Network and method for calculating ionosphere corrections

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: network comprises an aeronautical segment (200) having an aeronautical user segment composed of a plurality of aircraft (2) having on-board radio-frequency receivers (21) capable of measuring delays of the navigation signals transmitted by the satellites (GNSS) and an aeronautical data communication means (5) between the plurality of aircraft (2) and the ground segment (300) in order to transmit measurements to the ground segment (300), and means, at the level of the ground segment (300), of receiving measurements used for calculating said grid, the measurements of delays coming from the plurality of aircraft (2) and from the plurality of ground stations (SBAS G).

EFFECT: high reliability in the communication structure of ionosphere corrections using existing aircraft communication lines directed towards a ground segment, high accuracy of corrections, enabling detection of small ionosphere perturbations, eliminating constraints for coverage of sea areas or mountain areas.

8 cl, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of satellite navigation systems and, more specifically, to network and to the method of calculation of the ionospheric corrections.

Here the phrase "satellite navigation system" shall mean any system designed to provide navigation in a wide area, such as existing systems GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System"), called systems GPS, GLONASS, or future satellite navigation system GALILEO, and all cash equivalents and derivatives. Experts in the art are well aware of the principle of the positioning satellite navigation systems. The RF signal emitted by the satellite is subjected to encoding and uses the time this signal achievement to be positioning receiver to determine the distance between the satellite and the receiver, the preferred way is called pseudo-distance. The accuracy of satellite navigation systems is influenced by a certain number of errors. These errors can be classified in two categories: global contributions and local contributions. From the point of view of global contributions can be mentioned error associated with the passage of electromagnetic waves through the ionosphere, and errors associated with satellites (on which an error are resulted orbit parameters and error devices for determining the time). For local contributions can be mentioned error associated with the passage of electromagnetic waves through the troposphere, the errors of reflection signals, the errors associated with the interference, the errors arising due to the presence of the white zones and noise receivers. In order to improve the existing satellite navigation systems from the point of view of accuracy, integrity, continuity of action and willingness to work were provided by systems known in the space titled "system improvement". European satellite system improvement EGNOS improves the characteristics of the two satellite navigation systems GPS and GLONASS. It transmits correction signals pseudo-distances in order to correct the above error.

More specifically, the present invention is intended to correct ionospheric errors. It should be remembered that the density of air, which forms the atmosphere decreases with distance from the surface of the earth. At the height corresponding to the ionosphere, space and solar radiation is no longer subjected to filtration. When this radiation (i.e. UV radiation and x-rays) are more aggressive and tear electrons from the atoms forming the molecules of air, i.e. about Westlaw, what is called ionization. This changes the refractive index and the consequence is a change in the speed of signal propagation through the ionospheric layer. Because it is known that the delay is calculated on the assumption that the speed of propagation of the navigation signals corresponds to the speed of light, passing these signals through the ionosphere layer entails the measurement of the pseudo-distances, the error due to the fact that there is a lag in the measurement of the navigation codes or acceleration in the measurement phase. To ensure the best accuracy in the calculation of locations, it is necessary to estimate the ionospheric error, which, moreover, may change during the day.

Figure 1 presents the structure of the satellite navigation system known to a person skilled in the technical field and contains the GNSS positioning and SBAS ("Satellite Based Augmentation System) increase. Aircraft 4 are placed on their sides receivers associated with the systems increase. The EGNOS system is a system of type SBAS that contains the ground segment 300 infrastructure, formed by multiple ground stations "SBAS G", and containing in the space segment 100 many geostationary satellites "S SBAS". This ground segment contains many on the roadways stations, distributed in a wide geographical area, which take information from GNSS satellites and determine a pseudo-distance, and the Central station 1 control and processing, which, on the basis of pseudo-distances that are transmitted to the receiving station "SBAS G, determines the correction, which are grouped in signal 10. Geostationary satellites "SBAS S" broadcast this signal 10 from the Central station 1 to the receiver aircraft 4.

