart"/"the center" means that one of these elements is respectively further/closer to the longitudinal centerline of the absorbent product in relation to another element. For example, if you specify that an element a is in the direction from the centre towards the element, it means that the element a is located further from the longitudinal centerline than Century

"Capillary absorption" means the active transfer of liquid through the non-woven material under the action of capillary forces. The rate of capillary absorption is defined as the distance that the liquid will take place in the material for a certain period of time.

"Absorption rate" means the rate at which the material will absorb specified the quantity of liquid, or the time required for the passage of fluid through the material.

"Permeability" means the relative ability of fluids to flow through the material in the X-y plane Materials with high permeability, provide a higher rate of passage of fluid in their plane than materials with low permeability.

"Painting" means material that can be rolled. Canvas can be a film, nonwoven fabric, laminate, perforated laminate and other materials. The "surface web" means one of his two-dimensional surfaces, in contrast to its ends and side edges.

The plane of the "X-Y" means the plane formed by the directions of MD and CD of the moving blade or cutting.

Everything used in the present description a numeric value ranges should be considered in such a way that the mentioned maximum value, limiting the range that includes any lower limiting value, and all such lower limiting values should be considered explicitly mentioned. In addition, the mentioned minimum value, limiting the range that includes any more, the limiting value, and all such large limiting values should be considered explicitly mentioned. In addition, any of the above, the range of numeric values which includes any narrower range, included in the above-mentioned wider range, as well as any specific numerical values in this range, and all other narrower ranges and a separate numeric values should be considered as explicitly mentioned in the present description.

In the present invention proposes a structured basis, formed by activation of a suitable baseline. Activation causes a shift in the fibers and provides for the formation of three-dimensional textures that enhance the properties of the liquid absorption baseline. To improve the properties of capillary liquid absorption can also be modified by the surface energy baseline. Proposed in accordance with the present invention a structured basis will be described below together with the preferred method and device for producing a structured framework from baseline. The preferred device 150 for manufacturing a structured framework is shown schematically in figure 1 and 2 and will be described in more detail below.

The original basis

Original base 20 in accordance with the present invention is permeable to liquid non-woven fabric formed from the collected free thermally stable fibers. The fibers used in accordance with the present invention, are inextensible that was identified is prohibited below as lengthening less than 300% before rupture. preferably even to use fiber lengthening less than 200% before rupture. Fiber can include staple fibers, of which the standard industrial methods, such as cardownie, air laying or wet laying, can be formed leaf; however, preferred are fiber type spunbond manufactured using standard equipment for the receipt of such fibers, of which the non-woven fabric is formed by stretching and laying fiber. Fibers and the formation of the fabric by stretching and laying of the fibers will be discussed below.

Fiber in accordance with the present invention may have different cross-sectional shape, and such forms include, but are not limited to: round, elliptical, star-shaped, three, multipartite (for example, containing from 3 to 8 parts), rectangular, H-shaped, C-shaped, I-shaped, U-shaped and other bizarre forms. You can also use hollow fiber. The preferred forms are round, three and N-shaped. All fibers are the most cheap to manufacture and therefore may be preferable from an economic point of view, while the fibers of the three-brained shape provides greater surface area and therefore Vlada preferred from the point of view of functionality. Fiber round and three-part forms can be hollow, however, preferred are solid fibers. Hollow fibers can also be useful for some applications, as they provide a greater resistance to compression than solid fibers with the same indicator dpf.

Fiber in accordance with the present invention, generally have a larger size than the fibers used in conventional nonwoven materials of fiber type spunbond. Because the diameter of the fibers with a complex profile is often difficult to identify, such fibers are often characterized by the indicator dpf (denier per filament - index denier for a single fiber). The dpf indicator is defined as the weight of the fiber in grams its length is 9 000 m In accordance with the present invention it is preferable to use fibers with the dpf indicator greater than 1 and lower than 100. It is more preferable to use fibers from 1.5 dpf to 50 dpf, more preferably from 2.0 to 20 dpf dpf, and most preferably from 4 to 10 dpf dpf.

Collected together, but loose fibers that form the underlying basis in accordance with the present invention, prior to activation and displacement of fibers attached to each other. Fibrous sheet can be characterized by a weak bond to the fibers (hereinafter referred to as weakly bonded), the resulting fiber will have quite the high degree of mobility and will easily stretch of bond tensile fabric. Fibrous sheet can be characterized by a full bond to the fibers, resulting in a designated bonding fibers will have a much greater strength, the fibers will have a minimum degree of mobility, and stretching of the paintings the fibers will be torn. Inextensible fibers that form the underlying basis in accordance with the present invention, preferably are fully bonded, so that was received inextensible fibrous non-woven fabric. As will be explained in more detail below, inextensible, the original basis is preferred for use in the present invention and the formation of a structured framework by shifting fibers.

Full bond baseline can be performed in a single step bonding, for example, in the manufacture of baseline. In alternative embodiments can be used in several stages of bonding. For example, the base can only be pre (a little or not enough) is bonded to the production stage, so as to give it sufficient structural integrity and be winded in a roll. After that, the base may be subjected to additional stages of bonding, resulting from it can be obtained fully bonded fabric, and it can be done, e.g. the measures immediately before the phase displacement of the fibers in accordance with the present invention. In addition, the possible steps of bonding performed at any time between the making of baseline and bias fibers. During the different stages of bonding can be formed in various structures of the binding.

Various methods of bonding fibers is described in detail in the publication "Nonwovens: Theory, Process, Performance and Testing" (author Albin Turbak, edition Tappi 1997). Typically used methods include mechanical fasteners tangles and hydrodynamic tangles, piercing needle, chemical bonding and/or sealed by impregnation with resin, but the preferred methods are thermal bond, such bond blown hot air, and scatter thermal bonding under the influence of heat and pressure, the latter is preferable.

Bond blown air is performed by blowing hot gas through the collected fibers, resulting bonded nonwoven fabric. Place the actual bonding of the fibers can be of different shapes and sizes, including, but not limited to: oval, round and rectangular in shape. The total area of plots of thermal bonding may range from 2% to 60%, preferably from 4% d is 35%, more preferably from 5% to 30%, and most preferably from 8% to 20% of the area of the canvas. Fully sealed source basis in accordance with the present invention, the total area of plots of thermal bonding may range from 8% to 70%, preferably from 12% to 50%, and most preferably from 15% to 35%. The number of points of thermal bonding per unit area of the web can be from 5 points/cm2up to 100 pixels/cm2preferably from 10 pixels/cm2up to 60 points/cm2and most preferably from 20 dots/cm2up to 40 pixels/cm2. Fully sealed source basis in accordance with the present invention the number of points of thermal bonding per unit area of the fabric may range from 10 pixels/cm2up to 60 points/cm2and preferably from 20 dots/cm2up to 40 pixels/cm2.

For thermal bonding requires that the fibers were made of thermally attached polymers, such as, for example, thermoplastic polymers. In accordance with the present invention in the composition of the fiber is thermally attached to the polymer. Preferred thermally attached polymers include polyester resin, PET resin, more preferably of PET resin in combination with PET resin. Such polymers can be obtained thermally who kreplenie, thermally stable fibers, as will be described in more detail below. In accordance with the present invention, the content of thermoplastic polymer is more than about 30%, preferably more than about 50%, even more preferably more than about 70%, and most preferably more than about 90% by weight of the fiber.

In the fastening of the base acquires certain mechanical properties in the direction of motion in the machine (MD)and transverse direction of him (CD). The tensile strength of the fabric in the direction MD is from 1 N/cm 200 N/cm, preferably from 5 N/cm to 100 N/cm, more preferably from 10 N/cm 50 N/cm, and even more preferably from 20 N/cm 40 N/a see the tear Strength of the fabric in the direction of the CD is from 0.5 N/cm 50 N/cm, preferably from 2 N/cm to 35 N/cm, and most preferably from 5 N/cm to 25 N/a see the Original basis should also be related to the tensile strength in the direction MD to the tensile strength in the direction CD from 1.1 to 10, preferably from 1.5 to 6 and preferably from 1.8 to 5.

The method of fastening is also influenced by the thickness of the baseline. The thickness of the baseline depends on the number, size and shape of the fibers present in the part of the canvas, in which area is measured. The thickness of the baseline is at,10 mm to 1.3 mm, more preferably from 0.15 mm to 1.0 mm, and most preferably from 0.20 mm to 0.7 mm

The base is also characterized by transparency. Transparency is defined as the relative amount of light passing through the baseline. Although it is theoretically optional, it can be expected that the transparency depends on the number, size, type, morphology and shape of the fibers present in the part of the canvas, which is used in the measurement. Transparency can be measured by TAPPI method T 425 om-01 "Measuring transparency paper (geometrical parameters 15/d, the light source And/2°, the background reflectance of 89% and paper background). Transparency is measured in percent. Transparency baseline in accordance with the present invention is more than 5%, preferably more than 10%, more preferably more than 20%, even more preferably more than 30% and most preferably more than 40%.

The base is characterized by a specific weight per unit area and unit volume. The weight per unit area is calculated as the weight of the part of the canvas, divided by the area of the site. For the purposes of the present invention uses the original base, having a specific weight per unit area of 10 g/m2to 200 g/m2. Share baseline per unit volume is calculated as its share on e is inico square, divided by the thickness of the baseline. For the purposes of the present invention uses the original base, having a specific weight per unit volume from 14 kg/m3up to 200 kg/m3. The base may also be characterized as the specific volume per unit weight, which is the inverse of specific weight per unit volume and is usually expressed in cm3/year

The original basis in accordance with the present invention can be used for the manufacture of roofing materials, filtration products, cleaning materials and other commodities.

The modification of the baseline

The original basis in accordance with the present invention can be modified to give optimum properties absorption and distribution of liquid and use it in products, where important relevant characteristics of the control fluid. Characteristics of the liquid distribution can be enhanced by modifying the surface energy of the original framework and enhance its hydrophilicity and consequently the properties of the capillary absorption of the liquid. The change in surface energy is an optional feature and, as a rule, is performed at the stage of manufacturing baseline. In accordance with the present invention the characteristics of the absorption liquid can be enhanced by modifying the structure of the s baseline by shifting fibers with the formation of three-dimensional textures, that increases the lightness of the fabric and, therefore, increase its thickness and specific volume per unit weight.

The surface energy

The hydrophilicity baseline is associated with its surface energy. The surface energy baseline can be changed by surface treatment of fabrics such as sewing to the surface of the fiber reactive groups of the gas medium, which may be preceded by reactive oxidation of the surface of the fibers using plasma or corona discharge.

The surface energy baseline can also be modified by selecting the polymer material used for manufacturing fibers baseline. The polymeric material can have its intrinsic hydrophilicity, or hydrophilicity can be imparted to him by chemical treatment of the polymer, the surface of the fibers or of the surface of the molten additives, or by a combination of the polymer with other materials, providing hydrophilicity. Examples of such materials are IRGASURF® HL560 production Ciba used to impart hydrophilicity to the polypropylene, and PET copolymer collection materials EASTONE® Eastman Chemical production, to impart hydrophilicity of polyethylene-terephthalate.

The surface energy can also be changed by the surface of the processing of the fibers. For surface treatment of fibers commonly used surfactants, applied to the fiber in the form of a diluted emulsion or foam by spraying, foam roller or other suitable method, followed by drying. Polymers that may require surface treatment are complex polymers on the basis of polypropylene and polyethylene-terephthalate. Other types of polymers that require surface treatment include aliphatic polyetheramine; aliphatic polyesters; aromatic polyesters, including polyethylene-terephtalate and their copolymers, polybutylene-terephthalate and their copolymers; polytrimethylene-terephthalate and their copolymers; polylactic acid and its copolymers. For the surface treatment suitable materials classified as soil release polymers. Soil release polymers are a family of materials, including low-molecular-weight polyester-polyether block copolymers, polyester-polyethers and non-ionic polyether compounds. Some of these materials can be used as fusible additives, but the preferred method of their use is surface treatment. Examples of commercially available materials of this type are the family of products Techsage™ production Clariant.

A structured basis/p>

In the second stage modifications of the original framework 20 is mechanical processing, resulting in a structured basis from fiber fabric (in the context of the present description, the terms "structured basis and structured basis from fiber fabric are used as mutually replacing each other). In the context of the present description "a structured basis" means the baseline, which was (1) is permanently deformed by redistribution of the separation and rupture of the fibers, resulting in an irreversible shift fibers (hereinafter referred to as "offset fibers"), and (2)how advanced stage, was subjected to additional bond, resulting in the original basis is formed compressed to a smaller thickness plot. Irreversible displacement of the fibers is carried out using rods, pins, buttons, structured meshes, tapes, or other suitable means and methods. Irreversible displacement of fibers increases the thickness of the original basis. Increasing the thickness increases the specific volume basis per unit weight, and also makes more permeable to liquid. Additional bond improves the mechanical properties of the original base and may increase the depth of the channels between the displaced fibers, which improves the characteristics of the absorption of the liquid distribution.

Offset fibers

Above the base may be treated with the help of the device 150 depicted in figure 1, in which results can be obtained with a structured base 21, the fragments of which is shown in figure 3-6. As shown in figure 3, the structured base has a first region 2 in the X-Y plane and the set of second regions 4 across the first region 2. The second region 4 are displaced fibers 6 that constitute violations 16 continuity of the second surface 14 a structured framework 21, and displaced fibers 6 have free ends 18 extended from the first surface 12. As shown in figure 4, the displaced fibers 6 are extended from the first surface 11 of the second region 4 and are separated from each other and torn, and have free ends along the second side 13 opposite the first side 11, proximal to the first surface 12. In the context of the present invention "proximal to the first surface 12" means that the gap of the fiber occurs between the first surface 12 and the peak, or the distal part 3 is shifted fibers, preferably closer to the first surface 12 than to the distal portion 3 is displaced fibers 6.

Space separation (or gap) of the fibers is determined primarily by the properties of inextensible fibers, and forming the initial basis; however, the displacement and deformation of the fibers is also influenced by the degree of bonding of the fibers when forming the baseline. The base contains a fully bonded inextensible fibers, is a structure in which, thanks to the strength of the fibers, their stiffness and strength of their bond can be formed patterns in the form of tents with deformation caused by a small displacement of the fibers, as shown in the micrograph on Fig. When the deformation of the blade caused by a large displacement of the fibers, there is a rupture of a significant number of fibers, and most of these breaks are concentrated on one side, as shown in the micrograph on Fig.

The formation of displaced fibers 6 having the free ends 18 (figure 4), is made with the purpose of increasing the specific volume of structured basis per unit weight, compared to the percentage by volume of the original basis, through the creation of volume of voids. The inventors found that the formation of the second areas of the displaced fibers 6, at least 50%but less than 100% of the ends of which are free, provides a structured basis, with increased thickness and, accordingly, increased the specific volume, which is quite stable persist during the use of the product (see table 6 and examples 1N5 - 1N9 below). In some embodiment the s, which will be described below, the free ends 18 of the displaced fibers 6 can be thermally bonded to make the basis of increased resistance against compression and therefore better preservation of thickness and volume. Displaced fibers 6 having thermally bonded loose ends, and the method of their formation will be described in more detail below.

As shown in figure 5, the displaced fibers 6 in the second regions 4 provide a thickness of greater than the thickness 32 of the basics in the first area 2 (which is essentially the same as the thickness of the baseline). The size and shape of the second regions 4, containing the displaced fibers 6 may be different, depending on the technology used for their formation. Figure 5 presents a cross section of a fragment of a structured framework 21 on which you can see the displaced fibers 6 in the second region 4. Due to displacement of fibers 6 a structured basis 21 second areas 4 acquires the increased thickness 34. As shown in this drawing, the thickness of the 34 areas with displaced fibers larger than the thickness 32 of the first region. Preferably, the thickness of the 34 areas with displaced fibers was at least 110% greater than the thickness 32 of the first region, more preferably at least 125%, and most preferably at least 150% greater than the thickness 32 of the first region is. The thickness of 34 after aging areas with displaced fibers is from 0.1 mm to 5 mm, preferably from 0.2 mm to 2 mm, and most preferably from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm

The number of second regions 4 with displaced fibers 6 per unit area of the structured framework 21 can vary, as shown in figure 3. In General, their number per unit area basis does not have to be constant over the entire area of the structured framework 21. So, the second region 4 can be located only in certain areas of the structured framework 21, for example in regions having a defined shape, such as lines, stripes, circles, and other structures.

As shown in figure 3, the total area occupied by the second regions 3, is less than 75%, preferably less than 50%, and even more preferably less than 25% of the total area basis, but not less than 10% of the area of the base. The size of the second regions 4 and the distance between the second regions 4 can vary. Figure 3 and 4 marked length 36", width 38 and distance 37 and 39 between the second regions 4. The distance 39 between the second regions 4 in the direction of motion in the machine (MD), as shown in figure 3, is preferably from 0.1 mm to 1000 mm, more preferably from 0.5 mm to 100 mm, and most preferably from 1 mm to 10 mm, the Distance 37 between the lateral sides of the second regions 4 in the direction along erachem with respect to the direction of motion in the machine (CD), is from 0.2 mm to 16 mm, preferably from 0.4 mm to 10 mm, more preferably from 0.8 mm to 7 mm, and most preferably from 1 mm to 5.2 mm

As shown in figure 1, the structured base 21 may be formed from a generally flat, two-dimensional non-woven baseline 20 supplied from the feed roller 152. The base 20 of the apparatus 150 is fed in the direction of motion in the machine (MD) in the gap 116 between the toothed rollers 104 and 102A forming the displaced fibers 6 having the free ends 18. Thus obtained structured framework 21 with displaced fibers 6 can additionally be fed into the gap 117 between the roller 104 and the crimping roller 156, which is the bond of the free ends 18 of the displaced fibers 6 with each other. After that designed a structured basis roller 22 B (as additionally possible) can be removed from the roller 104 and fed into the gap 119 between the platen P and the crimping roller 158, resulting in a structured basis 23 containing optionally bonded area, which ultimately served on the receiving roller 160 for storage. Although in figure 1 the sequence of steps described above for the original foundations, the fibers of which are not yet fully bonded, describe the tion above method, it is desirable to pay, so that the bonded areas in the original basis was formed before the formation of the displaced fibers 6. In such embodiments the base 20 is supplied with a feed roller that is similar to the receiving roller 160 depicted in figure 1, the gap 119 between the platen P and the crimping roller 158, which is the bond of the fibers of the basics before it is supplied to the clearance between the inlet engages the rollers F and 104, which are formed displaced fibers 6 having the free ends 18 of the second regions 4.

Although figure 1 shows that the base 20 is supplied with the feed roller 152, the base can also be supplied in any other way, for example it can be folded garland, as typically used in the art. In one of the embodiments of the base 20 may be supplied directly from the device on which you are painting, for example from the line of manufacturing non-woven cloth.

As shown in figure 1, the first surface 12 corresponds to the first side of the original framework 20 and the first side structured framework 21. The second surface 14 corresponds to the second side of the original framework 20 and the second side structured framework 21. In the context of the present description, the term "party" is used in the conventional sense to refer to the two main surfaces in C the scrap two-dimensional paintings, including non-woven fabrics. The base 20 is a nonwoven containing essentially randomly oriented fibers, i.e. fibers oriented randomly at least in relation to the directions of MD and CD. By "essentially arbitrary orientation" refers to an arbitrary orientation in which, because of the nature of weaving, more fibers can be oriented in the direction of the MD than in the direction of the CD, or Vice versa. For example, in the fabrication of fiber type spunbond or blowing of fibers from the melt strands of continuous fibers are placed on a support, the moving direction MD. Despite attempts to make the orientation of the fibers in non-woven cloths of fiber type spunbond or fibers blown from the melt, really "random", actually, as a rule, somewhat higher percentage of fibers oriented in the direction of the MD than in the direction of the CD.

In some embodiments of the present invention may be desirable that a significant percentage of the fibers have a specific orientation relative to the direction MD in the plane of the canvas. For example, it may be desirable, because of the location of the teeth on the platen 104 and the distance between them (as will be described in more detail below)to produce a non-woven fabric with the predominant orientation of filaments is in the direction forming an angle of 60° with the longitudinal axis of the blade. These canvases can be made by ways of imposing canvases overlap at a certain angle and, if necessary, subsequent cardownie obtained multilayer fabric. In the canvas, containing a higher percentage of fibers oriented at a certain angle, due to the statistical proportions greater number of fibers may be prone to bias when forming a structured framework 21 as will be described in more detail below.

The base 20 may be supplied directly from the technological process of weaving, or indirectly with the feed roller 152, as shown in figure 1. The base 20 may be preheated in any manner used in the art, for example, from the rollers heated by oil or electricity. For example, the roller 154 can be heated to preheat baseline 20 before the phase offset of the fibers.

As shown in figure 1, the feed roller 152 is rotated in the direction indicated by the arrow, and the base 20 moves in the direction of motion in the machine (MD) around the roller 154 in the gap 116 between the first pair rotating in opposite directions and are in engagement with each other rollers 102A and 104. Rollers 102A and 104 are the first pair of nahodyashihsya engagement with each other rollers of the device 150. The first pair are in engagement with each other rollers 102A and 104 is intended for formation of the displaced fibers and facilitate rupture of the fibers in the original base 20, and passing through them, the original basis is converted into a structured basis, hereinafter referred to as structured framework 21. Included in engagement with each other rollers 102A and 104 more clearly shown in figure 2.

Figure 2 is presented in more detail component device 150, intended for the formation of biased fibers in a structured framework 21 in accordance with the present invention. This component is generally indicated as a pair of rollers 100 and includes a pair of members engaged with each other rollers 102 and 104 (corresponding rollers 102A and 104 in figure 1), each of which rotates around its axis a and axis And parallel to each other and lie in the same plane. Although the device 150 is constructed so that the base 20 remains on the platen 104 within a certain angle of rotation, as in figure 2, this angle is virtually absent, however, figure 2 shows that, in principle, occurs when the passage of the baseline 20 through the gap 116 device 150 and the output from it in the form of a structured framework 21, having a region with a displaced fibers 6. Included in engagement with each other, the rollers can be made from metal is and or plastic. Non-limiting examples of metals from which can be manufactured rollers are aluminum and steel. Non-limiting examples of plastic materials for the manufacture of rollers are polycarbonate, Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and Polyphenylene-oxide. In plastic materials as fillers can be used metals or other inorganic additives.

As shown in figure 2, the platen 102 contains many ridges 106 and, accordingly, the grooves 108, which can be extended in a continuous manner in circles lateral surface of the platen 102. In some embodiments, depending on the desired patterns formed in a structured base 21, the platen 102 (and thus the roller 102A) may contain ridges 106, part of which has been removed, for example, by etching, by stitching or other methods of metal processing, so that some or all of the ridges 106 will not be continuously extended in circles lateral surface of the platen, and they will have breaks or gaps. Gaps or clearances can be arranged so that they will form some structure, including simple geometric patterns in the form of circles or diamonds, as well as more complex structures in the form of logos or trademarks. In one of the embodiments of the platen 102 can have teeth similar to the teeth on the platen 104, is the quiet will be described in more detail below. Due to this, you can get shifted fiber on both sides 12 and 14 of a structured framework 21.

The design of the roller 104 in a generally similar construction roll 102, with the difference that instead of the ridges, continuously extended along the side surface, the platen 104 contains many rows of ridges that extends over the side surface, but modified in such a way that they will be more likely to represent the set of teeth 110, spaced to each other in directions along the circumferences of the side surface, and occupying at least part of the roller 104. Separate rows of teeth 110 of roll 104 are separated from each other by grooves 112. When the device is platens 102 and 104 are engaged with each other so that the ridges 106 of the roller 102 come into the grooves 112 of the roller 104, and the teeth 110 of roll 104 come into the grooves 108 of the roller 102. The nature of the engagement of the rollers shown in more detail in section 7 and will be described in more detail below. One or both of the rollers 102 and 104 can be heated by methods traditionally used in the art, for example, by filling the rolls with hot oil, or by electrical heating platens.

As shown in figure 3, the structured base 21 has a first region 2 formed in a generally flat on both sides, two-dimensional plots structured framework 21, repeat the sponding configuration baseline 20, and many of discrete second regions 4 formed spatially separated displaced fibers 6 and 16 violations of continuity, which can be obtained by structural strain baseline 20. The structure of the second regions 4 different on different sides of a structured framework 21. In the embodiment structured framework 21, is shown in figure 3, side a structured framework 21 that corresponds to the first surface 12 a structured framework 21, each of the second regions 4 can contain many displaced fibers 6, extended outward from the first surface 12 and having the free ends 18. Displaced fibers 6 contain fibers having a significant orientation in the Z-direction, and each of displaced fibers 6 has a base 5, which is located on the first side 11 of the second region 4 proximally relative to the first surface 12, the free end 18, formed as a result of breakage of the fibers on the second side 13 region 4, located opposite the first side 11 proximally relative to the first surface 12, and the distal portion 3 located at a maximum distance along the Z axis from the first surface 12. On the side of the structured framework 21 corresponding to the second surface 14, the second region 4 contains 16 violations of the continuity of the second surface 14 of the structured OS is Ovi 21. Violations 16 continuity correspond to the places where the teeth 110 of roll 104 pass through the source base 20.

In the context of the present description, the term "structural", as, for example, in the combination of "structural stretched", used to describe the second regions 4, refers to the fibers of the second regions 4, fibers originating from baseline 20. In this sense, broken fibers 8 from the number of displaced fibers 6 may be, for example, plastically deformed and/or stretched fibers baseline 20, and therefore can be structurally integral with the first area 2 a structured framework 21. In other words, some, but not all fiber is broken, and these fibers were present in the original base 20 from the very beginning. In the context of the present description of the structural fibers to be distinguished from fibers, introduced or added to separate them from the original painting with the aim of obtaining shifted fibers. Although in some embodiments the structured bases 21, 22 and 23 in accordance with the present invention can be used such added fiber, in the preferred embodiments of the broken fibers 8 from the number of displaced fibers 6 are structural in relation to a structured framework 21.

The base 20, the most suitable for making it a structured framework 21 with regard to the availa able scientific C with the present invention, that is containing broken fibers 8 among the displaced fibers 6, preferably should contain fibers having sufficiently low mobility and/or the limit of plastic deformation, so that they break and could have formed their free ends 18. Such fibers correspond to fibers with free ends 18, depicted in figure 4 and 5. In accordance with the present invention having free ends 18 of the displaced fibers 6, it is desirable for the formation of voids or free volume, which may be collected liquid. In a preferred embodiment at least 50%, more preferably at least 70%but less than 100% of the fibers extruded in the Z-direction is broken fibers 8, with the free ends 18.

The second regions 4 may be attached to the form, with the result that they will form certain patterns in the X-Y plane and the Z plane, with different shapes, sizes and distribution, to ensure distribution of the specific volume of a structured framework 21 in its area.

Typical second region containing the displaced fibers 6 of one of the embodiments of the structured framework 21 shown in figure 2, in a more enlarged view shown in Fig.3-6. Displaced fibers 6 are formed with elongated teeth 110 of roll 104 and contain a lot of broken filaments is 8, essentially oriented in such a way that the displaced fibers 6 have a clear longitudinal orientation and the longitudinal axis L. the Displaced fibers 6 are transverse to the axis T, in General, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis L and located in the plane of the MD-CD. In the embodiment shown in figure 2-6, the longitudinal axis L is parallel to the direction MD. In one of the embodiments of all of spatially separated second region 4 are generally parallel to the longitudinal axis L. In preferred embodiments, the second region 4 have a longitudinal orientation, that is, the second region have an elongated shape and are not round. As shown in figure 4, and more clearly on figure 5 and 6, when using elongated teeth 110 on the shaft 104 one of the characteristic features of broken fibers 8 among the displaced fibers 6 in one of the embodiments of the structured framework 21 is the presence of a predominant direction of broken fibers 8. As shown in figure 5 and 6, many of the broken fibers 8 can have essentially the same orientation with respect to the axis T in the top view, as shown in Fig.6. Under "broken" fibers 8, it is understood that the displaced fibers 6 begin on the first side 11 of the second regions 4 and are separated along the second side 13 of the second regions 4, opposite the first side 11, a structured framework 21.

How clear is the essence of the device 150 for forming holes, displaced fibers 6 a structured framework 21 are formed by mechanical deformation of the original framework 20, which in General can be characterized as flat and two-dimensional. Under the characteristics of "flat" and "two-dimensional" means only that the original canvas is flat in contrast to complete a structured framework 1 having an explicit three-dimensional structure caused by the formation therein of the second regions 4 having explicit measurement of Z outside the plane of the canvas. Under the characteristics of "flat" and "two-dimensional" does not mean any specific flatness, smoothness, or any limitation of size. As the baseline 20 through the gap 116, the teeth 110 of roll 104 come into the grooves 108 of the roller 102A and simultaneously push the fibers baseline 20 from its plane, causing the formation of second regions 4, containing the displaced fibers 6 and 16 violations of continuity. In essence, the teeth 110 "pierce" or "pierce" the source base 20. As the tops of the teeth 110 through the source base 20, the sections of fibers oriented predominantly in the direction CD and along the teeth 110, pushed by the teeth 110 of the plane of the baseline 20 and stretch, stretch and/or plastically deformed in the Z-direction, which leads to the formation of the second regions 4, including a broken fiber is 8 among the displaced fibers 6. Fibers predominantly oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis L, i.e. in the direction of MD baseline 20, the teeth 110 can be only dissolved in the hand, and they shall remain in effect in the first area 2 baseline 20.

In the device 100 shown in figure 2, there is only one roller, such as roller 104 having the structure of teeth, while the second roller 102 does not have the structure of teeth, and has only the grooves. However, in some embodiments it may be preferable to use two roller having the structure of teeth, the gap 11 between 6 which served the basis and structure of the teeth on the rollers may be the same or different, are located in the same or in different parts of the surface of the rollers (in the sense of pairing). With such devices it is possible to make paintings with the displaced fibers 6, protruding from both sides of the structured framework 21, and a cloth with embossed microstructure.

The number, sizes displaced fibers 6 and the distance between them can be changed by changing the number of dimensions between the teeth 110 and the distances between them (by making appropriate changes in the design of rollers 104 and/or 102). By changing these settings, select a different source bases 20, and also by changing the parameters of its processing (for example speed sheet processing line), you can get a large variety of structured canvases 21, intended for a variety of purposes.

From the above description of the structured framework 21 you can see that broken fibers 8 from the number of displaced fibers 6 can arise and be extended from the first surface 12 and second surface 14 a structured framework 21. Naturally, broken fibers 8 from the number of displaced fibers 6 can also arise from column 19 a structured framework 21. As shown in figure 5, broken fibers 8 from the number of displaced fibers 6 are extended from the plane of the original paintings due to the fact that they were derived from a generally two-dimensional plane baseline 20 (i.e. in the Z-direction, shown in figure 3). In General, broken fibers 8 or the free ends 18 of the second regions 4 contain fiber, which are structural in relation to the first regions 2 fiber fabric, and are extended from the fibers of the first areas 2 fiber fabric.

Traction broken fibers 8 may be accompanied by a reduction in the size of the fiber cross-section (for example, the diameter of the circular fibers)due to the plastic deformation and effects related to Poisson's ratio. Because of this, some areas of the torn fibers of the number of displaced fibers 6 m who may have a smaller diameter, than the average fiber diameter in the original base 20, and the average diameter of the fibers in the regions 2. It was found that reducing the size of fibers in the cross section is greatest in the areas between the base 5 and the distal part 3 is displaced fibers 6. This is probably due to the fact that the plots are displaced fibers 6, which are located at the base 5 and the distal portion 3, the formation of the displaced fibers 6 are in close proximity to the tops and bases of the teeth 110 of roll 104 (as will be described in more detail below), and in these places during the processing of the fabric, they due to friction forces pressed to the teeth and are virtually immobile. In the present invention the reduction of the sizes of fibers in the cross section is minimal due to the high strength and low elongation fibers.

Figure 7 shows a portion of an axial cross section of incoming engages rollers 102 (102A and B) and 104, respectively, containing ridges 106 and the teeth 110. As can be seen from this drawing, the teeth 110 have a height HS (please note that the height of the ridges 106 are also designated as T, as in the preferred embodiment of the invention the height of the teeth and the height of the ridges are equal), and the teeth 110 (as well as ridges 106) are arranged with a pitch P. the Depth of engagement E, measured from the top of the ridge 106 to the top of the tooth 110 is Velich is Noah, characterizing the depth of engagement of the rollers 102 and 104. The depth E of the mesh, the height HS of teeth and pitch P in a range of devices in accordance with the present invention may be different, depending on the properties of the original framework 20 and the desired characteristics of the structured fabric 21. In General, to obtain broken fibers 8 from the number of displaced fibers 6 required depth of engagement E, sufficient elongation and plastic deformation shifted fibers to such an extent that the fibers are torn. In addition, the higher density of the second regions is required (the number of second regions 4 per unit area of the structured basics 21), the lower should be the step of teeth, the length TL of the tooth and the distance TD between the teeth, as will be described below.

On Fig shows a portion of one of the embodiments of the roller 104 having a lot of teeth, which can be used to obtain a structured canvas 21 (or 1) source of non-woven cloth 20 of fiber type spunbond. Magnified view of teeth 110, depicted in Fig presented on Fig.9. As shown in Fig.9, the teeth 110 have a constant length TL along the circumference side surface of the roller 104 of approximately 1.25 mm measured generally from the leading edge LE to the rear edge of THOSE at the top 111 of the tooth, and spatially separated from each other by one is the same distance TD along the circumferences of the side surface, approximately 1.5 mm For the manufacture of fibrous structured framework 1 from baseline 20 teeth 110 of roll 104 can have a length TL, comprising from about 0.5 mm to about 3 mm, the height of the T constituting from about 0.5 mm to about 10 mm, and the step P can be from about 1 mm (0.40 inches) to about 2.54 mm (0,100"). The depth E of the mesh can be from about 0.5 mm to about 5 mm (up to a maximum, practically equal to the height of the T wave). Of course, that each of the quantities E, P, TH, TD and TL can be changed independently of the others, in order to obtain the desired dimensions of the displaced fibers 6, the intervals between them, and their number per unit area of the structured basics 1.

As shown in figure 9, each of the teeth 110 has a top 111, the leading edge LE and trailing edge TE. The top 111 of the teeth may be rounded (to minimize disruption of the fibers), preferably is elongated and has a generally longitudinal orientation, the respective longitudinal axes L of the second regions 4. You can expect to receive the displaced fibers 6 a structured framework 21 in accordance with the present invention the leading edge LE and trailing edge TE should be almost perpendicular to the adjacent parts of the side surface 120 of the roller 104. In addition, transitions from the top 111 of the tooth to the edges LE and TE should be n the d sharp corners, for example at right angles, with small enough radius to edge LE and THE teeth 110 can pass through the source base 20. In some embodiments, the top 111 of the tooth may have a flat surface for better bonding of the fibers, as will be described below.

Return back to figure 1. After the formation of the displaced fibers 6 a structured base 21 can move forward rotating roller 104 and fed into the gap 117 between the roller 104 and the first fastening roller 156. Using the crimping roller 156 can be bond to the fibers of the canvas using different methods of fastening. For example, the crimping roller 156 may be heated steel roller, indicating to the canvas, in the gap 117, heat, melt and connect with each other adjacent fibers a structured framework 21 in the distal parts of displaced fibers 6.

In the preferred embodiment structured framework (in the context, which will be described in more detail below) crimping roller 156 is heated roller for messages of sufficient thermal energy structured basis 21 for thermal bonding of adjacent fibers arranged in the distal ends of displaced fibers 6. Thermal bonding can be performed by neposredstvennogo melting and bonding of adjacent fibers, or by fusion of thermoplastic bonding agent, such as polyethylene powder, which, in turn, is fused with adjacent fibers. With this purpose to the original base 20 may be added to the polyethylene powder.

The first fastening roller 156 must be heated sufficiently to partially or completely melt the fibers at the distal ends of displaced fibers 6. Required for this purpose, the heat capacity of the first fastening roller 156 will be dependent on the melting characteristics of the displaced fibers 6 and the rotation speed of the platen 104. The amount of heat that must inform the canvas first fastening roller 156, also depends on the pressure developed between the first fastening roller 156 and vertices 111 teeth 110 of roll 104, and the desired degree of melting of the displaced fibers 6 at their distal ends 3.

In one of the embodiments of the first fastening roller 156 is heated steel cylindrical roller, and heated to such an extent that the temperature on its surface is sufficient to melt and bond the adjacent displaced fibers 6. The first fastening roller 156 can be heated using internal resistive electric heating elements, using hot oil or any other appropriate means used for heating the rollers. Per the first fastening roller 156 can be operated using the appropriate motors and drives, traditionally used in the art. The first fastening roller 156 can be mounted on adjustable feet so that you can accurately adjust and set the optimum value of the gap 117.

Figure 10 shows a portion of a structured framework 21 after its treatment in the gap 117, causing it turns into a structured framework 22, which without further processing can also be used as a structured framework 21 in accordance with the present invention. Structured base 22 such structured basis 21, described above, with the difference that the distal ends 3 of the displaced fibers 6 are bonded, preferably thermally bonded at the expense of their fusion, resulting in adjacent fibers are at least partially bonded to form a distally located, bonded by melting the parts 9. After the formation of the displaced fibers 6 using the method described above, the distal portion 3 is displaced fibers 6 can be heated for thermal bonding sites of the fibers, resulting in a part adjacent fibers are connected to each other and are formed is bonded by fusion of sections 9 (this bond is sometimes referred to as "limit bond").

The distally located, bonded by melting the participants and 9 can be formed by application of heat and pressure to the distal parts of displaced fibers 6. Dimensions and weight distally located, bonded by melting sections 9 can be changed by changing the amount of heat inform the distal parts of displaced fibers 6, the speed of movement of the blade in the device 150, and the method of application of heat.

In another embodiment of the distally located, bonded by melting the parts 9 can be performed by application thereto emitted by some source of heat. For example, in one embodiments, the first fastening roller 156 can be replaced by a source of radiant heat energy. So that on a structured basis 21 will be directed radiated thermal energy from such a distance and within such period of time to cause melting or softening located distal sites of the displaced fibers 6. Radiated heat energy can be applied from any known radiative heaters. In one of the embodiments of thermal energy can radiate conductor heating due to its electrical resistance and is situated in relation to a structured base 21 in such a way that it will be extended in the direction CD at a sufficiently close and constant distance from the blade, so that when movement of the blade relative to said guide it emitted heat energy m is Nisha least partially melts the distally located plots displaced fibers 6. In another embodiment of the in close proximity to the distal ends 3 of the displaced fibers 6 can be installed heated steel plate such as iron for Ironing clothes, and this plate will ensure melting of the fibers.