Computing station 1 compiles data ionospheric corrections for the calculation of the grid of ionospheric corrections 91 - 94, as illustrated in figure 2. In the case where the navigation signals pass through the ionosphere layer, ground station "SBAS G, determine the point of penetration, the corresponding line-of-sight between the satellite and ground stations. Thus, the aggregate of territories covered ground stations, discretized points of penetration, which correspond to the measurements of the ionospheric delays. In the case when the point is close to points of the grid of ionospheric corrections, the magnitude of the ionospheric delay 95 is determined by extrapolation of the values 91-94 adjacent points of penetration. The floor and the fineness of the grid 96 of the ionospheric corrections are a function proportional to the floor and the subtleties of the network of ground stations and satellites.

This class is practical satellite system (GNSS and SBAS) present many problems. The first problem is the floor area. Indeed, the floor grid of ionospheric corrections depends on the distribution of ground stations that can be deployed only in easily accessible areas of the earth's surface. Outside of these zones, for example, over the zones of the open sea or on the mountains, the navigation system is the deterioration of its characteristics. The second problem is the number of discrete points for the calculation grid corrections. However, the more data latency, the more accurate are the correction. However, the number of measurements is directly related to the number of satellites and the number of ground stations, which are of high value (for example, due to their maintenance and communication of data streams in real time). The third problem lies in the quality of the measurements. Measurements were completed using ground stations may be affected by the contributions of local errors, such as problems of reflection, interference and troposphere.

On the existing prior art patent US 6,674,398 B2, which describes the invention using mobile receivers to measure the ionospheric delay. Then the results of these measurements are sent directly to the space segment is UNT, which retransmits the data in the computing system, based on the level of the ground segment, to compile and calculate the grid of ionospheric corrections. However, this invention requires the creation and possession of specialized lines of communication of the user with the space segment and leaves the possibility of application users, not related to aviation and, thus, not worthy of trust for aviation service.

More specifically, the present invention relates to a network that enables you to calculate and issue the ionospheric correction of users of satellite navigation systems, the main characteristic of which is to contain the aviation segment segment aviation user, formed by multiple aircraft, each of which carries on Board RF receiver having the capability to measure the delay of the navigation signals emitted by the satellites and the aircraft data communication links between multiple aircraft and ground segment for transmitting the above-mentioned measurement delays on the ground segment and the ground segment includes means for receiving measurements of delays used to calculate the ionospheric grid corrections, and the measurements of the delays come from a multitude of the STV aircraft and from multiple ground stations.

The present invention is preferable in the sense that it implements the network ionospheric corrections from a satellite navigation system by using the structure of the satellite communication system and existing components dimensions and connections in the aviation field. The present invention uses the reliability and quality of service aviation networks. Indeed, the satellites transmit not represent the same level of integrity that the transmission developed in the aviation field. Receivers aviation users themselves worthy of trust. The present invention allows to have a communication structure ionospheric corrections, representing increased reliability compared to existing technical solutions, which are closed in a satellite communication structure. Moreover, there is no need to have special lines in the direction of the satellite, as used communication line of the plane in the direction of the ground segment, which has already been developed taking into account the number of aircraft.

Measurements were also carried out on the level of aviation segment, that is not affected by the contributions of local errors. Thus, the correction calculated by the computing system, to be more precise.

Predlagaetvashemu intended as illustrated in figure 2, to issue more accurate data ionospheric corrections 91-95, and geographic coverage 96 to which is more extensive and has a finer discretization. The number of measurements of the ionospheric delay is proportional to the density of the number of aircraft 2 in flight, resulting in a more dense and thus more accurate grid 96 of the ionospheric corrections. The present invention allows to detect small ionospheric perturbations, because the discretization grid 96 ionospheric corrections is more subtle.

Computer network ionospheric corrections in accordance with the invention has the potential measurements, significantly higher than the actual demand, and thus, it is possible to reduce the number of ground stations "SBAS G" and to reduce thereby the cost of the satellite system enhancement type SBAS. In addition, computer network ionospheric corrections implements measurement on the basis of data from aircraft and, thus, is not limited to more overlapping Maritime zones or zones of mountain ranges. While there is no performance degradation at the edges of these zones.