The advantage of the above-described method of processing a structured framework 22 under the action of a small pressure in the gap 117 melt can be subjected to only the distal ends 3 of the displaced fibers 6, and the displaced fibers 6 will not be compressed and Spasenie. Due to this can be made three-dimensional canvas, and its shape can be "fixed" for the subsequent thermal bonding. Moreover, the distally located, sealed fusion (or otherwise) sections 9 can contribute to the preservation of air patterns displaced fibers 6 and the long-term thickness of the structured framework 22 upon application of compressive or shearing forces. For example, a structured basis 22, processed as described above and containing the displaced fibers 6, containing fiber, structural relative to the first region 2, extended from it and having a distally located, bonded by melting the parts 9, may have a better ability to retain the shape after compression on the wound on the feed roller and posleduyushchemu. It can be expected that due to the bonding of adjacent fibers to each other in the distal parts of displaced fibers 6 fibers under compression of the fabric will shrink less arbitrary; that is, the entire structure is displaced fibers 6 will have a tendency to joint movement, and provides better preservation of the thickness after the application of external force, such as compression or shear (for example, when the friction anything on the surface of the fiber). When using web applications that are associated with cleaning various surfaces, bonded distal ends of displaced fibers 6 can also hinder razlamyvaniju structured basics 1 or rolling on her lumps.

In an alternative embodiment of the invention (see figure 1), the base 20 is fed in the direction MD through the roller 154 in the gap 116 between the first pair rotating in opposite directions rollers 102A and 104, the depth of engagement which is between 0.01 inch to 0.15 inch, so there is a partial offset of the fibers, but the fiber breaks insignificant or does not happen. After that, the cloth is fed into the gap 117 between the roller 104 and the crimping roller 156, where the bond peaks partially shifted fibers. After passing through the gap 117 structured base 22 is fed into the gap 118 between the rollers 104 and V, CH is Bina gearing which more than the depth of engagement of the rollers in the gap 116, the result of which is further offset shifted fibers, and there is a rupture of the fibers. In this embodiment of the method of bonding by melting in sections 9 may be subjected to a greater number of displaced fibers 6.

Additional fastening

Additional bond indicates the bond to the fibers by melting, ongoing basis, subject to the offset of the fibers. Additional bond is an additional processing stage of the canvas. Additional bonding may be performed on the production line forming a structured basis, or as a separate process improvement framework.

Additional bond is based on the application of heat and pressure to the fibers for fusing them together in a coherent structure. By "coherent" refers to the structure, which is reproduced along the length of the structured basis, so that the length of the thus treated basics, you can observe a repeating structure. Additional fastening is performed by passing the fundamentals in the gap between rollers under pressure, and at least one of the rollers, and preferably both of the roller are heated. If additional bonding is performed when the source of the Nova already heated, then heating rollers may not be required. Examples of structures formed in additionally bonded areas 11, shown in figa-12f; there are, however, other patterns of additional fasteners. On figa 11 illustrates additional fasteners, forming patterns, continuous in the direction of motion in the machine (MD). On fig.12b 11 illustrates additional fasteners, continuous in the direction MD and in the direction of the CD, so that there is formed a continuous network of regions 11 additional fasteners. This type of structure can be formed in one step (using a single pair of rollers additional bonding), or by using more complex systems of multiple pairs of rollers. On Fig shown with region 11 additional fasteners, discontinuous in the direction of motion in the machine (MD). The structure shown in figs may also include areas 11 additional fastening, long in the direction of the CD and connecting areas fastening, long in the direction of MD, continuous or intermittent manner. On fig.12d 11 illustrates additional fasteners, forming a wavy structure in the direction of MD. On file 11 illustrates additional fasteners, forming patterns in the brickwork, and fig.12f patterns in the form of wavy brick.

Structuredependent bonding does not necessarily have to be evenly distributed across the substrate surface and may have the form, required for particular applications. The total area, on which the bond is less than 75% of the total surface area fiber fabric, preferably less than 50%, more preferably less than 30%, and most preferably less than 25%, but it should be at least 3%.

On Fig displayed some characteristics of additional fasteners. Region 11 additional fastening has a thickness 42, less than the thickness 32 of the first region baseline 20, that is, the thickness, measured between the areas of additional fasteners. Additional fasteners are characterized by their width 44 on a structured basis 21 and the distance 46 between adjacent additionally bonded areas.

The thickness 32 of the first region is preferably from 0.1 mm to 1.5 mm, more preferably from 0.15 mm to 1.3 mm, more preferably from 0.2 mm to 1.0 mm, and most preferably from 0.25 mm to 0.7 mm, the thickness of the 42 areas of additional fastening is preferably from 0.01 mm to 0.5 mm, more preferably from 0.02 mm to 0.25 mm, more preferably from 0.03 mm to 0.1 mm, and most preferably from 0.05 mm to 0.08 mm, Width 44 region 11 additional fastening is preferably from 0.05 mm to 15 mm, more preferably from 0.075 mm to 10 mm, more is preferably from 0.1 mm to 7.5 mm, and most preferably from 0.2 mm to 5 mm, the Gaps 46 between the regions 11 additional fasteners need not be constant throughout a structured framework 21, the minimum and maximum values can range from 0.2 mm to 16 mm, preferably from 0.4 mm to 10 mm, more preferably from 0.8 mm to 7 mm, and most preferably from 1 mm to 5.2 mm Concrete value width 44, the thickness of the 42 areas 11 additional fasteners and gaps 46 between them are chosen depending on the desired properties of the structured framework 21 in particular, resistance to tear and properties absorption and distribution of liquid.

On Fig schematically shows that the field of 11 additional fasteners, characterized by a thickness of 42, can be formed on one side of the structured framework 21. On Fig it is shown that the field of 11 additional fasteners can be formed on both sides of a structured framework 21 by selecting the corresponding method of making a structured framework 21. The presence of areas 11 additional fasteners on both sides 12 and 14 of a structured framework 21 may be, for example, it is expedient, for example, when a structured basis is used in combination with other non-woven materials. The formation of tunnels, which can sposob who participate further enhancing the characteristics of absorption and distribution of the liquid. For example, such structured on both sides of the framework can be used in multilayer products designed to absorb large amounts of fluid.

The method further fastening

As you can see from the diagram of the device shown in figure 1, the structured base 23 may be bonded areas that are outside of the distal parts of displaced fibers 6 (or not only in the distal parts of displaced fibers 6). For example, when using a roller with grooves instead of the roller 156 that is used for bonding and having a smooth cylindrical surface, you can seal other parts of the structured framework 23, for example, the sites on the first surface 12 of the first regions 2, located at intervals between the second regions 4. So, for example, on the first side 12 between the rows of displaced fibers 6 can be formed in a continuous line sealed by melting of the material. Such continuous lines are bonded by melting the material can form region 11 additional fasteners described above.

Although this drawing shows one of the first crimping roller 156, at this stage of the processing method of the canvas can be used a greater number of crimping rollers, that is, the bonding can be done in a number of gaps 117 and/or RA is personal types of crimping rollers 156. Furthermore, in addition to performing the function of fastening, such rollers can be used for deposition of various substances on the baseline 20 or structured base 21, for example of different substances for their surface treatment and give them different functional properties. For carrying out such processing can be used with any method used in this technical field.

After passing through the gap 117 structured base 22 is fed into the gap 118 between the rollers 104 and V, and roller W preferably is identical to the roller 102A. The aim of passing the fabric around the roller W is removing a structured framework 22 with the roller 104 without damaging formed therein displaced fibers 6. As the platen B is engaged with the platen 104 in the same manner as the roller 102A, displaced fibers 6 can be aligned with the grooves 108 in the shaft W as a structured basis 22 will turn around the roller B. After passing through the gap 118, the structured base 22 can gather around a take-up roll for storage and further processing as a structured framework 23 in accordance with the present invention. However, in the embodiment depicted in figure 1, the structured base 22 is fed into the gap 119 between the platen P and the second clamping roller 158. In the second crimping roller 158 may be by design, identical to the first fastening roller 156. The second fastening roller 158 can provide enough heat for at least partial melting of some part of the second surface 14 a structured framework 22 and forming in her many non-intersecting essentially continuous regions 11 additional fasteners, appropriate places in the application to the cloth of the pressure in the gap 119 between the tops of the ridges 106 of the roller B and generally smooth cylindrical surface 158.

The second fastening roller 158 can be used as the sole fastening a roller in the processing method of the canvas (i.e. without the formation of a structured framework 22 by fastening the distal ends of displaced fibers 6). In this case, structured base 22 is structured by a base 23 with bonded areas that are located on the second side 14. However, it is preferable that a structured basis 23 was a structured framework 22 with additional double bond, that is, having a sealed distal ends of displaced fibers 6 (end bond) and many non-intersecting, essentially continuous, sealed by melting areas on its first side 12 and second side 14.

Finally, after forming a structured framework 23, it can be collected on a take-up roll 160 DL the storage and subsequent use as a component of various products.

In an alternative embodiment to a structured base 21 may be added to the second pillar 21A, using the method depicted in figa. The second pillar 21A may be a film, nonwoven material or the second source basis described above. In this embodiment the base 20 is fed in the direction of motion in the machine (MD) around the roller 154 in the gap 116 between the first pair rotating in opposite directions rollers 102A and 104, which are offset fibers and their gap. After that, the cloth is fed into the gap 117 between the roller 104 and the crimping roller 156, where you can enter the second pillar 21A and fastened to the distal portions 3 are displaced fibers 6. After passing through the gap 117 structured base 22 is fed into the gap 118 between the rollers 104 and V, the depth of the engagement between them is equal to zero, so that the rollers 104 and V are not in engagement, or the depth of their engagement may be less than the depth of engagement in the gap 116 between the rollers 102A and 104, so that in a structured basis, there will be no additional bias fibers. Or, in this embodiment, the depth of engagement of the rollers in the gap 118 may be set such that the second base 21A will be deformation, but in a structured base 22, there will be no additional bias fibers. In any case, opertion is on the engagement of the rollers in the gap 118 must be less than the depth of engagement of the rollers in the gap 116.

Materials

The compositions used for forming fibers baseline in accordance with the present invention may include a thermoplastic polymer and neuroplasticity polymeric materials. Thermoplastic polymeric materials must have rheological characteristics suitable for extruding fibers from their melts. The molecular weight of the polymer must be large enough for the possibility of entanglement of polymer molecules with each other, on the one hand, and small enough to pull the fibers from the melt, on the other hand. To the melt of the polymer to pull the fibers, thermoplastic polymer should have a molecular weight less than about 1000000 g/mol, preferably from about 5,000 g/mol to about the 750,000 g/mol, more preferably from about 10,000 g/mol to about 500000 g/mol and even more preferably from about 50000 g/mol to about 400,000 g/mol. Unless otherwise stated, under the molecular weight is understood srednetsenovoj molecular weight.

Thermoplastic polymeric materials should harden quickly, preferably in the stretching process, and to form a thermally stable fiber structure, as it usually happens in traditionally used processes with the supply of staple fibers or continuous manufacturing of fibers in the process type spunbond. Preferred polymeric materials include, but are not limited to: polypropylene and copolymers of polypropylene, polyethylene and copolymers of polyethylene, polyesters and copolymers of polyesters, polyamide, polyimide, polylactic acid, polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyvinyl alcohol, ethylene-vinyl alcohol, polyacrylates and their copolymers and mixtures. Other suitable polymeric materials include compositions based on thermoplastic starch, described in more detail in patent publications U.S. 2003/0109605 A1 and 2003/0091803. Other suitable polymeric materials include ethylene-acrylic acid, copolymers of polyolefins and carboxylic acids, and combinations thereof, such as polymers described in U.S. patent 6746766, 6818295, 6946506 and patent application U.S. 03/0092343. Preferred are thermoplastic polymeric materials suitable for the manufacture of these fibers, of which first of all it should be noted resin on polyester based resin polypropylene based, resin-based polylactic acid resin-based polyhydroxyalkanoate, resin-based polyethylene and combinations thereof. Most preferred are resins based on polyester and polypropylene.

Non-limiting examples of thermoplastic polymers suitable for use in accordance with the present invention include aliphati the definition of polyetherimide; aliphatic polyesters, aromatic polyesters, including polyethylene-terephtalate (PET) and their copolymers (co-PET), polybutylene-terephthalate and their copolymers, polytrimethylene-terephthalate and their copolymers, polypropylene-terephthalate and their copolymers; polyethylene and its copolymers; aliphatic/aromatic co-polyesters; polycaprolactones; poly(hydroxyalkanoate), including poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate), poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hexanoate) and other poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-alkanoate), described in U.S. patent 5498692 (author Noda)names mentioned in this document to refer; polyesters and polyurethanes, derivatives of aliphatic polyols (dialkanolamine polymers; polyamides; copolymers of ethylene and vinyl alcohol; lactic acid polymers, including homopolymers and copolymers of lactic acid; polymers of lactides, including homopolymers and copolymers of lactides; polymers of glycolide, including homopolymers and copolymers of glycolide; and mixtures thereof. Preferred are aliphatic polyetheramine, aliphatic polyesters, aliphatic/aromatic co-polyesters, polymers of lactic acid, polymers of lactic acid and polymers of lactides.

Suitable polymers of lactic acid and lactides include homopolymers and copolymers of lactic acid and/or lactides with srednevekovoi molecular weight from prima is but 10000 g/mol to about 600000 g/mol, preferably from about 30000 g/mol to about 400,000 g/mol, more preferably from about 50000 g/mol to about 200,000 g/mol. Examples of suitable polymers of lactic acid include various polylactic acid production Chronopol Incorporation (Golden, Colorado, USA), and polylactide offered under the trade name EcoPLA®. Examples of suitable polylactic acids include NATUREWORKS products manufacturing Cargill Dow and LACEA production Mitsui Chemical. Preferred are homopolymers or copolymers of polylactic acid having a melting point of from about 160°to about 175°C. May also be used modified polylactic configuration and different stereometric isoforms, such as, for example, poly-L-lactic acid and poly-D,L-lactic acid with a content of D-isomer up to 75%. Preferred is also the use of racemic mixtures of D - and L-isomers, which can be obtained polymers polylactic acid having a high melting point. Such polymers are a special group of copolymers of polylactic acid (in the sense that D-isomers, L-isomers are considered sterically different monomers)having a melting point above 180°C. Such a high temperature melting is achieved by a special control sizes obrazuyuscikh the crystals, providing an increase in average temperature of melting.

Depending on the specific type of polymer, the method of manufacturing fibers and final destination of the fibers, if necessary, can be used not one polymer, and a greater number of polymers. Various polymers in the composition of the fibers in accordance with the present invention may be present in quantities that ensure the improvement of the mechanical properties of the fiber, the desired transparency of the fiber, the desired nature of the interaction of the liquid with the fibers, and promoting the best melting and thinning of the fibers. The choice of the type of polymer and its amount in the composition of the fiber also affects the possibility of thermal bonding fibers, and the softness and texture of the final product. Fiber in accordance with the present invention may contain a single polymer, a mixture of polymers or to be multicomponent fibers, containing more than one polymer. Fiber in accordance with the present invention is made with thermal bonding

Can also be used in multi-component mixtures. So, for example, fibers can be obtained by stretching them from mixtures of polyethylene and polypropylene (such mixtures are referred as "polymer alloys"). Another suitable example is a mixture of polyesters having different is Chou viscosity or different polymer composition. Multicomponent fibers can also be manufactured in such a way that their various components will contain a mixture of chemically different polymers. Non-limiting examples of such mixtures include a mixture containing a mixture of polypropylene with a melt flow index (MFR) 25 and polypropylene MFR 50, and a mixture of homopolymer polypropylene MFR 25 and copolymer MFR 25 polypropylene and ethylene co monomer.

Preferred polymeric materials have a melting point above 110°C, more preferred above 130°C., even more preferred above 145°C., even more preferred above 160°C., and most preferred is above 200°C. Even more preferred for use in this invention are polymers with a high glass transition temperature. Preferred are polymers having a glass transition temperature of the final fiber is above -10°C, more preferred above 0°C, even more preferred above 20°C., and most preferred is above 50°C. This combination of properties allows to obtain fibers that are resistant to higher temperatures. Examples of such materials are polypropylene, polymers based on polylactic acid polymer compositions based on polyethylene-terephthalate.

Additional materials

In the polymer composition to exhaust the deposits of fiber and subsequent manufacturing of these baseline can be entered as additional ingredients. Such additional materials may be introduced to facilitate the processing of material and/or to change its physical properties, such as, for example, transparency, elasticity, resistance to stretching and soaking, and the modulus of elasticity of the final product. Other benefits of the introduced additives include, but are not limited to: stability against oxidation and other factors, brightness, color, flexibility, elasticity, suitability for different types of processing, viscosity and absorption of odors. Examples of additional input materials include, but are not limited to: titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, color pigments, and combinations thereof. Other types of additives are inorganic compounds that may be included as inexpensive fillers or substances that facilitate the processing, and include, but are not limited to: oxides of magnesium, aluminum, silicon and titanium. Other suitable inorganic additives include, but are not limited to: magnesium hydrosilicate, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, clay, chalk, boron nitride, limestone, diatomaceous earth, mica, glass, quartz and ceramics. In addition, there may be used inorganic salts, including, but not limited to: salts of alkali metals, salts of alkaline earth metals and phosphates.

In the polymer of the first composition may also be added other ingredients. Such ingredients may be present in amount comprising less than about 50%, preferably from about 0.1% to about 20%, and more preferably from about 0.1% to about 12% by weight of the composition. Additional materials may be used to facilitate processing of the material and/or to change its physical properties, such as, for example, transparency, elasticity, tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity of the final product. Other benefits of the introduced additives include, but are not limited to: stability against oxidation and other factors, brightness, color, flexibility, elasticity, suitability for different types of processing, viscosity and absorption of odors. Non-limiting examples of additives include salt, additives reduce friction, accelerators or retarders crystallization, deodorants, substances that promote crosslinking, emulsifiers, surfactants, cyclodextrins, lubricants, and other substances that facilitate processing of the substance, the amplifying optical brightness, antioxidants, flame retardants, dyes, pigments, fillers, proteins and their alkali salts, waxes, resins, increase stickiness, substances that enhance compliance, and mixtures thereof. Substance reduce friction, reduce stickiness in the curl or coefficient of friction. In addition, substance reduce friction, can contribute to the sustainability of fibers, especially in conditions of high humidity and temperature. A suitable substance, in order to decrease the friction, is polyethylene. In the polymer composition can also be added to thermoplastic starch. Especially important additives include antistatic agents, reducing the formation of static electric charges at the time of manufacture and during use of thermoplastic polyester material, in particular polyethylene-terephthalate. Preferred additives of this type are substances that present acetaldehyde and acetic acid, ethoxylated esters of sorbitol, esters of glycerol, alkyl-sulfonates, and combinations, mixtures and derivatives.

Other types of additives are inorganic compounds that may be included as inexpensive fillers or substances that facilitate the processing, and include, but are not limited to: oxides of magnesium, aluminum, silicon and titanium. Other suitable inorganic additives include, but are not limited to: magnesium hydrosilicate, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, clay, chalk, boron nitride, limestone, diatomaceous earth, mica, glass, quartz and ceramics. In addition, as substances that facilitate the processing, can be used inorganic salts on the tea, but not limited to: salts of alkali metals, salts of alkaline earth metals and phosphates. Another type of additives are materials that modify the response of the fibers of a blend of thermoplastic starch in water. Such additives include salt-based stearates, such as stearates, sodium, magnesium and other stearates, as well as rosin and other components based on rosin such as gum rosin.