Other characteristics and advantages of the invention will be better understood which of the following descriptions, this here as a non-limiting example, where references are given in Appendix figures, among which:

Figure 1 represents the structure of the satellite system in accordance with the current level of technology.

Figure 2 represents the area of the grid of ionospheric corrections calculated using the computing system ground segment. This figure 2 illustrates the method of calculation by extrapolating the ionospheric corrections for any point in space.

Figure 3 represents the network in accordance with the proposed invention, which allows to calculate and give the users the ionospheric correction, the structure of which contains the space segment and the aviation segment.

The invention described below relates, as illustrated in figure 3, to the network calculation and transfer of ionospheric corrections for the satellite navigation system. It should be clear that this invention applies to any satellite navigation system GNSS, for example, to the system "GPS" or to a future navigation system "Galileo", using a system of increasing SBAS permitting adjustment data, as, for example, the system EGNOS or WAAS". Significant feature of the present invention is used in the structure of a computer network ionospheric data plane segme the TA 200, contains the segment of the user, educated aircraft 2 measuring ionospheric delay and transmitting the measurements in the ground segment 300 by means of 5 transmission, designed with aviation requirements. These funds 21 measurement and tools 5 data provide greater reliability and quality of service compared to classic only satellite network and allow a higher number of measurements of the ionospheric delays 91-94 than in the classical network.

The space segment 100 is formed by many GNSS satellites that emit navigation signals 7 and 8 at different frequencies. For example, the GNSS system Galileo will be able to radiate at frequencies L1 (from 1563 to 1587 MHz), EA (from 1164 to 1189 MHz) and E5b (from 1189 until 1214 MHz) for aviation users. The space segment 100 is formed also by the satellite "S SBAS", emitting the signals 6, transmitting the data to the correct location to aviation users, for example, on aircraft 4 and 2, or to users who are not aviation, for example, automotive or marine vehicles. Funds 21 measurements, which are located on Board aircraft, represent a radio frequency receivers, have the opportunity to receive navigation signals 7 and 8 at different often is Oh, as was mentioned in the previous statement. These radio receivers 21 are able to measure, by means of the calculation method, known to experts in the art, the delay of the navigation signals passing through the ionospheric layer at high altitudes, excluding, therefore, the contributions of local errors, as stated in the previous statement, and, therefore, giving more accurate measurements. Funds transfer 5 use well-known experts in the field of aviation technology means high frequency connection between the aircraft 2 and ground segment 300.

Ground segment contains not represented in figure 3 means of centralization and source selection measurements of ionospheric delays used to calculate the grid of ionospheric corrections, and measurement delays come from a variety of aircraft 2 and from multiple ground stations "SBAS G". Measurements coming from the aircraft 2 may be numerous, and computing station 1 has a function of selecting sources, the most suitable for calculating the grid of ionospheric corrections. The computing system 1 compiles latency 91-94 coming, in their majority, from a variety of aircraft 2. Ground segment also includes the means of 3 data 10 from the grid 96 of the ionospheric corrections to the space segment 100.

The preferred image of the proposed method, which allows to calculate and output data of ionospheric corrections 91-95 users of satellite navigation systems, implements the following steps:

measurement delays 91-94-level segment of the aviation user and at the level of the ground segment SBAS G,

transmission delays measured using a variety of aircraft, and data transfer is implemented using aviation communication network 5 to the ground segment 300,

the calculation grid 96 ionospheric corrections by compiling data, the majority of measurements implemented at the level of segment 200 aviation user,

transfer to the space segment 100 data 91-95 from the grid 96 of the ionospheric corrections.

The preferred way of measuring delays-level segment of the aviation user are implemented in real time and continuously during all phases of flight of the aircraft 2. The present invention allows to discretize the ionospheric layer in real time in different geographical areas and at different times of the day. To give users proper ionospheric corrections the set of steps of the above method is implemented in real time and continuously.

The preferred way of computing system 1 nezamechena 300 includes means for selecting sources of measurement delay for in order for this system to use the most appropriate sources for the calculation of the grid 96 of the ionospheric corrections. Indeed, the fleet in flight aircraft 2 can issue the number of measurements in excess of need.

The preferred way in the case when the number of dimensions of delays coming from the aviation segment of the user, becomes smaller than the minimum threshold value, for example, in the unlikely event of a full stop aviation air traffic, the computer system selects the latency coming from ground stations. For security reasons, the minimum number of ground stations "SBAS G" is supported in operation in order to guarantee a minimum number of measurement delays.

The preferred way aircraft 2 segment 200 user also contain a means of reception of reliability of functioning of the RF receiver 21 and the computing system 1 ground segment 300 provides a means of assessing the reliability of the radio receivers 21 measuring delay, and the transmission medium of reliability mentioned radio receivers 21 to aircraft 2 segment 200 of the user. In calculating the grid 96 of the ionospheric corrections the ground station has the capability op is adalat contradictory value with respect to the adjacent values. For example, if you reveal the high and isolated the magnitude of the ionospheric delay in the geographical area that represents a rather small magnitude of the delays from this we can conclude that this dimension is false and that the RF receiver 21 aircraft in question is probably off-nominal operation.

The preferred way of computing system 1 thus passes to the many aircraft with on-Board radio receivers capable of measuring delay, the reliability of their RF receiver. The present invention allows to establish a system capable of interaction between the aeronautical segment of the user of the navigation system and the organization of control satellite navigation system. Instead of dimension access delays implemented on Board the aircraft, control may issue a reliability RF receiver on Board the aircraft.

1. Network for calculating and issuing ionospheric corrections to users of satellite navigation systems containing:
the space segment (100)formed by multiple satellites (GNSS, SBAS S)that emit navigation signals (7, 8) at different frequencies and data correction positioning 91-95) to the segment of the user;
ground segment containing the computing system (1) and means (3) data for a space segment (100) so that the computer system (1) have compiled measurements of the ionospheric delay coming from multiple ground stations (SBAS G), for the calculation grid (96) ionospheric corrections (91-95), and that the means (3) transfer of the transferred net (96) ionospheric corrections for a space segment (100),
characterized in that it also contains:
the aviation segment (200)containing a segment of the aviation user, educated many aircraft (2), each of which carries on Board radio frequency (RF) receiver (21), having the ability to measure the delay of the navigation signals emitted by satellites (GNSS), and aviation tool (5) communication between multiple aircraft (2) and ground segment (300) for transmitting the above-mentioned measurement delays to ground segment (300),
means, at the level of the ground segment, receiving measurements of delays used to calculate the grid (96), and these measurements of the delays come from a variety of aircraft (2) and from a variety of ground stations (SBAS G).

2. The network according to claim 1, characterized in that the computer system (1) ground segment (300) includes means for selecting sources of measurement delays.

3. The network according to claim 2, characterized t is m, that aircraft (2) segment contains also a means of reception of reliability of functioning of the mentioned RF receiver.

4. The network according to claim 3, characterized in that the computing system ground segment provides a means of assessing the reliability of radio frequency receivers (21), measuring the delay, and the transmission medium of reliability referred to radio receivers on the aircraft (2) segment the user.

5. The method for calculating and issuing ionospheric corrections to users of satellite navigation system, characterized in that this method uses the network according to claim 4 for the implementation of the following stages:
measurement delays-level segment of the aviation user and at the level of the ground segment (300),
transmission delays measured using a variety of aircraft (2), and data transfer is implemented using the aeronautical telecommunication network (5) to ground segment (300),
the calculation grid (96) ionospheric corrections by compiling data the majority of the measurements realized on the level of aviation segment user
transfer to the space segment (100) data (from 91 to 95) grid (96) ionospheric corrections.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the said steps are implemented in real-time and C is erevna.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that for the calculation grid (96) ionospheric corrections, in the case when the number of dimensions of delays coming from the aviation segment of the user, becomes smaller than the minimum threshold value, the computing system selects the latency coming from ground stations (SBAS G).

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the computer system (1) conveys to many aircraft, having on Board RF receiver (21), having the ability to measure latency, a measure of the reliability of their RF receiver (21).



 

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