In the polymer composition may contain substances which increase the hydrophilicity. Substances that increase the hydrophilicity, can be introduced by methods traditionally used in the art. Substances that increase the hydrophilicity can be polymeric materials or compositions having low molecular weight. Substances that increase the hydrophilicity may also be polymeric materials having a relatively large molecular weight. Substances that increase the hydrophilicity may be present in the polymer composition in an amount from 0.01 wt.% up to 90 wt.%, preferably from 0.1 wt.% up to 50 wt.%, and even more preferably from 0.5 wt.% up to 10 wt.%. A substance that increases the hydrophilicity can be added to the original composition of the polymer in its manufacture, or may be fed into the extruder, or it can be added into the extruder as a filler at the stage of formation of the fibers. The preferred types of vases is in, increasing the hydrophilicity are polyester-polyethers, copolymers, polyester-polyethers and non-ionic polyether compounds for polymers based on polyesters. Can also be added ethoxylated polyolefin compound having a low or high molecular weight. These materials can also be added substance that improves the compatibility, which allows to obtain a more homogeneous polymer composition and facilitates the handling of such a polymer. Well-versed in the art it is known that by adding substances that increase the compatibility, at the stage of formation of the polymer composition, it is possible to obtain polymer compositions containing molten additives, which source is not inherent affinity to the primary structure of the polymer. For example, the resin of the simple polypropylene can be connected with hydrophilic copolymer polyester-polyester using malaysiavideo polypropylene as substances that enhance compatibility.

Fiber

The fibers that form the underlying basis in accordance with the present invention may be single-component or multi-component. In the context of the present description, the term "fiber" is defined as a form of hardened polymer, the ratio of the length to the width of which exceeds 1 000. Multi-component fibers in accordance with this is Subramaniam can also be complex. Under trains in this case refers to the number of different chemical substances or materials in the fiber. In particular, in the context of the present description of the multi-layer fiber" means a fiber that contains more than one chemically distinct substance or material. In the context of the present description, the terms "multi-polymer" and "polymer alloys" have the same meaning and can be used as mutually substitute each other. In General, the fibers may be single-component and multicomponent. In the context of the present description "component" is defined as a separate part of the fiber, characterized by a certain spatial location relative to another part of the fiber. In the context of the present description, the term "multi-component" means that the fiber has more than one separate part, which is characterized by a certain spatial location relative to one of the other parts of the fiber. The term "multicomponent fiber" includes bicomponent fibers are defined as fibers having two separate parts, which is characterized by a certain spatial location relative to each other. The various components of the multicomponent fibers are distinguishable from other areas in the cross section of the fiber and are continuously during the tion along the entire length of the fiber. Methods of making multi-component fibers are well known versed in the art. A method of manufacturing a multicomponent fibers by extrusion were well developed in the 1960's. A leader in developing technologies for the production of multicomponent fibers was DuPont, and in U.S. patent 3 244785 and 3 704971 describes the technology of the production of such fibers. theoretical foundations for the production of two-component fibers are given in the publication "Bicomponent Fibers" by R. Jeffries, Merrow publishing house Publishing, 1971). More recent publications include "Taylor-Made Polypropylene and Bicomponent Fibers for the Nonwoven Industry," Tappi Journal, December 1991 (str) and Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology", edited by Nakajima, publishing Woodhead Publishing.

Non-woven fabrics formed in accordance with the present invention, can contain many types of multicomponent fibers, supplied with different extruder through the same pipe. Extrusion system in this case is a multi-component extrusion system that applies different polymers in different capillaries. So, for example, from one extruder may be made of polyethylene-terephthalate, and the other with a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer, and these two components can vary melting. In the second example, one extruder can submit a polyethylene-terephthalates, and the second polypropylene. In the third example, a single extruder may submit the first polyethylene terephthalate resin, and the second - second polyethylene terephthalate resin, different from the first polyethylene terephthalate resin molecular weight. The ratio of the quantities of various polymers in this type of systems can range from 95:5 to 5:95, preferably from 90:10 to 10:90 and 80:20 to 20:80.

Components component fibers and multicomponent fibers can be arranged in parallel to each other, in the form of core and shell, in the form of segments of a circle, multicolor ribbon, islets in the sea, other configurations and combinations thereof. The shell around the nucleus may be continuous or intermittent. Non-limiting examples of the layout of the components of multi-component fibers described in U.S. patent 6746766. The ratio of the weight of the shell to the weight of the core can be from about 5:95 to about 95:5. Fiber in accordance with the present invention can have different shapes in cross-section, including, but not limited to: round, elliptical, star-shaped, three, multipartite (from 3 to 8 parts), rectangular, H-shaped, C-shaped, I-shaped, U-shaped, and various bizarre forms. You can also use hollow fiber. Fiber round and three-part forms can also be hollow.

In context, this is the first description of "highly refined fiber" is defined as a fiber having a high index of traction. The total stretching of the fiber is defined as the ratio of the maximum fiber diameter (fiber, as a rule, is immediately after the exit of the capillary) to the final diameter of the fiber at the time of its end use.

The total stretching of the fiber should be greater than 1.5, preferably greater than 5, more preferably higher than 10, and most preferably higher than 12. It is necessary to provide the desired tactile and mechanical properties of the canvas.

"Fiber diameter" for profiled fiber in accordance with the present invention is defined as the diameter of the circle circumscribed around the outer edge section of the blade. For hollow fiber diameter is determined not as the diameter of the cavity, and as the diameter of the circle circumscribed around the outer edge of the solid part. For fibers of noncircular cross section, the diameter of the fibers is defined as the diameter of the circle circumscribed around the most extreme points of its shares or edges. The diameter of this circumcircle sometimes also referred to as the "effective fiber diameter". Highly refined multicomponent fiber should preferably have an effective diameter less than 500 μm, more preferably not more than 250 μm, even more preferably not more than 100 μm, and Naib is more preferably not more than 50 μm. Fibers used for the production of nonwoven fabrics, as a rule have an effective diameter of from about 5 microns to about 30 microns. Fibers used for the present invention are generally somewhat larger in diameter than the fibers in a conventional non-woven cloths of fiber type spunbond. Namely, fibers having an effective diameter less than about 10 μm, are not used. Fibers used for the present invention have an effective diameter greater than about 10 μm, preferably greater than about 15 microns, and most preferably greater than about 20 microns. The desired fiber diameter is ensured by the choice of the speed of the stretching of the fibers, the mass flow rate of the polymer and the composition of the mixture. When the fibers in accordance with the present invention are collected in a separate layer, this layer can be used in combination with additional layers that may contain fibers of a smaller diameter and even nanofibres.

The term "diameter fiber type spunbond" refers to fibers having an effective diameter of about 12.5 μm to about 50 μm. This diameter of the fibers is provided by most types of standard equipment for the manufacture of fiber type spunbond. Micrometer (μm) and micron mean the same value and can be used as terms, saime substitute each other. The diameter of the fibers blown from the melt is less than the diameter of the fiber type spunbond. Typically, the fibers blown from the melt, have a diameter from about 0.5 μm to about 12.5 μm. Fibers blown from the melt, preferably, should have a diameter from about 1 μm to about 10 μm.

Because the diameter of the shaped fibers can be rather difficult to define, often use the indicator "dpf" index "denier" on one fiber. The dpf indicator is calculated as the weight of the fiber in grams, corresponding to 9000 meters of its length. The relationship between fiber diameter and its indicator dpf depends on the density of the fiber material. For the present invention, it is preferable to use fibers having a dpf indicator, greater than 1 and less than 100, more preferably from 1.5 dpf to 50 dpf, more preferably from 2.0 to 20 dpf dpf, and most preferably from 4 to 10 dpf dpf. As an example of the relationship between the indicator dpf and diameter can bring that solid fiber 1 dpf circular cross-section made of polypropylene having a specific gravity about to 0.900 g/cm3has a diameter of approximately 12,55 mm.

For the present invention it is desirable that the fibers had limited stretchability and sufficient stiffness to resist compressive forces. Fiber in accordance with the present invention should have the ü tensile strength, greater than about 5 Gauss on one fiber. Properties tensile fibers can be measured using the method generally described in ASTM D 3822-91, or equivalent, but the actual measurement procedure that was used for testing fibers in accordance with the present invention will be fully described below. Module extension (primary extension tensile according to ASTM D 3822-91, unless specified otherwise) should be more than 0.5 GPA, more preferably more than 1.5 GPA, even more preferably more than 2.0 GPA, and most preferably more than 3.0 GPA. Higher modulus strain are more rigid fibers, providing a more stable unit volume. Examples will be given below.

In accordance with the present invention, the fibers may be attached to the desired hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity. The initial polymer resin may have hydrophilic properties due to its copolymerization (as in the case of some types of polyesters (e.g., family sohopolitico EASTONE production Eastman Chemical), or polyolefins, such as polypropylene or polyethylene), or the original resin can be made hydrophilic by introducing the appropriate additives. Examples of such additives are additives family Irgasuri production CIBA. To impart hydrophilicity of the fiber in accordance with the laws the AI with the present invention can be appropriately treated or coated after fabrication. In accordance with the present invention, it is preferable to sustainable hydrophilic. Sustainable hydrophilicity is defined as a property of the canvas to keep hydrophilic characteristics after more than one interaction with the fluid and can be determined using the following tests. On the test sample pour the water. If the sample is wet, it is inherently hydrophilic. After that the sample is fully rinsed with water and dried. Rinsing is best done by placing the sample in a large tank with water and shaking it there for 10 seconds, after which the sample is dried. Stable hydrophilic sample with repeated contact with water should again become wet.

Fiber in accordance with the present invention are thermally stable. thermal stability of the fiber is defined as committing less than 30% shrinkage in boiling water, more preferably less than 20% shrinkage, and most preferably less than 10% shrinkage. Some fiber in accordance with the present invention shrinkage less than 5%. Shrinkage is determined by measuring the length of the fiber before and after placing it in boiling water for one minute. Highly refined fibers to obtain thermally stable fibers.

The fiber used for the source basis in accordance with the crust is Asim invention, may have, among other cross-section shapes, solid round, hollow round, three different forms. A mixture of shaped fibers having a cross-sectional shape that is different from each other, is defined as a set of at least two fibers having the cross-sectional shape, quite different from each other when considering them in a scanning tunneling microscope. For example, both of the two fibers can have a three-part form, however, one fiber can have a three-part form with long legs, and the second three-part form with short legs. And although this is not preferred, profiled fiber can vary the fact that one of them is hollow, and the second is full-bodied, even if the overall shape of their cross-sections is the same.

Fiber busy cross-sectional shape can be solid or hollow. Multipartite fibers are defined as fibers in the cross section of which there is more than one point of deflection of the outer edge inward. The point of deflection of the outer edge inward defined as the change in the absolute value of the slope of a line drawn perpendicular to the outer surface of the fiber, cut fiber, perpendicular to its axis. Profiled fibers include fibers semicircular, oval, to adrannau, rhombic and other suitable cross-sectional shape.

Continuous fibers of round cross-section for many years, are issued by manufacturers of synthetic fibers. Such fibers have essentially optically continuous distribution of matter throughout the thickness of the fiber cross section. They can contain microplate or internal fibrillation, but in General the distribution of matter in them can be considered continuous and uniform. On the outer surface of the continuous fibers of round cross-section there is no point bending inward.

Hollow fiber in accordance with the present invention, all or a busy form, in cross section have a hollow region. A hollow area of the cross section of the fibers surrounds a solid area. The perimeter of the hollow region is simultaneously the inner perimeter of the solid areas. The hollow region may be the same shape as the fiber as a whole. The shape of the hollow region may be round or not concentric with the outer perimeter of the fiber. In the fiber can be more than one hollow region.

The hollow region of the fiber can be defined as part of the fiber, which does not contain the material. It can also be described as a blank or empty space. The hollow region may contain from about 2% to about 60% of the cross section of the fiber, preferably from about 5% to about 40% of the cross section of the fiber, more than before occhialino - from about 5% to about 30% of the cross section of the fiber, and most preferably from about 10% to about 30% of the cross section of the fiber.

The share of the hollow region in the cross section of the fiber (in%) in accordance with the present invention should be managed (in the process of manufacturing fiber). The share of the hollow region in the cross-section of the fiber should preferably be at least 2% (otherwise benefits from having a hollow region will be negligible). On the other hand, however, the proportion of the hollow region in the cross section of the fiber (in percent) should preferably be less than 60%, because otherwise this fiber can be easily Packed. The required percentage of the hollow region in the cross-section of the fiber depends on the materials used, the final destination of fiber and other factors.

The average fiber diameter for two or more profiled fibers having differing from each other in the cross section is measured by measuring the average dpf for each of the types of fibers, the translation of the received values dpf equivalent diameter of continuous fibers of round cross-section, adding the thus determined, the average diameter with a weight corresponding to the weight of the fiber content of this type, and dividing by the total number of types of fibers (fibers of various shapes). After this can be determined, the average dpf fibers, based on the obtained what about the average fiber diameter (or equivalent diameter of continuous fibers of round cross-section) and the specific weight of the fiber. Fiber is considered to be having a great diameter, if it is at least about 10% greater or less than the average diameter. Two or more profiled fibers having a cross-sectional shape differing from each other, can have the same diameter or different diameters. In addition, the shaped fibers may be the same or different indicators dpf. In some embodiments profiled fibers can have different diameters with the same indicators dpf.

Multipartite fibers include, but are not limited to, as the most common forms of fiber with the three-brained and deltoid shape of cross section. Other suitable configurations busy shapes include triangular, square, star-shaped or elliptical. The most accurate common symptom busy fibers is the presence of at least one point of deflection inward. Point inward deflection" is defined as the point on the perimeter of the cross section of the fiber, which abruptly changes the direction of the normal. For example, the cross section of the fibers of the three-brained deltoid shape has three point bending inward, and the fiber with three distinct lobes in the cross-section has six points inward deflection. Multipartite fiber in accordance with the present invention may have a cross section less than about 50 points of deflection of avotri, and most preferably less than about 20 points inward deflection. Multipartite fibers can be generally characterized as fibers of noncircular cross section and may be hollow or solid.

Single and multi-component fibers in accordance with the present invention can be used in a variety of configurations. In the context of the present description "compound" and "complex" means respectively the content in the fiber composition of one or more chemicals or materials. In its configuration of single and multi-component fiber can be a single component. In the context of the present description component means a separate part of the fiber having a certain spatial location relative to another part of the fiber.

After formation of the fiber, it can be subjected to additional processing, or bonded fabric may be subjected to additional processing. In addition, it may be the final hydrophilic or hydrophobic treatment to give the fabric the required surface energy, or give some or other chemical properties of the surface. So, for example, fibers that are hydrophobic, can be treated with wetting agents, so that the sheet could easily absorb liquid water-based. Bonded p the pilot can also be treated by the topical solution, containing surfactants, pigments, substances that reduce friction, salt and other materials to impart additional properties of the surface.

Fiber in accordance with the present invention can be curled, although it is preferable that they are not twisted. Twisted fibers are manufactured, as a rule, in two ways. The first method is based on mechanical deformation of already stretched fiber. Of the molten material extruded fiber and are drawn to the desired diameter, and then mechanically processed, typically by using gears or pins, resulting in a given two-dimensional or three-dimensional twist. This method is used for the production of most kadavanich staple fibers; however, the paintings of kadavanich staple fibers are not preferred, because the fibers are not continuous and fabric made from twisted fibers in General are too air before use of the method of deformation of the fibers in accordance with the present invention. The second method of manufacturing twisted fibers consists in extruding multicomponent fibers that can scroll in the process of stretching and styling. Well-versed in the art it is known that there are multiple languages is in manufacturing methods two of the twisted fibers of the type spunbond, however, for the present invention preferred are the following three methods of manufacturing non-woven sheets of twisted fibers. The first way is the twisting of the fibers in the line of its traction caused by the difference in the characteristics of crystallization of the polymer inside the extruded fibers, for example, due to the presence in the fiber composition of polymers of different types, of different molecular weight (for example, distribution of molecular weight), or differences in the content of additives. The second method is based on the unequal shrinkage of the fibers after stretching and the formation of these fundamentals. So, for example, heating the fabric obtained by stretching and laying of fibers, e.g., thermal bonding, can cause additional shrinkage of the fibers due to differences between the characteristics of the crystallization of elongated fibers. The third way that causes twisting of the fibers, based on the mechanical stretching of the fibers or fabric (usually sealed). When mechanical tension can manifest difference in the dependence of the elongation of the two polymer components from the tensile strength, which can cause twisting of the fiber.

The last two methods are usually referred to as latent processes curl, because they need to carry out when the fibers are already stretched. In accordance with this the current invention has the order of preference of the twisted fibers. So, the paintings of kadavanich staple fibers can be used, provided that the thickness of the baseline is less than 1.3 mm fabric of fibers of the type spunbond are preferred because they contain continuous fibers, which can be curled, provided that the thickness of the baseline is less than 1.3 mm In accordance with the present invention the base must contain less than 100% of twisted fibers (by weight), preferably less than 50% of twisted fibers (by weight), more preferably less than 20% of twisted fibers (by weight), more preferably less than 10% of twisted fibers (by weight), and most preferably 0% of twisted fibers (by weight). Non-twisted fibers are preferred because curl can reduce the amount of liquid supplied to the surface of the fibers, and can also reduce the capillarity inherent in the original basis, by reducing the density of the baseline.

Short fibers are defined as fibers having a length less than 50 mm In the present invention, the continuous fibers are preferred over short chopped fibers, as they provide two additional benefits. The first advantage is that in the absence of the canvas ends of the fibers, the fluid may pen is to be at a longer distance resulting in increased capillarity. The second advantage is that of continuous fibers can be obtained baseline, high resistance, tensile strength and greater rigidity, as in the bonding of these paintings form a continuous matrix of fibers, where each fiber is bonded with a much larger number of other fibers than in the case of bonding fibers of relatively short length. Preferably, the source basis in accordance with the present invention contain as little short fibers, preferably less than 50% of the total weight of the fabric, more preferably less than 20% of short fibers (by weight), more preferably less than 10% of short fibers (by weight), and most preferably 0% short fibers (by weight).

Fiber manufactured for baseline in accordance with the present invention, preferably are thermally attached. In accordance with the present invention by thermally staple fibers are defined as fibers that soften when they are heated to a temperature close to the peak melting temperature, or above this temperature, and stick to each other or fused with each other under the application of minimal pressure. In order to make it possible t is micheskoe bond to the fibers, the content of thermoplastic component in the polymer composition of the fiber should be more than 30% by weight, preferably more than 50% by weight, even more preferably more than 70% by weight, and most preferably more than 90% by weight.

The manufacture of cloth in the way of stretching and laying fiber

Fibers, which formed the original basis in accordance with the present invention, preferably are continuous fibers, and the base is formed by way of their traction and styling. "The cloth is obtained by stretching and laying fibers", defined as non-bonded cloth, practically do not have elastic properties due to intermolecular interaction between the fibers and formed essentially of continuous fibers. "Continuous fibers" are defined as fibers having a high ratio of length to diameter, usually comprising more than 10,000:1. Continuous fiber in accordance with the present invention, components of cloth obtained by stretching and laying the fibers are staple fibers, short cut fibers or other fibers, the length of which was intentionally reduced to low values. Continuous fibers in accordance with the present invention are, on average, longer than 100 mm, more preferably 200 mm Continuous fibers is accordance with the present invention are not twisted, intentionally or spontaneously.

The manufacture of cloth obtained by stretching and laying of the fibers is carried out using high-speed stretching of the fibers described in U.S. patent 3802817; 5545371; 6548431 and 5885909. In this type of process of stretching the fibers from the melt extruders serves the molten polymer to the pumps, dosing the required amount of molten polymer and feed them to the traction unit, consisting of a set of capillary tubes, resulting in the formation of fibers, which are cooled by air in a special area rapid cooling and stretch air, resulting in the decrease of their diameter. Received highly refined fibers are characterized by high strength by adjusting the orientation of molecules of the canvas. After that, elongated fibers are placed on a porous tape, often referred to as a forming belt or forming table.

Block stretching continuous fibers for the production of these paintings, obtained by stretching and laying fiber in accordance with the present invention should contain from 100 to 10000 capillary tubes per meter, preferably from 200 to 7000 capillary tubes per meter, more preferably from 500 to 5000 capillary tubes per meter, and even more preferably from 1000 to 3000 capillary tubes per meter. The flow of polymer in mA is CE, supplied through the capillaries of the traction unit in accordance with the present invention, should be more than 0.3 grams per hole per minute. It is preferable range of the flow rate of the polymer from 0.4 g/hole·min) to 15 g/(hole·min), more preferably from 0.6 g/(hole·min) to 10 g/(hole·min), more preferably from 0.8 g/hole·min) to 5 g/(hole·min), and most preferably from 1 g/(hole·min) up to 4 g/(hole·min).

The method of forming a cloth obtained by stretching and laying fiber in accordance with the present invention, contains a single stage of manufacturing highly sophisticated, non-twisted continuous fibers. Extruded fiber is pulled through the air cooling area in which they are as they are stretching the cooled and hardened. Such methods of weaving, obtained by stretching and laying the fibers described in U.S. patent 3338992, 3802817, 4233014, 5688468, 6548431 B1, 6908292 B2 and patent application U.S. 2007/0057414 A1. The techniques described in European patents EP 1340843 B1 and EP 1323852 B1, can also be used for the manufacture of nonwoven fabrics, obtained by stretching and laying fiber. At last how much fine continuous fibers are drawn directly from the polymers of the capillaries to the device of refinement, the diameter of the sludge is dpf fiber does not change substantially when laying fibers on the forming table. The preferred method of manufacture of a cloth obtained by stretching and laying fibers involves the use of a traction device, which is pneumatically drawn fiber from the exit of the capillary to the pneumatic device, producing laying fibers on the forming belt. This method differs from other methods of making paintings, obtained by stretching and laying fiber in which the fiber from the output of the capillaries are drawn mechanically.

The method of forming a cloth obtained by stretching and laying fiber in accordance with the present invention, provides for the formation of one phase is thermally stable, non-twisted, continuous fibers having a specific internal tensile strength, diameter, or the dpf indicator, as described above. Preferred polymeric materials for the manufacture of such fibers include, but are not limited to: polypropylene and copolymers of polypropylene, polyethylene and copolymers of polyethylene, polyesters and copolymers of polyesters, polyamide, polyimide, polylactic acid, polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyvinyl alcohol, ethylene-vinyl alcohol, polyacrylates and their copolymers and mixtures. Other suitable polymeric materials include compositions of thermoplastic starches described in detail in patent publications U.S. 2003/0109605 A1 and 203/0091803. Other suitable polymeric materials include copolymers of ethylene and acrylic acid and a polyolefin-carboxylic acid, and combinations thereof. Examples of such polymers are described in U.S. patents 6746766, 6818295, 6946506 and patent application U.S. 03/0092343. Preferred are conventional thermoplastic polymers for stretching of the fibers of which are particularly noteworthy resin-based polyesters, polypropylene, polylactic acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates and polyethylene, and combinations thereof. The most preferred resin-based polyesters and polypropylene. Examples of suitable resins based on polyethylene-terephthalate (hereinafter referred to as "polyester", unless specified otherwise) are Eastman F61HC (IV=0,61 DL/g), Eastman 9663 (IV=to 0.80 DL/g), DuPont Crystar 4415 (IV=0,61 DL/g). Suitable sobolifera is Eastman 9921 (IV=0,81 DL/g). In accordance with the present invention it is preferable that the internal viscosity of the polyester (IV) was in the range of from 0.3 DL/g to 0.9 DL/g, preferably from 0.45 DL/g to 0.85 DL/g, and more preferably from 0.55 DL/g to 0.82 DL/g Internal viscosity of the polymer is a characteristic that serves as a measure of its molecular weight, and well-known well-versed in the art. Polyester fiber in accordance with the present invention can be multi-component, one-component and profiled. In the preferred waples the Institute of polyester fiber are busy, preferably three, are made of resin, the internal viscosity of 0.61 DL/g and have the dpf indicator from 3 to 8. Although in the description of the present invention basically mentioned polyethylene terephthalate, can be used and other polymers based on the terephthalate ester, such as, for example, polybutylene-terephthalate, polytrimethylene-terephthalate, and others.

It has been unexpectedly discovered that the combination of resins having certain properties can be obtained thermally fix the fiber type of spunbond polyethylene-terephthalate having a high index dpf. It was found that the polyethylene-terephthalate Eastman F61HC and co-polyethylene terephthalate Eastman 9921 are the perfect combination of materials for the manufacture of thermally attached and at the same time thermally stable fibers. An unexpected discovery was that F61HC 9921 and can be extruded through a variety of capillaries in the ratio from 70:30 to 90:10, respectively, in the resulting fabric may be made of thermal bond, which can be obtained non-woven material, which is thermally stable. By "thermally stable" in this case means that the material shrinks less than 10% in the direction of MD after exposure for 5 min in boiling water. Thermal stability is achieved through the use of high speed the traction, most of 4000 m/min, and also due to the production of fibres from 1 to 10 dpf dpf. Thus were made of linen with a specific gravity of from 5 g/m2to 100 g/m2. These paintings were made with point thermal bond. This type of fabric can be used in a wide range of applications, for example, in absorbent products disposable cleaning materials, roofing materials. This fabric may be manufactured and used by itself, or two layers of cloth obtained by stretching and laying the fibers can be laminated with a third layer of fibers of smaller diameter located between them. Such layers can be superimposed on each other and then bonded together. The formation of such paintings can be done in one line using a complex system of extruded, containing several blocks of capillaries.

Another preferred embodiment involves the use of polypropylene fibers for the manufacture of nonwoven fabrics, they can be obtained by stretching and laying. The fluidity of the molten polypropylene resin (MFR, measured in grams per 10 minutes) should be from 5 to 400, preferably from 10 to 100, more preferably from 15 to 65, and most preferably from 23 to 40. The way of measuring the fluidity of the melt is described in ASTM D1238. Measuring PR is found at 230°C and the polymer mass of 2.16 kg

Non-woven products of single-component and multicomponent fibers are also characterized by certain properties, in particular strength, flexibility, softness and absorbency. Characteristics, reflecting the strength is the tensile strength in dry and wet conditions. The flexibility associated with the rigidity of the product and may also affect the softness. Under the softness is generally understood feature paintings, reflecting its physiological perception, which in turn is a function of characteristics such as, in particular, the flexibility and texture. Absorption capacity reflects the ability of a product to absorb liquids and keep them. In accordance with the present invention the absorption capacity does not include the absorption of the fluids of the inner regions of the fiber (this is fiber from wood pulp, regenerated cellulose or viscose fibers). Some thermoplastic polymers inherent absorption of only a small amount of water (e.g., polyamides), and in accordance with the present invention inherent absorption of oxen polymer should be less than 10% by weight, preferably less than 5% by weight, and most preferably less than 1% by weight. The water absorption in accordance with the present invention arises benefit is area hydrophilicity of the fibers and the structuring of non-woven material and depends primarily on the surface area of the fibers, pore size and spacing of fasteners. The phenomenon of the interaction of liquids with fibrous base in General is called capillarity. The nature of capillarity well-known well-versed in the art and is described in detail in the publication "Nonwovens: Theory, Process, Performance and Testing" (author Albin Turbak, Chapter 4).

Cloth obtained by stretching and laying fibers, which formed the original basis in accordance with the present invention, can have an absorbent capacity (retention capacity Choldingfrom 1 g/d (grams per gram) up to 10 g/g, more preferably from 2 g/g to 8 g/g, and most preferably from 3 g/g to 7 g/year Measurement of absorbency is performed by measuring the weight of dry sample (mdryin grams) length 15 cm in the direction MD and a width of 5 cm in the direction of the CD. Then the sample is immersed for 30 seconds in distilled water, remove it from the water, hung vertically (in the direction MD) and weighed again. Absorption capacity (holding capacity) Choldingthe sample is calculated as the wet weight of the sample (mwet) minus dry weight mdrydivided by the dry weight mdry:

Structured foundations are about the same holding capacity.

In accordance with the present invention canvas, you received what agenies and laying fibers, can have the desired specific weight per unit area. Specific gravity is defined as the mass of the part of the canvas, divided by its area. In accordance with the present invention the weight baseline per unit of its area ranges from 10 g/m2to 200 g/m2, preferably from 15 g/m2to 100 g/m2more preferably 18 g/m2and 80 g/m2and even more preferably from 25 g/m2up to 72 g/m2. The most preferred weight range is from 30 g/m2up to 62 g/m2. The first stage in the manufacture of multi-component fiber is a stage of mixing. At the stage of mixing the raw materials are heated, usually in parallel with their meats. Cutting materials under heating allows to obtain a homogeneous melt really desired composition. Thereafter, the melt is fed into the extruder, and it is formed into a fiber. Of one or more types of fibers going to the non-woven fabric. The collection fibers can be produced by heat, pressure, in the presence of a chemical binder with mechanical clutter dragged, and the combination of these factors. After that, the obtained non-woven fabric may optionally be modified and is collected for subsequent use as a baseline.

The purpose of phase mixing is getting RA is the melt is homogeneous. For multi-component fibers the purpose of this stage is a mixture of thermoplastic polymeric materials with each other, and such mixing is conducted at a temperature above the melting point of the high melting thermoplastic component. At this stage, may be filed and podmahivat various additional ingredients. The composition of the melt should really be homogeneous, which means that large scale should be uniform distribution of components, and should not have plots, clearly differing in composition. For a combination of poorly miscible with each other materials can be added substances that enhance compatibility (poorly compatible with each other are, for example, polylactic acid with propylene, or thermoplastic starches with polypropylene).

For thorough mixing of each other polymers and possible additives and the preparation of these polymer alloys are used twin-screw mixers. Extrusion using a twin-screw mixers, as a rule, is a separate stage between stages in the production of the polymer and stretching of the fibers. To reduce production costs traction fibers may begin immediately after phase extrusion twin-screw mixer. In some cases, a satisfactory mixture of mo is for can be obtained by using lines with a single-screw extruder, after which it can begin stretching of the fibers.

The most preferred mixing device is a twin-screw extruder with a lot of the mixing zones and the set of points of injection. Can also be used single-screw or twin-screw batch mixers. The specific type of equipment used is not critical, provided that ensures good mixing and heating.

In accordance with the present invention uses a method of stretching the fibers from the melt. With this method there is no mass loss mass in the extrudate. The stretching of the fibers of the extrudate is different from other methods of stretching the fibers, such as, for example, wet or dry traction of the solution, which solution is then removed by evaporation or diffusion, resulting is a loss of mass.

The stretching of the fibers is carried out at temperatures from about 120°to about 350°C., preferably from 160°C to about 320°C., and most preferably from about 190°C. to about 300°C. the Stretching of the fibers should be carried out with a speed of 100 m/min, preferably from about 1000 m/min to about 10,000 m/min, more preferably from about 2000 m/min to about 7000 m/min, and most preferably from 2500 m/min to 5,000 m/min Speed traction fiber of the polymer of the second composition should be high, to get a durable and heat-resistant fibers, and accordingly to provide thermal stability baseline and structured basis, which shall be confirmed by the results of the corresponding tests.

From a homogeneous polymer melt can be extruded using one-component or multicomponent fibers using standard equipment for stretching of the fibers from the melt. The specific type of equipment is selected based on the desired configuration of the multicomponent fiber. Standard equipment for stretching of the fibers from the melt serves Hills, Inc. (Melbourne, Florida, USA). A lot of useful information about techniques for stretching single-component and multicomponent fibers from the melt is contained in the publication "Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology" (author Nakajima, publishing Woodhead Publishing). Temperature range for stretching of the fibers is from 120°C to about 350°C. the Specific temperature of the process depends on the chemical nature, molecular weight and concentration of polymer components. Equipment for refining the fibers in the air stream is proposed, for example, Hill's Inc., Neumag and REICOFIL. An example of equipment suitable for the present invention is a production line Reifenhauser REICOFIL 4 for the production of paintings by way of stretching and laying fiber. This, and TakeProfit technology, well known in the field of production of non-woven fibers.

Absorption and distribution of fluids

A structured basis in accordance with the present invention can be used to control the liquid. Under "control fluid" refers to the intentional provision of the fluid by imparting certain properties of a structured basis. In accordance with the present invention, the optimum properties of the control fluid is achieved in two stages of the canvas. The first stage is the production baseline, having certain properties, due to the choice of the form of fibers, metric dpf fibers, method of their composition and surface energy of the canvas. The second stage involves the formation of cavities in the canvas by shifting fibers.

With the help of technological line Hills Inc. for the production of paintings type spunbond a width of 0.5 m was made a number of samples of the original basis. The following describes the features of the manufacture of cloth in each of the examples. The properties of the materials produced in examples 1, 2, 4 and 7, determined from the measurement results shown in the tables below.

Example 1. Fabric made of fibers of type spunbond made of PET resin Eastman F61HC (90 wt.%) and with the PET resin Eastman 9921 (10 wt.%). Fiber type spunbond squeezed through capillaries expressed in three forms, the length of 1.15 mm and a width of 0.15 mm with a round end. The hydraulic length of the capillary diameter was 2.2:1. Block stretching of the fibers contained 250 capillaries, of which 25 capillaries were extrudible co-PET resin and through 225 capillary was extrudible PET resin. The temperature of the block was maintained at 285°C. the Distance stretching of the fibers was 33 inches, and the length of the forming fabric 34 inches. In this and subsequent examples can be used distances stretching and forming other than the above, however, these distances provided the best results. Other parameters of the manufacturing process of the paintings in this example (and in all other examples) are shown in tables 1-3.

Comparative example 1. Fabric made of fibers of type spunbond made of PET resin Eastman F61HC (90 wt.%) and with the PET resin Eastman 20110 (10 wt.%). Fiber type spunbond squeezed through capillaries expressed in three forms, the length 1,125 mm and a width of 0.15 mm with a round end. The hydraulic length of the capillary diameter was 2.2:1. Block stretching of the fibers contained 250 capillaries, of which 25 capillaries were extrudible co-PET resin and through 225 capillary was extrudible PET resin. The temperature of the block was maintained at 285°C. the Distance stretching of the fibers was 33 inches, and the length of the forming fabric 34 inches. This polymer the first part was difficult to obtain thermally stable fabric. Co-PET fibers were not thermally stable and caused shrinkage of the entire canvas when it is heated above 100°C. the Shrinkage of the fabric in the direction of MD was 20%.

Example 2. Fabric spunbond made from 100% PET resin Eastman F61HC. Fiber cloth made by means of the capillaries expressed in three forms, the length 1,125 mm and a width of 0.15 mm with a round end. The hydraulic length of the capillary diameter was 2.2:1. Block stretching of the fibers contained 250 capillaries. The temperature of the block was maintained at 285°C. the Distance stretching of the fibers was 33 inches, and the length of the forming fabric 34 inches. Other parameters of the manufacturing process of the fabric are shown in tables 1-3.

Example 3. Fabric made of fibers of type spunbond made of PET resin Eastman F61HC (90 wt.%) and with the PET resin Eastman 9921 (10 wt.%). Fiber type spunbond squeezed through the capillaries of the standard three-part form, with a length of 0.55 mm and a width of 0.127 mm with round end having a radius of 0.18 mm Hydraulic respect to the capillary length to diameter was 2.2:1. Block stretching of the fibers contained 250 capillaries, of which 25 capillaries were extrudible co-PET resin and through 225 capillary was extrudible PET resin. The temperature of the block was maintained at 285°C. the Distance stretching of the fibers was 33 inches, and the length of the formation is alatna - 34 inches. Other parameters of the manufacturing process of the paintings in this example (and in all other examples) are shown in tables 4-6.

Comparative example 2. Fabric made of fibers of type spunbond made of PET resin Eastman F61HC (90 wt.%) and with the PET resin Eastman 20110 (10 wt.%). Fiber type spunbond squeezed through the capillaries of the standard three-part form, with a length of 0.55 mm and a width of 0.127 mm with round end having a radius of 0.18 mm Hydraulic respect to the capillary length to diameter was 2.2:1. Block stretching of the fibers contained 250 capillaries, of which 25 capillaries were extrudible co-PET resin and through 225 capillary was extrudible PET resin. The temperature of the block was maintained at 285°C. the Distance stretching of the fibers was 33 inches, and the length of the forming fabric 34 inches. From such a polymer composition was difficult to obtain thermally stable fabric. Co-PET fibers were not thermally stable and caused shrinkage of the entire canvas when it is heated above 100°C. the Shrinkage of the fabric in the direction of MD was 20%.

Example 4. Fabric made of fibers of type spunbond made of PET resin Eastman F61HC (90 wt.%) and with the PET resin Eastman 9921 (10 wt.%). Fiber type spunbond squeezed through capillaries solid round shape, with the diameter of the capillary at the outlet of 0.35 mm and a ratio of length to diameter, which SOS is aflalo 4:1. Block stretching of the fibers contained 250 capillaries, of which 25 capillaries were extrudible co-PET resin and through 225 capillary was extrudible PET resin. The temperature of the block was maintained at 285°C. the Distance stretching of the fibers was 33 inches, and the length of the forming fabric 34 inches. Other parameters of the manufacturing process of the fabric are shown in tables 7-9.

Comparative example 3. Fabric made of fibers of type spunbond made of PET resin Eastman F61HC (90 wt.%) and with the PET resin Eastman 20110 (10 wt.%). Fiber type spunbond squeezed through capillaries solid round shape, with the diameter of the capillary at the outlet of 0.35 mm and a ratio of length to diameter, which was 4:1. Block stretching of the fibers contained 250 capillaries, of which 25 capillaries were extrudible co-PET resin and through 225 capillary was extrudible PET resin. The temperature of the block was maintained at 285°C. the Distance stretching of the fibers was 33 inches, and the length of the forming fabric 34 inches. From such a polymer composition was difficult to obtain thermally stable fabric. Co-PET fibers were not thermally stable and caused shrinkage of the entire canvas when it is heated above 100°C. the Shrinkage of the fabric in the direction of MD was 20%.

Denote samples

Below are explanations of the notations used in the tables to describe about ascov.

- The first digit represents the number of the example in which produced this sample.

The letter following the number, is used to denote the sample made with the General conditions of this example, but with different parameters of the canvas. Together the first digit and the letter correspond to a certain set of conditions for the production baseline.

The digit following the letter denotes the number of sample structured framework, made from the same type of baseline. Different numbers indicate different conditions of manufacture of a structured framework. Were also made two test sample kadavanich, bonded polymer resin paintings, for comparing them with samples of the original framework and structured basics:

- Canvas sample density of 43 g/m2containing a mixture of 30% binder based on styrene-butadiene rubber and 70% of the blend fibers. The mixture of fibers contained 40% of all solid fibers of PET den 6 and 60% of all solid fibers of PET 9 den.

- Canvas sample density of 60 g/m2containing a mixture of 30% binder based on (carboxylating) styrene-butadiene rubber and 70% of the blend fibers. The mixture of fibers contained 50% of all solid fibers of PET den 6 and 50% hollow helical fibers of PET den 9 (percent cavities - 25-40%).

Some the e samples, manufactured in accordance with any of the methods in accordance with the present invention, deposited, or carved articles, prior to testing, kept at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2% for 24 hours without the application of pressure to them. Designed so the samples and the properties of these samples are referred to below as samples and therefore their properties after fabrication".

Methods of measurement of characteristics of samples and used in their definition description

The following describes methods of test for measurement of characteristics of samples, the measurement results are shown in tables). Unless otherwise noted, all tests were carried out at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%. Unless explicitly stated otherwise, as synthetic fluids simulating urine, used with 0.9%saline solution NaCl (by weight) in deionized water.

- Mass flow means the flow of polymer through one capillary, measured in grams per hole per minute (g/(hole·min)), and is calculated from the density of the polymer melt and the performance of the pump, the feed polymer melt, in terms of one revolution, and the number of capillaries, which is melt data pump.

Form means the form of the fiber, defined by the geometry of the capillary (see OPI is the W a relevant example).

The actual specific gravity is measured by cutting out at least ten plots randomly located in the canvas sample size of 50 mm × 150 mm (area of 7 500 mm2) and weighing with an accuracy of ±1 mg were Determined average mass cut sections by dividing the total mass by the number of samples. If the blade cannot cut the samples with an area of 7 500 mm2you can use a sample size of 2000 mm2(for example, a size of 100 mm × 20 mm or 50 mm × 40 mm), but then you need to make measurements for a minimum of 20 samples. The actual share is determined by dividing the average mass per area of the sample and is expressed in g/m2.

- The thickness of the blade. For the sample can be measured different types of thickness: instant thickness, i.e. thickness without exposure, the thickness after fabrication, in accordance with the definition above, and the thickness after aging (after exposure). Thickness measurements of the samples after production" carried out by applying thereto a pressure of 0.5 kPa, at least for five samples, and averaged. Typically used for this testing device is the system ProGage production Thwing Albert. The diameter of its support leg is from 50 to 60 mm, the Length of each dimension is 2 C. Before measuring its thickness, the sample must be remove is an at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2% for 24 hours without annexes compressive effort. Preference shall be given to the thickness measurement baseline prior to its modification, however, if such material is not available, possible indirect ways to measure its thickness. For structured foundations of the thickness of the first areas located between the second areas (i.e. areas of bias fibers)may be determined using an electronic thickness gauge (for example, using instruments Mitutoyo 547-500 proposed catalog McMaster-Carr). Data electronic thickness gauges are supplied with the tips that allows you to measure the thickness of very small areas. So, for example, can be used tip in the form of a spatula with a length of 6.6 mm and a width of 1 mm Can also be set with round finials, allowing to measure the thickness of the region, the smaller of 1.5 mm in diameter. When carrying out measurements on a structured basis, these tips can be inserted between the structured areas, and thus can be measured thickness baseline "after making". Measurement of the legs of the device are compressed under the action of the built-in spring. It must, however, be noted that with this method of measurement is supplied to the sample pressure cannot be accurately controlled, and, as a rule, it is more than 0.5 kPa.

- Thickness after aging means the thickness of the image is a, aged in a special way, namely at a temperature of 40°C and at a pressure of 30 kPa for 15 hours, after which the sample was left at rest at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2% for 24 hours without the application thereto of pressure (this procedure is sometimes referred to as "the restoration of the thickness"). Typical used for this testing device is the system ProGage production Thwing Albert. The diameter of its support leg is from 50 to 60 mm, the Length of each dimension is 2 C. Before measuring its thickness, the sample should be kept at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2% for 24 hours without annexes compressive forces.

- Factor modification. This factor is used to account for the increased surface area of the fibers of noncircular cross section. The coefficient modification is calculated by measuring the length of the largest continuous straight line segment within the fiber cross-section perpendicular to its axis, and dividing it by the width of the fiber around the middle of this segment. If the shape of the transverse fibers are quite complex, the determination of the coefficient modification may not be obvious. So, figa-19 (C) shows examples of some forms of fiber cross-section. Marked distance "A" represents the length of the long and cross section of the fiber, and the distance "B" is a width of the fiber cross-section. The coefficient modification is calculated by dividing the long axis of the width of the fiber. The greatest length and width of the fiber cross-section are determined using the electron microscope.

- The actual value dpf. Under the actual dpf indicator refers to the measured indicator dpf for fibers in each example. The dpf indicator is calculated as weight (in grams) of fiber length of 9000 meters of the dpf Indicator for a given fiber diameter reflects the weight of fibers per unit volume). So, for example, fiber 2 dpf polypropylene and 2 dpf from polyethylene-terephthalate have different diameters. As an example, that polypropylene fiber 1 dpf, having a solid circular cross section, has a diameter of approximately 12,55 mm (at a density polypropylene to 0.900 g/cm3). The proportion of fibers of polyethylene-terephthalate in the calculations of the dpf indicator in the present invention was taken equal to 1.4 g/cm3. Well-versed in the art, the translation method of the diameter of the fibers of polypropylene and polyethylene-terephthalate solid circular cross-section in figure dpf well known.

- Equivalent diameter of continuous fibers of round cross-section. The equivalent diameter of continuous fibers of circular cross section is used to calculate the elastic modulus hair is in with a non-circular or hollow cross-sectional shape. The equivalent diameter of continuous fibers of circular cross section is determined from the actual value dpf fibers and the density of the fiber material as described above. This conversion is important for determining the elastic modulus of single fibers with non-circular or hollow cross-sectional shape.

Features stretch woven fabrics. Characteristics tensile specimens of the original framework and structured bases were measured in the same way. The width of the clamps of the device was 50 mm, the initial length between the clamps was 100 mm, and the speed of their separation was 100 mm/min In the tables are the maximum values of the resistance of samples tensile strength and elongation values of the samples at the given values force (unless specified otherwise). Measuring the strength of the samples on the gap conducted separately in the directions of MD and CD. The values of tensile strength are expressed, usually in Newtons per centimeter (N/cm). The values presented are average results of at least five measurements. Previously to the canvas was applied load of 0.2 N. Before measurements the samples was kept at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2% for 24 hours without the application of pressure to them, and then measured at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%. Presents tablicah values of tensile strength correspond to the peak values of resistance to tension curve resistance stretching from lengthening. The value of Elongation at peak strain" corresponds to the elongation of the sample in percent of the initial length when the peak power of resistance to stretching.

The ratio MD/CD. Is defined as the ratio of the peak resistance to stretching in the direction MD to the peak resistance to stretching in the direction of the CD. The ratio MD/CD is determined to estimate the ratio of the number of fibers of nonwoven fabric, oriented in the directions of MD and CD, respectively.

- The perimeter of the fiber. Measured directly for the most representative fiber non-woven cloth using microscopy and expressed in micrometers. Presented in tables values correspond to the average results of at least five measurements.

- Transparency. Transparency is a relative measure of the amount of light passing through the original basis. The transparency of the fabric depends, among other factors, on the number, size, type and shape of the fibers present in the part of the canvas, which is used in the measurement. Transparency was measured and expressed in percent. For the present invention transparency baseline should preferably be more than 5%, more preferably more than 10%, even more preferably more than 20%, even more preferably more than 30%, and most preferably more than 40%. Transparency was measured in the accordance with the method TAPPI T425 om-01 "Measuring transparency paper (geometry 15/d the light source And/2°, the background reflectance of 89% and paper background)".

- Share baseline per unit volume. Share baseline per unit volume was calculated by dividing a previously defined specific weight of the sample per unit area, the thickness of the specimen (measured after aging), and was expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).

- Specific volume baseline. The specific volume of the original basis is the reciprocal of specific weight per unit volume, expressed in cubic centimeters per gram.

- Line speed means the speed of the blade in the direction MD in the manufacture of the sample.

- Temperature bonding - the temperature at which the internal bond of canvas sample of fiber type spunbond. The temperature of the fasteners includes two temperature values. The first temperature value corresponds to the temperature of the engraved (or structured) roller, the second temperature smooth roller. Unless otherwise stated, the area of bonding was 18%, and the pressure calendering was 400 pounds per inch of length of the roller.

- Adding surface-active substances in the samples. The processing of surface-active agent source frameworks and structured foundations conducted to provide hydrophilicity. For all the samples, manufactured in accordance with the present invention, used the same surfactant. This substance was material DP-A production Procter & Gamble (degree of purity for research purposes), which was a copolymer of polyester-polyester. Also suitable (and work well) soil release polymers TexCare SRN-240 and TexCare SRN-170 production Clariant. General procedure for introduction of the surfactant consisted of the following:

- 200 ml of surfactant was dissolved in 15 l of tap water at a temperature of 80°C in a bucket with a capacity of 5 gallons.

The samples were placed in a solution of surface-active substances for five minutes. Each of the samples had dimensions of 100 mm in width and 300 mm in length. At the same time the bucket was placed before the nine samples, and within the first ten seconds they were chatting in the solution. One solution bucket can be processed up to 50 samples.

The sample was removed from the solution, holding it in a vertical position for the area above the bucket for five to ten seconds, so make it stack solution.

The samples were rinsed by dipping them in a bucket of clean tap water for one to two minutes. At the same time the bucket was placed before the nine samples. The first ten seconds, the samples were chatting in the water. After rinsing nine water samples in the Dreux changed.

Samples were dried at 80°C in a convection oven until completely dry. Typical drying time ranged from two to three minutes.

- Holding capacity - this test measured the amount of liquid that can absorb the sample treated with surface-active substance. A sample size of 200 mm × 100 mm was immersed in tap water with a temperature of 20°C for one minute and removed from it. After extraction of the water sample was held for the area within 10 s and then weighed. Thus obtained finally is weight divided by the original weight of the sample and determine the holding capacity, according to the formula specified above. Holding capacity was measured for the samples after production, i.e. under the same conditions under which measured the thickness of the samples after fabrication, unless specified otherwise. These samples are not kept under pressure before the measurement. This test can be used samples of different sizes. So, for example, can be used specimens with dimensions of 100 mm × 50 mm or 150 mm × 75 mm Calculation is carried out by the same formula, regardless of the size of the sample.

- The area of distribution of the liquid due to capillary absorption. The distribution of the liquid was measured separately in the directions of MD and CD. From the processed surface-active what idestam sample cut out a piece the size of at least 30 cm long and 20 cm wide. In untreated samples, the capillary absorption of the liquid not happening. The sample was put on located in a series of Petri dishes (diameter 10 cm and height 1 cm), so one Cup is placed exactly in the center of the sample, and the other two edges. The sample was poured 20 ml of distilled water with a flow rate of 5 ml per second. The non-woven fabric was placed so that the treated engraved roller side faces upward, i.e. in the direction from which poured the liquid. After one minute was measured distances that spread the liquid in the directions of MD and CD. If necessary, distilled water may be colored, for example, dye Indigocarmin 73015 Merck (pigment should not change the surface tension of water). For samples of the same material must be held no less than three dimensions. Capillary spreading of the liquid was measured under the same conditions as the thickness of the sample after fabrication, unless specified otherwise. The samples are not kept under pressure before the measurement. If you are using a sample size less than 30 cm long and 20 cm wide, you need to first check whether the edges of the liquid sample in less than one minute. If the distribution of fluid in the direction of the MD or CD will exceed the distance to the respective edges of the sample, it is necessary in order to use the method described here "Measurement of transfer fluid in a horizontal direction. Petri dishes were drained and cleaned before each new measurement.

- Measurement of the transfer fluid in the horizontal direction MD was performed according to the following method.

Equipment
Pipette or burette:designed to dose at least 5 ml
- Tray:width 22 cm ±1 cm, length 30 cm ±5 cm, height 6 cm ±1 cm
- Funnelglass with a capacity of 250 ml, with spout (the diameter of the aperture 7 mm)
Metal clamps:width of 5 cm
- Scissors:suitable for cutting the sample size required
- Libra:accuracy 0.01 g

Model fluid

As a liquid simulating urine, was prepared in 0.9%saline solution (9.0 g/l NaCl, pure for analysis) in deionized water having a surface tension of 70±2 mn/m at a temperature of 23±2°C, painted blue pigment (Indigocarmin 73015 Merck).

Room

The measurements were conducted in air-conditioned room in which the support is supported temperature of 23°±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%.

Measurement procedure

1. Cut the pattern width of 70±1 mm (in the direction of the CD) and a length of 300±1 mm (in the direction MD).

2. Measure and record the weight (w1) sample with a precision of 0.01,

3. Clamp the sample side facing the body of the child (textured side when measuring samples of a structured framework, and the side facing the engraved roller, for samples baseline), up, across the tray to the upper edges. The sample should be free to hang over the bottom of the tray.

4. To adjust the position of the glass funnel with a volume of 250 ml with a crane, so that its outlet is placed exactly above the centre of the sample in the directions of MD and CD.

5. To prepare a liquid simulating urine.

6. A pipette or burette to measure 5.0 ml of fluid, simulating urine, funnel, keeping the valve closed.

7. Open the tap funnel and release of 5.0 ml of fluid, simulating urine.

8. Wait 30 seconds (stopwatch).

9. To measure the maximum distribution of the liquid in the direction of MD. Write the result to a precision of 1 cm

- Measurement of capillary distribution in the vertical direction. Conducted by lowering the end of the sample is held vertically, the size of preferably 5 cm in width and 20 cm in height, in a container with a large quantity of distilled water. The lower end of the sample was loaded on the truck is her least 1 cm below the liquid level. Five minutes later recorded the height of the highest point to which the rose water.

Capillary spreading of the liquid height was measured under the same conditions as the thickness of the sample after fabrication, unless specified otherwise. For measurements can be used samples and other dimensions, however, the width of the sample can affect the measurement result, especially when measurements on samples of structured foundations. The smallest width of the pattern should be 2 cm, and the smallest length - 10 cm

- Thermal stability. thermal stability of the original framework and structured basis from non-woven material was evaluated according to the degree of shrinkage of a sample size of at least 2 cm in the direction CD and 10 cm in the direction of MD after finding it in boiling water for 5 minutes If the shrinkage was less than 10%, that is, the sample had a finite size in the direction of MD, greater than 9 cm, the material was considered to be thermally stable. If the sample gave a shrinkage of more than 10%, it was considered to be thermally unstable. The test is performed by cutting the sample size is not less than 2 cm in the direction CD and 10 cm in the direction of MD, accurate measurement of its length in the direction of MD and placing the sample in boiling water for 5 minutes. The sample was removed from the boiling water and then measured its length in the direction of MD. It should be noted that all of the tested samples, the even samples, manufactured in the comparative examples, which gave greater shrinkage remained flat after boiling them in water. Although it is theoretically not necessary, it can be expected that thermal stability of nonwoven fabrics depends on thermal stability of the fibers, included in its composition. If the fibers contained in the nonwoven material, shrinkage, and non-woven fabric will shrink. Therefore, the thus determined thermal stability of the samples of the paintings shows thermal stability of fibers. thermal stability of nonwoven fabric is very important in the present invention. Samples that give a significant shrinkage (greater 10% in the context of the present invention), in boiling water can be curtailed. To measure the length of such samples to the bottom edge can be hung a weight of about 20 g to the sample is stretched in the length in the vertical direction. Suitable cargo is metal stationery clip, but can be used with any other load which may be hinged to the bottom edge of the sample and will not interfere with the measurement of its length.

- The offset of the fibers. Means of mechanical processing of the original substrate and forming from it a structured framework that contains shifted fiber. If the source was modified in l is Bo way deformation or change the position of the fibers, it is believed that she was subjected technology bias fibers. Easy passage of the nonwoven fabric through rollers with a smooth surface or bending is not considered a technology bias fibers. Technology bias fibers involves the intentional movement of fibers in the z-direction under the influence of an applied in certain places mechanical or hydrodynamic forces.

Deep stretching. Distance mechanical stretching of the fibers to their offset.

- Additional thermal bond. Means, did the sample for the bond as a separate second stage of bonding, with the application of heat and/or pressure.

- End bond. Means, were applied on the bond peaks shifted fibers.

- The proportion of structured basis per unit volume. Was calculated by dividing the specific gravity of a structured basis per unit area, the thickness of the sample after aging, and is expressed in g/cm3.

- The specific volume of a structured framework. Specific volume of a structured framework is the reciprocal of specific weight per unit volume, expressed in cubic centimeters per gram.

- Created volume cavities. Means the amount of cavities formed on the phase shifting fibers and represents the difference between the specific volume of the IOM structured framework and specific volume baseline.

The time of passage of liquid through the sample after aging. To measure the time of passage of liquid through the sample used Edana method 150.3-96 with the following changes:

C. the Conditions for testing

The extract samples and measurements were carried out at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity of 50±5%.

E. Equipment

As a control absorbent pillows used 10 layers of material Ahlstrom 989 or equivalent (average time of passage of the liquid and 1.7±0.3 seconds, dimensions: 10×10 cm).

F: the measurement Procedure

2. Preparing the control absorbent pillow, as described in section E.

3. Cut the test sample into pieces of size 70×125 mm

4. Withstood the sample, as described in section C.

5. Put the test sample on 10 layers of filter paper. Samples of structured foundations were laid so that the structured side up.

10. The procedure was repeated after 60 s after absorbing the first outpouring of the second outpouring and, accordingly, recorded the second pass and third pass.

11. It is recommended to carry out measurements for at least 3 pieces of each sample.

- Wet. To measure the wetting of the sample used Edana method 151.1-96 with the following changes:

C. the Conditions for testing

The extract samples and measuring the conductivity and at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity of 50±5%.

D. measuring Principle

To measure the wetting of the sample used a stack of filter paper laid on her test sample (which was used to measure the time of passage).

E. Equipment

Reception paper: calibrated Ahlstrom 632 or equivalent, cut into pieces the size of 62 mm × 125 mm, laid on the centre of the test sample so that it was not in contact with the control absorbent pillow.

Imitation of the baby's weight: total weight 3 629±20g

F. Procedure measurements

12. Started the procedure as the next step immediately after the end of the third outpouring when the time dimension of the passage. Additional amount (L) of the liquid was determined by subtracting 15 ml (volume three outpourings when measuring the time of passage) of the total quantity (Q) of the fluid, defined as the measurement results of getting wet in the context of procedures Edana 151.1-96.

21. The measured amount of liquid for soaking in the context of procedures Edana 151.1-96 corresponds to the amount of liquid for wetting of the sample in accordance with the present invention.

Properties of the fibers. Properties of fibers in accordance with the present invention was measured using test systems Synergie 400. Individual fibers were laid out on graph paper, which had holes cut razmara is (exactly) 25 mm in length and 1 cm in width. Fibers were placed so that they were located along the long side of the hole and lay without sagging. Holding at least 10 measurements were used to determine average fiber diameter solid round cross-section or equivalent diameter of continuous fibers of round cross-section for fibers other forms. When determining the elastic modulus of the fiber is calculated by the program used is referred to the average value of the diameter. Fiber was installed in the test device and before the beginning of measurements of the cut edge of millimeter paper. The sample was stretched at 50 mm/min Initial applied to the sample strength was 0.1 g forces. As the stretching of the sample was recorded force required to stretch it. The program was determined by the peak value of the force and the elongation under which began tearing of the fibers. The system also calculated the elastic modulus of the fiber when it is stretched by 1%. Measured this way, the elastic modulus of the fiber, the peak value of the force of resistance, tensile strength and elongation, which began tearing of the fibers are presented in table 10. The table presents the results are averages of 10 measurements. To calculate the elastic modulus fiber round shape used their actual diameter, and for fibers of non-circular-equivalent diameter splashdog the fibers of round cross-section.

The percentage of broken fibers. We measured the percentage of broken fibers in the place of displacement of the fibers. The number of broken fibers were determined by direct counting. Samples of paintings subjected to displacement of fibers may or may not be subjected to end bonding fibers. Therefore, to count the actual number of broken fibers required precision tweezers and scissors. Appropriate instruments of this type are, for example, tweezers T and scissors 3042-R production Tweezerman scissors MDS0859411 offered Medical Expert Supplier, or similar instruments offered by other manufacturers.

For samples without end fastening: on one side of the field offset of the fibers tends to be a greater number of broken fibers, as shown in Fig. Such structured fibrous fabric cut on the side of the second area, which is less broken fibers. In the example on Fig one is the left side, which is the first section 82. The incision should be carried out along the first surface at the base of the structure formed by the displaced fibers. On figa and 17b illustrate the kinds of cuts the top and side, respectively; 17b marked direction MD. Once the incision is released fibers it is necessary to shake or mixture and brush, to complete loss of fibers. The drawn fibers were collected and counted. You should then make a cut on the second side of the second region (section 84 on Fig) and again count the number of released fibers. The amount of fibers released after the first incision and the second incision is equal to the total number of fibers. The number of released fibers after the first cut, divided by the total number of fibers and multiplied by 100, gives the percentage of broken fibers. In most cases, visual inspection is enough to say, torn if the majority of fibers. If it is necessary to determine the exact proportion, you should use the techniques described above. The dimension should be not less than 10 samples and determine the average values of the percentage of broken fibers. If the sample prior to testing, was for some time is compressed before it is cut it should be a little fluff to find the best place to cut. If different samples are obtained similar values percent of the gap, to obtain statistically significant results for the number of samples should be increased to several tens until there is sufficient statistical reliability, the corresponding confidence interval of 95%.

For samples with magnetic fastening: on one side the area is a mix of fibers, tends to be a greater number of broken fibers, as shown in Fig. First cut the side that was less broken fibers. In the example on Fig one is the left side. The first section 182 held in the upper part of the structure of the shifted fibers (Fig). Structured fibrous fabric cut close to the end fasteners, but so that the cut did not get bonded material, that is a bit to the side from the place of fastening on the side with the smaller number of broken fibers. After you cut the released fibers must be cleaned, counted and designated as the 1st number of fibers. The second section 184 should be done at the base patterns of the displaced fibers on the same side. After you cut the released fibers must be cleaned, counted and identified as the 2nd number of fibers. The third section 186 must be done in the upper part of the structure of the displaced fibers, on the other side of the end fasteners in relation to the section 182. After you cut the released fibers must be cleaned, counted and identified as the 3rd number of fibers. The fourth section 188 should be made the Foundation of the structure of the displaced fibers on the same side as the section 186. After you cut the released fibers must be cleaned, counted and identified as 4-e the number of fibers. The sum of the 1st number of fibers and the 2nd number of fibers is the total number of fibers on the side sections 182 and 184 (denote it by a party 1-2). The amount of 3-th fibers and 4th in the number of fibers is the total number of fibers on the side sections 186 and 188 (let's denote it by a party of 3-4). The difference between the first number of fibers and the second number of fiber divided by the sum of the first number of fibers and the second fibers and multiplied by 100, is the percentage of broken fibers on the side 1-2. The difference between the third number of fibers and the fourth number of fibers divided by the sum of the third number of fibers and the fourth the number of fibers and multiplied by 100, is the percentage of broken fibers on the side of the 3-4. In accordance with the present invention, the percentage of broken fibers on the side of the 1-2 or 3-4, must exceed 50%. In most cases, visual inspection is enough to say, torn if the majority of fibers. If it is necessary to determine the exact proportion, you should use the techniques described above. The dimension should be not less than 10 samples and determine the average values of the percentage of broken fibers. If the sample prior to testing, was for some time compressed, before you cut it a little fluff to find the optimal location of the incision. If different samples are obtained near the s values percent of the gap, to obtain statistically significant results for the number of samples should be increased to several tens until there is sufficient statistical reliability, the corresponding confidence interval of 95%.

The permeability in the radial direction in the plane of the canvas. This value, in the context of the present invention also simply referred to as "permeability"is a measure of the permeability of nonwoven fabric for liquid and connected with the pressure required to move fluids through the porous material. To measure permeability in the radial direction in the plane of the fabric can be carried out the following test is based on measuring the amount of salt solution (0.9% NaCl)flowing through the sample material of annular shape under constant pressure as a function of time (see the publication "The anisotropic Permeability of Paper", author J. D. Lindsay, TAPPI Journal, may 1990, str). The calculations are carried out according to the Darcy law for steady flow of saline solution in the plane of the material.

The scheme holder 400 for samples in the measurement of permeability in the radial direction in the plane of the fabric presented on Fig. The holder 400 includes a lower cylindrical plate 405, the upper plate 420 and cylindrical cargo 415 stainless steel. More details are presented on figa-C.

p> The top plate 420 having a thickness of 10 mm and 70 mm diameter, connected with the tube 425 length 190 mm, attached to the center of the plate. Tube 425 has an external diameter of 15.8 mm and inner diameter of 12.0 mm Tube lower end is inserted into an axial hole in the plate 420 and glued to it so that the bottom edge of the tube is flush with the bottom surface of the plate 420, as shown in figa. The bottom plate 405 and the top plate 420 is made of a material Lexan® or its equivalents. Cargo 415 stainless steel, as shown in figv, has an outer diameter of 70 mm and an inner diameter of 15.9 mm, so that it can with a small clearance to slide the tube 425. The thickness of the cargo 415 is approximately 25 mm and is chosen so that the total weight of the upper plate 420, tube 425 and cargo 415 is 788 g, so that at the time of measurement was provided by the compressive pressure of 2.1 kPa.

As shown in figs, the bottom plate 405 has a thickness of about 50 mm and has two grooves 430, slotted on its lower surface the diameter of the bottom plate perpendicular to each other. Each of the grooves has a width of 1.5 mm and a length of 2 mm bottom plate 405 has a horizontal hole 435, long for its diameter. Horizontal hole 435 has a diameter of 11 mm, and its Central axis is 12 mm below the upper surface of the bottom plate 405. In the lower is her plate 405 also has a vertical axial hole 440 with a diameter of 10 mm and a depth of 8 mm The axial hole 440 is connected with a horizontal hole 435, so that together they form a T-shaped cavity in the bottom plate 405. As shown in figv, at the outer end of the horizontal hole 435 is executed thread, in which a tightly twisted tubular knee 445. One of his knees connected with a vertical transparent tube 460 having a height of 190 mm and an inner diameter of 19 mm On the tube 460 is labeled 470 at a height of 50 mm above the upper surface of the bottom plate 420. This stamp is made to maintain it in the liquid level during the measurements. The second knee 445 through a flexible tube connected with the reservoir 700 liquid supply, which will be described below.

Suitable tank 700 for the fluid shown in Fig. Tank 700 is mounted on a suitable laboratory Jack 705 and has an aperture 710 with a sealing plug for filling the tank with liquid. Through the opening 720 in the upper surface of the tank in the tank enters the glass tube 715 with open ends (outer surface of the tube and the inner surface of the hole 720 is also fitted tightly to each other). In the tank 700 has an l-shaped discharge tube 725 to the inlet side 730, located below the liquid level in the tank, shutoff valve 735 and outlet pipe 740. Outlet 740 associated with the stake the om 445 through a flexible plastic tube 450 (type Tygon). The inner diameter of the discharge tube 725, the presence of a shut-off valve 735 and a flexible plastic tube 450 allow the flow of fluid to the holder 400 sample for measurement of permeability in the radial direction with a sufficiently large flow rate, to maintain the liquid level in the tube at around 460 470 throughout the measurement time. Tank 700 has a capacity of about 6 liters. If necessary, depending on the sample thickness and permeability, can be used tanks larger. Can also be used and other system fluid supply to the holder 400, maintaining constant the liquid level in the tube at around 460 470 during the time of measurement.

Funnel 500 for collecting fluid (shown in Fig) contains the outer casing 505, the inner diameter of the upper edge of the funnel is approximately 125 mm Funnel 500 has such a structure that the liquid is trapped in the funnel, quickly and seamlessly flows from the spout 515. The presence of a funnel around 500 horizontal flange 520 facilitates the installation of the hopper in a horizontal position. The funnel has two internal structural ribs 510, the longest in its diametrical planes perpendicular to each other. Every edge 510 has a thickness of 1.5 mm, and the upper surface Li the t in the horizontal plane. The funnel body 500 and the edge 510 is made of a sufficiently rigid material, such as Lexan®, or equivalent, so that they can serve as a support for the holder 400. To facilitate sample loading is preferable that the height of the ribs was sufficient to the upper surface of the bottom plate 405 located above the flange 520 of the funnel when installing the bottom plate 405 to the edge 410. To the flange 520 is attached jumper 530, which is fixed indicator 535 gage for measuring the relative position of the cargo 415 stainless steel height. The time indicator has a precision of ±0.01 mm and full stroke 25 mm are Suitable, for example, digital indicator, Mitutoyo, model 575-123 (proposed McMaster Carr Co., catalog No. 19975-A73 motorway), or equivalent. In the jumper 530 has two round holes with a diameter of 17 mm, which can be threaded tube 425 and 460, so that they would not touch the lintel.

Funnel 500 is installed on the electronic scales 600, as shown in Fig. Scales shall be accurate to ±0.01 g and the limit of measurement of at least 2000 Scales 600 is connected to the computer, recording the readings of the scales at regular intervals and saves them. Appropriate weights are, for example, scales, Mettler-Toledo, model PG5002-S, or equivalent. On the Cup weights installed prefab container 610, so that the fluid from the N. the sica 515 fall directly into the collection container 610.

Funnel 500 installed so that the top surface of the fins 510 are in the horizontal plane. Libra 600 and container 610 is located under the funnel 500 so that liquid flowing from the spout 515, goes directly into the container 610. The holder 400 sample for measurement of permeability in the radial direction in the plane of the blade is located in the center of the funnel 700, so that the ribs 510 are grooves 430. The upper surface of the bottom plate 405 should be relatively flat and exhibited on the horizon. The top plate 420 mounted on the bottom plate 405 and is combined with it. The top plate 420 is mounted cargo 415 stainless steel, surrounding the tube 425. Tube 425 is extended in the vertical direction through the Central hole in the bridge 530. The jumper 530 firmly set the indicator 535, and the probe rests on the upper surface of the cargo 415 stainless steel. In this position the indicator dropped to zero. Tank 700 filled with 0.9%saline and tightly closed. The output nozzle 740 is associated with knee 445 through a flexible plastic tube 450.

Using a suitable tool, cut out a circle pattern 475 investigated material. The sample had an external diameter of 70 mm, and the diameter of the inner hole was 12 mm, the Sample can is t to be cut from the mandrel with sharp edges.

The upper plate 420 lifted so that between the upper plate 420 and the bottom plate can be inserted in a sample of 475 and to center it in relation to both plates. Opened the stopcock 735 and brought the liquid level in the tube 460 to label 470 by changing the height, which was a tank 700, with the Jack 705, and by changing the position of the tube 715 in the tank. After making steady maintain the liquid level in the tube at around 460 470 and accordingly a constant indicator 535, the steady-state value of the indicator 535 noted as the initial thickness of the sample and started recording the readings of the scales using the computer. Time values and indications of weights at these points in time were recorded every 10 s for five minutes. After three minutes the marked value of the indicator (the finite thickness of the sample), and overlaps the stopcock. To calculate the average value of Lpbetween the initial sample thickness and the final thickness of the sample, expressed in centimeters.

The value of the flow rate in grams per second was calculated as the slope of the straight line is the least square deviations for the data obtained in the period of time between 30 and 300 seconds. The permeability of the material was calculated by the formula:

Where:

k is the permeability of the material (cm2)

Q - value of the flow rate (g/s)

p is the density of the liquid at 22°C (g/cm3)

µ is the viscosity of the liquid at 22°C (PA·s)

Ro- outer radius of specimen (mm)

Ri- inner radius of specimen (mm)

Lpthe average sample thickness (cm)

ΔP is the hydrostatic pressure (PA), defined by the formula:

Where:

Δh is the height of the liquid column in the tube 460 above the upper surface of the bottom plate (cm)

G - acceleration of gravity (9.8 m/s2)

In addition, the expected value (which is shown in the tables):

Where:

Kr- the value of permeability, expressed in cm2/(PA·s)

Explanations to the data in the tables and discussion

See tables data additionally show the advantages of the present invention.

Table 1 and table 2. They provide the material properties of the original foundations "after making"made of fibers expressed in three forms, solid round shape and a standard three-part form. Important properties specified in Table 1, it should be noted factors modification of fibers expressed in three forms and relatively low elongation at maximum tensile strength in MD data bases of polyethylene-terephthalate with point bond.

Table 3. Presents properties absorption and distribution of the fluid material source basis. Low retention capacity of the data source basics, a smaller 10 g/g, indicates that they are not absorbent material.

Table 4. It shows the operating parameters of the processes of formation of structured foundations and displayed changes in material properties as a result of its transformation from a baseline in a structured manner. Data for sample series ID to highlight the main goal of the present invention. The material ID is the original basis (PET 60 g/m2, 6,9 dpf). Samples 1D1-1D6 are structured foundations. Visible changes in the thickness of the material with increasing displacement of the fibers, characterized specified in table depth stretching. Namely, the deeper the stretch, the greater the thickness of the material. Specified, has there been any additional thermal bonding fibers. In some cases there was no end bond shifted fibers (indicated in the appropriate column). As can be seen from this table, end bond can affect the thickness of the material after aging and created the volume of voids. The aim of the present invention is to create the volume of voids to absorb the liquid. Additional thermal kriplani which can also be used to enhance mechanical properties; in particular, as can be seen from this table, due to such bond increases the tensile strength in the direction of MD compared to the original basis. Examples of series 1N-1N9 allow you to compare the baseline IN from her structured basics 1N6-1N9 by stretching of the fibers at different depths. From this dataset we see that the maximum thickness of the structured basis, determined by the depth of the stretching of the fibers, the presence of additional fasteners and end fasteners can be achieved when some optimal values of these parameters. In particular, it is seen that when too strong stretching of the fibers can result in the material of smaller thickness after aging. This may, in particular, to mean that in the activated areas were all torn fibers, while the maximum volume of the cavity created when the percentage of broken fibers is within a certain optimal range. The table below shows the results also show that using the method in accordance with the present invention can be achieved in the same unit volume of material per unit weight as the material containing a binder of polymer resins, and it provides high performance transfer of liquids.

Table 5. Data presented in table show that the increase in the thickness of the article is alterirovannyh framework and the creation of the volume of voids can be carried out also for fibers standard three-part form and a solid round cross-sectional shape. Thus, the advantages of the present invention is not limited to cases involving the use of fibers expressed in three forms.

Table 6. Shows the properties absorption and distribution of liquids for structured bases compared with the original foundations. The data for the same samples as in table 4. The data in table 6 show that the displacement of the fibers really improves the characteristics of horizontal transfer fluid in the direction of MD structured basis compared to the original basis. It is revealed that additional bond also increases the characteristics of horizontal transfer fluid in the direction of MD. The height of capillary rise of a liquid in structured bases at a small offset of the fibers is approximately the same as in the original framework, but at an even greater stretching of the fibers of the height of capillary rise of the liquid starts to decrease. In relation to cardovan non-woven fabrics with a binder of polymer resins, vertical capillary rise cloths in accordance with the present invention is much higher. Listed in the table of values of time of passage of the liquid shows a dramatic increase in the rate of absorption of the liquid-structured foundations compared to the original bases. Namely, the time of passage of the liquid the spine through the base-shifted fiber is sharply reduced compared to the original basis. Characteristics wetting also generally decrease the basics-shifted fibers compared to the original basis. The data in table 6 show that structured framework in accordance with the present invention not only provide good transfer of liquid, but also have a high absorption capacity of the liquid. The table also includes the results of the calculation of the permeability of the samples studied paintings for fluid in the radial direction in the plane of the canvas. It is seen that the displacement of the fibers in accordance with the present invention provides a dramatic improvement in this indicator. It is also clear that structured foundations have greater permeability compared to cardownie canvases with a polymeric binder, at about the same thickness of the canvas.

Table 7. Contains characteristics of absorption and distribution of liquids structured basics 101-106 compared with the original base 10. The activation parameters of the original basis for structured data bases are given in table 5. The data in table 7 show that with increasing depth bias fibers absorption characteristics and distribution of structured liquids fundamentals improve.

Table 8. The characteristics of absorption and distribution of liquids for structured foundations of the fibers with the falling of the round form and the standard three-part form compared to the original bases. The activation parameters of the original basis for structured data bases are shown in table 9.

Table 9. Contains the parameters of the technological processes used for the manufacture of the samples mentioned in Table 8, and the mechanical properties of the data samples.

- Table 10. Describes the properties of single fibers bases used for manufacturing bases in accordance with the present invention. Thus in accordance with the present invention are applied to the high speed stretching of the fibers to obtain a heat-resistant nonwoven fabric of polyethylene-terephthalate, its fibers have very high tensile strength in excess of 10 g forces on the fiber.

Products

The original basis and structured basis in accordance with the present invention can be used for a wide range of applications, including fabrics for different filters, including filters for air, vacuum, liquids, wastewater, filter bags, antibacte the territorial protective filters, filters for various electrical devices, such as paper separators, condensers, and packaging materials for magnetic disks, various fabric for industrial use, such as the basis for adhesive tape, Malopolskie materials, a variety of dry or moist cleaning materials for cleaning hard surfaces, cloths for cleaning floors and other products for cleaning, wipe materials for home, service businesses, roller printing and copying devices, optical devices; wipes for baby care; cleaning materials and cloths for sanitation and medicine, such as, for example, surgical gown, General medical Bathrobe, bandages, covering cloth, hats, masks, sheets, towels, gauze, linen basis for compresses. Other suitable applications include absorbent products disposable as a means to control fluids. In particular, the fabric in accordance with the present invention can be used to make the external layers of tampons and absorbing layers of diapers.

The dimensions and their values contained in this document should not be construed as strictly limited in accuracy given values. On the contrary, unless specifically provided under the present value on imaeda this is exactly all of the values, located in functionally equivalent to its surroundings. So, for example, is designated as 40 mm should be considered as "about 40 mm".

All documents referenced in the present description, including references to other patents and applications cited entirely, if not explicitly stated, that they are cited in part or with restrictions. The citation of any document does not imply the recognition of the fact that the cited document should be included in the prior art relative to the invention described in this application, or that the cited invention by itself or in combination with another document, or other documents, explains, suggests or describes the idea of the present invention. In addition, if any value or definition in this document does not match the value or definition of this concept in the document referenced, should be guided by the meaning or definition of the concepts contained in this document.

Although herein illustrated and described a specific embodiment of the present invention, well-versed in the art it will be obvious that it is possible to make other changes and modifications that do not violate the idea and purpose of the invention. With this purpose in mind, the attached is th claims to represent all possible such changes and modifications in the scope of the present invention.

1. Permeable to fluid structured fibrous fabric containing the first surface, a second surface and a thermoplastic fiber, and the first area and a multitude of discrete second regions located throughout the first region, while the second discrete region form discontinuities on the second surface of the fiber fabric and contain shifted fibers on the first surface of the fiber fabric, and at least 50%but less than 100% of the displaced fibers have a free end that extends away from the first surface of the fiber fabric, with fibrous fabric is characterized by a thickness after aging, less than 1.5 mm, the height of capillary distribution of the liquid in the vertical direction component of at least 5 mm, a permeability of at least 10000 cm2/(PA·s) and specific volume of a structured framework of at least 5 cm3/g, and the fibers are continuous non-twisted fiber type spunbond.

2. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibers are thermally stable.

3. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibers are thermally point bonded.

4. Fibrous fabric according to claim 4, characterized in that it is completely sealed.

5. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, distinguished by the Eesa fact, what is the height of capillary distribution of the liquid in the vertical direction is at least 20 mm

6. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the height of capillary distribution of the liquid in the vertical direction is at least 50 mm

7. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the specific volume of a structured framework is at least 10 cm3/year

8. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the specific volume of a structured framework is at least 12 cm3/year

9. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the transfer fluid in the horizontal plane in the direction of MD (capillary spreading of a liquid in a horizontal direction) is at least 10 cm

10. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that it is characterized by a permeability of at least 20000 cm2/(PA·s).

11. The fibrous fabric of claim 1, wherein the fibers include polyethylene terephthalate.

12. The fibrous fabric of claim 1, wherein the fibers include polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene-terephthalate.

13. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the fibers contain profiled fiber.

14. Fibrous fabric at 14, characterized in that the fibers are busy.

15. Fibers is the existence of a cloth according to claim 1, characterized in that the time of passage of the second portion of the fluid after aging is less than 2 seconds.

16. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the time of passage of the second portion of the fluid after aging is less than 1 second.

17. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that it is characterized by wet, components below 3.0,

18. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that it is characterized by wet, amounting to less than 1.5,

19. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that it is characterized by a specific gravity of from 30 g/m2to 80 g/m2.

20. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness after aging is more than 0.5 mm.

21. Fibrous fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the composition of the fibers contains at least 50% thermoplastic fibers.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for manufacturing needle-punched silica thermal barrier materials comprising preparing a fibrous mixture, forming fibrous web with aerodynamic method and formation of needle-punched web as feedstock, the silica fibers with the diameter of 5-7 microns and 8-20 microns are used or their mixture in a ratio of (10-90):(90-10)% which are divided in fibers on serrated drum, forming a fibrous web is carried on a conveyor of web-forming machine due to combining aerodynamic and mechanical methods. Then, the resulting fibrous web is subjected to the action of the needle board of the needle-punching machine equipped with percussion needles with serrations in both forward and reverse directions, forming the needle-punched web of thickness 3.0-10.0 mm is carried out per one process cycle, and forming of needle-punched web of thickness 12.0-30.0 mm - in two stages. First the webs-blanks are made with preliminary percussion in two directions per one pass of the web through the needle-punching machine. Then the webs-blanks are folded to the desired thickness followed by final punching in two directions per one pass through the needle-punching machine, the formed nonwoven needle-punched web enters the device of cutting and winding, and the silica fibers have a porous structure with pore size of 3-10 A (angstroms) and the production line for production of needle-punched silica thermal barrier materials, comprising a device of mixing fibrous mass, a feeding conveyor, a web-forming unit, a needle-punching machine which has a table with a needle board and with needles fixed on it. At that the percussion needles fixed to the needle board, are made with serrations in the forward and reverse directions. Moreover, the number of rows of needles with serrations in the forward direction located at the inlet to the needle board, is 2-3 times greater than the number of rows of needles in reverse direction of serrations disposed in the final part of the needle board and the two-sided percussion of web (from up to down and from the bottom up) is carried out per one technological progress of the needle in one needle-punching machine, percussion needle size and serrations is proportional to the diameter of the silica fiber.

EFFECT: use in the production of silica fibers.

4 cl

FIELD: textile industry, in particular, finishing of various articles and materials with pile patterns produced by electric flocculation process.

SUBSTANCE: method involves sequentially applying piles of various colors in electric field divided, according to pile advancement direction, into two zones: initial and final; finally applying piles in homogeneous field having one zone; simultaneously varying electric field intensity during all application stages except for final stage, said variations being provided simultaneously at initial zone within the range of from Ei=(U-U1)/(h-h1) to Ei≈0, and in final zone after passage by piles of interface boundary within the range of from Ef=(U1-U0)/h1 to Ef=(U-U0)/h1, by setting zone interface boundary potential from U1=(U-U0)h1/h to U1=U, where U potential of outer boundary of flocculation initial zone; U0 is potential of outer boundary of flocculation initial zone; h1 is size of final flocculation zone in direction of advancement of pipe; h is total size of both flocculation zones in direction of advancement of piles.

EFFECT: wider range of adjustment of pattern shapes and distinctness of color transition sites owing to formation of pile pattern by varying of electric field intensities.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: production of a product made out of a non-woven material with a three-dimensional stamping.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to a product made out of product made out of a non-woven material with a three-dimensional stamping, in particular, of a flat form consisting of fibers and-or elementary filaments and having on its both sides the areas with uniformly or non-uniformly alternating elevations and the excavations and separated from each other across a direction of the material driving by non-stamping solid sections, which are drawn out in the direction of the drive of the material and occupy from 5 up to 50 % of the surface of the non-stamped non-woven material. At that the elevations arranged on one side form on the opposite side an excavations, and correspondingly the excavations arranged on one side form on the opposite side of elevations. At that the elevations located on both sides are made boldly protruding in respect to the surfaces, which are on both sides formed by imaginary prolongation of the surfaces of non-stamped solid areas. The offered invention also concerns the method of manufacture of the above-stated product and the device for its realization. The offered invention ensures production of a stamped non-woven material, which not require an additional stabilizing layer, after previous compression would return its initial form better, than the so far known versions and which due to that would be better suitable for absorption of liquids of a different composition or for transportation of the liquids into an absorption layer.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a stamped non-woven material not requiring an additional stabilizing layer, better than the so far known versions restoring its initial form after compression, better suitable for absorption of different liquids and for their transportation into an absorption layer.

22 cl, 7 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: textile industry, in particular, manufacture of formed articles of car saloon.

SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing face side in the form of needle-stitched structured web; manufacturing reverse side in the form of needle-stitched web and doubling resultant webs. Web is structured on needle stitching machine by means of stitching needles equipped with notches, which entrain fibers upon passage through web and pull to predetermined depth into brush conveyor where pile is formed. Manufacturing of needle-stitched web involves preparing of fibrous mixture; forming cloth; transformation of cloth and securing of cloth. Fibrous mixture is prepared in mellowing and mixing unit, where fiber mellowing and mixing processes are provided, with following forming of fibrous cloth from ready fibrous mixture. Cloth is then delivered to combing converter adapted for producing of multilayer fibrous cloth with randomly arranged fibers. Cloth is then delivered by means of discharge conveyor to needle stitching machine for converting thereof into web. Doubling is provided by stitching together of needle-stitched web and needle-stitched structured web by means of stitching needles or by means of thermal adhesive(s) during forming of parts.

EFFECT: improved ecology control owing to the use of biocomponent low melting point fibers, various production wastes without use of binders, such as polymeric dispersions.

FIELD: textile industry, in particular, finishing of articles and materials for various purposes with pile patterns by electric flocking process.

SUBSTANCE: method involves producing patterns of predetermined shape by forming pile pattern at zone separation boundary provided that separation boundary potential is equal to U1-Uh1/h, where U is potential of upper boundary of flocking zone, h1 is height of lower flocking zone, h is height of entire flocking zone. This is provided by sequentially applying piles of different color in electric field divided into two zones in vertical plane, with electric field intensity during final application process carried out in homogeneous field having one zone being set equal to that of the entire space of both zones by setting potential of boundary separation zone equal to U1=Uh1/h, where U is potential of flocking zone upper boundary, h1 is height of flocking zone lower boundary, h is height of the entire flocking zone.

EFFECT: provision for producing of patterns of predetermined shape.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

The invention relates to the field of light industry, namely, creating decorative items, and toys containing carpet, and can be used to create products, needlework, and children's toys-homemade
The invention relates to the field of light industry, namely, creating toys with alternating tufted nonwoven coating, and can be used to create toys-homemade

The invention relates to the textile industry, in particular the production of materials for various purposes with pile pictures

The invention relates to electret filter media effect with improved filtration capacity (the so-called "electret filters")

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a stiffening element (6, 60, 80) for an absorbent product (10, 100, 102), such as a hygienic napkin, a sanitary towel or a incontinence protective product, wherein the stiffening element (6, 60, 80) is presented so that using the product (10, 100, 102), enables framing the product that improves the product (10, 100, 102) adhesion to the user's body with the above stiffening element (6, 60, 80) having: longitudinal length and lateral width; and an upside (13) facing the user when the product (1, 100, 102) is in use, and a downside (12) facing from the user when the product (1, 100, 102) is in use; the stiffening element (6, 60, 80) extends longitudinally at least along a portion of both a front area (2), and a perineal portion (3); the stiffening element (6, 60, 80) has a width (H) within a junction area (27) between the front and perineal areas (2, 3) less than the width in the front area (2). The stiffening element (6, 60, 80) comprises a material showing the mechanical fixative properties with at least a portion of both the upside (13) and downside (12) of the stiffening element (6, 60, 80) showing the above mechanical fixative properties.

EFFECT: developing the stiffening element for the absorbent product.

25 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to absorbing products, in particular to packages, which contain flexible disposable absorbing products, demonstrating improved package efficiency, expressed in smaller, ecologically favorable products. Absorbing product includes package, which has internal space and external surface, and multiple disposable absorbing articles, placed in internal space of package. Each absorbing article contains upper layer, back layer and in fact cellulose-free absorbing body, placed between upper layer and back layer, has first belt area, second belt area and crotch area, which pass in longitudinal direction between first and second belt areas, and fastening element, projecting in diametrical direction outside from second belt area and adapted for detachable connection with fastening zone, located in first belt area. Disposable absorbing articles have rigidity of longitudinal curve less than 355 N/m, measured in accordance with rigidity tests.

EFFECT: absorbing product has height of pile of packed absorbing articles less than 80 mm, measured in accordance with tests of packed pile height.

16 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to absorbing product for organism secretions. Absorbing product contains single internal layer and stretchable absorbing unit, fastened to internal layer. Internal layer includes elastic parts in such a way, that absorbing product corresponds to product user's body. Stretchable absorbing unit can be minimally connected to side of internal layer facing clothes and to opening or cut in internal layer, which makes it possible for secretions to pass into absorbing unit. Product can contain stretchable external layer, connected to facing clothes side of internal layer in such a way, that external layer covers absorbing unit and elastic parts, where external layer is connected on perimeter of at least part of product.

EFFECT: increase of convenience of application and protection from leaking.

14 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of manufacturing adsorbing disposable diapers (2) of open type with main part (4), which contains frontal area (6) with frontal lateral longitudinal edges (42), back area (8) with back lateral longitudinal edges (41) and located between them in longitudinal direction (28), intended for application between user's legs perineal area (10). Main part (4) contains adsorbing body (12) and with connected from two sides with back area (8) back lateral sections (20) and with connected from two sides with frontal area (6) frontal lateral sections (22), which pass in transverse direction (30) outwards beyond lateral frontal and back longitudinal edges (42, 41) of main part (4) and in applied state of adsorbing disposable diaper (2) connect frontal area (6) and back area (8) with each other. To form regions of cuts for legs lateral sections (20, 22) on, at least, facing perineal area (10) edges are made passing in oblique way to longitudinal direction (28) or curvilinear, and main part (4), at least, in perineal area is made in form of sand clock, and method includes the following stages: supply of endless flat cloth (50, 50a) of material in longitudinal direction (28) for manufacturing segments (66, 66a) of material for formation of lateral sections (20, 22), making first extractions (52) of material along first line (100) of cutting on lateral edge (70, 70a, 70b) of flat cloth (50, 50a) of material to form contour cuts in flat cloth (50, 50a) of material, with imaginary parallel PL to longitudinal direction, which in point P reaches maximal length of cut-out transversely to longitudinal direction (28) determining external partial area (80) and internal partial area (81) of flat cloth (50) of material. Folding flat cloth (50, 50a) of material, at least, on passing in longitudinal direction (28) first line (36) of bend, and line (36) of bend passes inside external partial area (80), separation of longitudinal segments of folded flat cloth (50, 50a) of material for corresponding formation of segments (66, 66a) of material, non-detachable fixation of segments (66, 66a) of material on corresponding longitudinal edge (91) of cloth (90) of main parts of diapers for formation of lateral sections (20, 22), making second extractions (53) of material along second line (101) of cutting, second line (101) of cutting includes lateral sections (20, 22) and corresponding longitudinal edge (91) of cloth (90) of main parts of diapers, with second line (101) of cutting crossing first line (100) of cutting in such a way that second line (101) of cutting does not pass through first line (36) of bend of frontal and back sections (20, 22).

EFFECT: due to the invention method possibility of stable direction and processing of not finished cloth of diapers with already attached lateral sections in high-speed machines for diaper production is achieved.

15 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hygienic absorbing products and, in particular to sanitary absorbing towels, which possess improved characteristics of air-permeability, temperature and moisture control, and it also relates to method of manufacturing absorbing core for application in said products. Method of manufacturing structure of absorbing core of hygienic product includes the following stages: providing fibrous cellulose; support of fibrous cellulose in chamber; installation of mould into rotating forming drum, with mould having first porous part and centrally located non-porous part; rotation of mould on rotating forming drum until mould comes into interaction with chamber; pulling fibrous cellulose into mould in such a way as to form core, which has multitude of first areas and second area, with each of said first areas being located at a distance from other first areas, and each of first areas being completely surrounded with second area; pushing out core structure from mould; and transfer of core structure through calendar roller in order to compress core structure until multitude of first areas and second area acquire similar thickness.

EFFECT: improvement of characteristics of air-permeability, temperature and moisture control.

6 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to individual absorbent products, and more specifically to disposable absorbent products. An absorbent product comprises a liquid-permeable inner surface, an outer surface, an absorbent element in between, a wedge shaped piece, first and second waist areas which are freely attachable to configure the wearable absorbent product having a waist opening, two leg openings and transversely opposite sides, each of which extends along the length Lp from the waist opening to the leg opening of the product. The article comprises a primary fastening system to attach the first waist area freely to the second waist area, and the primary fastening system comprises a hook material permanently attached to the first waist area. Besides, the product comprises a puller for recycling having an attachment area permanently attached to one side of the product in the second waist area, and which extends to the greatest length La along at least a portion of the length Lp of such side. The puller for recycling also a puller area that extends transversely outside from the attachment area and which can be attached to the product, at least in the configuration for recycling the product; a main carrier and a fastening element attached to the main carrier within the puller area. The main carrier of the puller for recycling may be freely attached to the hook material of the primary fastening system.

EFFECT: what is provided is improved resistance to accidental release and adequate responsiveness of the disposable fastening system.

20 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: kit of sex-specific disposable products used for incontinence in adults. The kit comprises first and second disposable products used for men and women respectively. Each product comprises a carrier which has a front, a back portion and a wedge shaped portion coupling the above front and back portions, a front edge of a leg opening drawing a line having a convexity, a side edge and a back edge of the leg opening, drawing a concavity, the front edge of the waist opening and the wedge shaped portion width. The absorbent layer has a front and side edges, a front area and a front cross-section size, and the absorbent layer is attached to the above carrier. The product also has a front length equal to the shortest distance between the front edge of the leg opening and the front edge of the waist opening, a packing width and a waist/absorbent distance equal to the shortest distance of the front edge of the absorbent layer and the front edge of the waist opening. The difference between the first and the second product is specified in the group consisting of: The front length of the second product is at least 1.1 times higher than the front length of the second product; the packing width of the first product is less than that of the second product; the waist/absorbent distance of the first product is at least 1.45 times higher than that of the second product; the convexity and concavity of the first product are greater than those of the second product; the front area, the front cross-section size of the first product is less than those of the second products, or any combination thereof. The wedge shaped portion width of the second product is 1.2 times higher than that of the second product.

EFFECT: higher protective properties and ease of use of the sex-specific disposable products.

9 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to absorbent products that may include an upper layer, an outer coating and an absorbent body located between the upper layer and the outer coating. The outer coating comprises an extrusion glued laminate (EGL). The EGL may comprise a multilayer coextruded elastic film and a nonwoven material. The elastic film may comprise a first outer layer, a second outer layer and a central layer between the first and second outer layers. The nonwoven material may comprise fibres or filaments. The first outer layer may be non-adhesive coupled to the nonwoven material by extrusion. Further, the outer coating can retain the elasticity of at least 50% relative deformation. The first outer layer can have a low affinity for the central layer. The first outer layer can comprise an extended polymer in an amount exceeding 45 wt %.

EFFECT: nonwoven material can have a high affinity for the first outer layer.

19 cl, 12 tbl, 8 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fibre cloths, and may be used in manufacturing disposable absorbent products. The structured fibre cloth contains thermoplastic fibres. The fibre cloth comprises a first surface and a second surface, a first area and a number of second discrete areas arranged around the first area. The above second areas form discontinuities on the second surface and fibre shift on the first surface. Moreover, at least 50% and less than 100% shifted fibres in each of the second areas are fixed along a first side of the second area and separated proximally to the first surface along a second side of the second area opposite to the first side, thereby forming free ends extended away from the first surface, creating the void volume for liquid collection.

EFFECT: structured fibre cloth provides the optimum properties of absorption and capillary liquid distribution.

25 cl, 9 tbl, 4 ex, 22 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to absorbing products, intended for individual wearing, and in particular, to disposable absorbing products. Absorbing product includes central absorbing unit, which contain liquid-permeable internal layer, external layer, absorbing element, front belt area, back belt area and area of gusset, extending longitudinally between front and back belt areas and interconnecting them. Front lateral panels extend outwards from front belt area, back lateral panels extend outwards from back belt area. Product also includes a pair of tongues. Each tongue has area of attachment to one of front lateral panels and back lateral panels and tongue area, extending transversely outwards from area of attachment and attached with possibility of release to one of front lateral panels and back lateral panels. One of front lateral panels and back lateral panels, to which area of tongue attachment is attached, has first stiffness and, at least, section of tongue area of tongue has second stiffness, greater than first stiffness. Product also includes primary fastening system for releasable attachment of lateral panels and secondary fastening system, which contains tongue, which is, at least, partially separated from primary fastening system.

EFFECT: improved resistance to unexpected unfastening and sufficient prompt application of disposable fastening system are ensured.

20 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: medicine, hygiene.

SUBSTANCE: the suggested product contains the mixture out of thermoplastic hydrophobic and absorbing fibers. Absorbing fibers are present in the quantity being sufficient to efficiently absorb liquid from external surface of combined covering and transmitting layer at no competition with absorbing middle layer to provide quick penetration of liquid at minimal reverse wetting.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

19 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

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