Hydraulic turbine with self-closing blades
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine with self-closing blades comprises a shaft and a row of identical blades, forming at least one impeller. Blades are connected with the shaft with the help of axes 2. All blades consist of a row of plates and a holder 13 of a rotation angle. Two rectangular plates are attached to the axis 2 installed on the shaft with the help of bearings. Two triangular plates are fixed to each of the lower and upper part of rectangular plates of the blade, and these plates are connected to each other and to rectangular plates with the help of axes and bearings. Inside the blade 7 there is a holder 13 of a rotation angle comprising a frame 22, which is rigidly connected to the axis 2 installed on the shaft. Along the frame 22 with the help of bearings there are levers moving with one end, being connected to each other with an axis, by other ends the levers are connected to appropriate rectangular plates with the help of hinged joints. Inside the frame 22 there are two springs installed in the corners.
EFFECT: reduced impact processes.
The invention relates to hydropower, and it can be used as a hydro power plant small, medium capacity, and even greater power when installing complex units.
Known turbine with self-closing blades /EN 2010125800 AND IPC F03B 17/06, published on 27.12.2011/containing the shaft, is attached to the axis of the blades, with the axes of the blades by means of a hinge plate attached to the upper and lower parts of the plates attached sash plate, interconnected and plates mounted on the axle, by means of hinges to the axis of the blade holder attached angle that contains a frame rigidly connected to the axis of the blade, on which one end of the moving levers, United shaft, while the other ends of the levers are connected by hinges to the plates of the blade the blade and shaft turbines are installed in the fluid flow vertically or horizontally.
The disadvantage of this turbine is a high wear and deformation of parts and components rotor blades, due to the shock processes when opening the blade.
The objective of the invention is to provide a turbine with self-closing blades in the implementation to achieve the technical result consists in the reduction of shock processes.
This technical cut ltat is achieved by what turbine with self-closing blades includes a shaft and a number of identical blades, which form at least one impeller, the blades connected to the shaft by means of axes and consist of a series of plates and holder angle, with two rectangular plate attached to an axis that is installed on the shaft by means of bearings, the lower and upper rectangular plates with blades attached two triangular plates, which are interconnected and rectangular plates using axes and bearings inside the blade holder has angle that contains a frame, which is rigidly attached to the axis mounted on the shaft on the frame by means of bearings at one end moved the levers, which are connected by the axis, the other ends of the levers connected to the respective rectangular plates with hinges, inside the frame at the corners are two springs.
Figure 1 shows the "impeller" of the turbine, the arrows show the direction of fluid flow.
Figure 2 shows a wind turbine blade, front view.
Figure 3 shows a turbine blade, cut along a-a in the closed state.
Figure 4 shows a wind turbine blade, top view.
Figure 5 shows a blade of the turbine, ventral view, arrows dormancy is the result of the direction of fluid flow.
Figure 6 shows the carrier levers angle.
Figure 7 shows the holder angle.
The turbine includes a shaft 1, which using the same axis 2 perpendicular to installed blades 3, 4, 5, 6 (figure 1). Four blades 3, 4, 5, 6, installed on the shaft 1, form a "working the wheel" (figure 1). Each subsequent set "impeller" is shifted in the direction of rotation of the shaft 1 at an angle relative to the first "impeller", depending on the technical parameters of the turbine, such as smoothness. For example, in figure 1 "impeller" is formed by the blades 3, 4, 5, 6, which are mounted with a shift angle θ=90° in the direction of rotation of the shaft 1 (figure 1), relative to the previous blade, thereby maintaining the maximum power flow-pressure fluid exerted on one blade, such as blade 3.
The blades 3, 4, 5 and 6 turbines are identical, so a description of one of the blades, such as blade 3.
The blade 3 is assembled structure consisting of interconnected plates 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and the holder 13 of the angle of rotation (figure 2, 3, 4, 5). For fixing the blades 3 axis 2, are the washers 14 and 15, limiting the moving blade 3 along axis 2 (figure 3). Plates 7 and 8, a rectangular shape, one side attached to the axle 2 by means of bearings rolling or skidding pad is Oia, for turning on an axis 2 (figure 3). To the lower part of the blade 3 is closer to the shaft 1, to the plates 7 and 8 attached triangular plates 11 and 12 by means of bearings and axles 19, 20, respectively (figure 2, 3, 5). Plates 11 and 12 are interconnected by means of bearings and axis 21 (2, 5). To the upper part of the blade 3, the most distant from the shaft 1, to the plates 7 and 8 attached to a triangular plate 10 and 9 by means of bearings and axles 16, 17, respectively (figure 2, 3, 4). Plates 10 and 9 are interconnected by means of bearings and axle 18 (Fig 2, 4). Thus, in the open position the blade 3 will have, for example, the shape of the bucket, and in a closed - box.
To balance the pressure plates 7 and 8 coming from the fluid flow, and also to hold the blade 3 perpendicular to the flow (figure 5) is the holder 13 of the angle of rotation (figure 2, 3). The holder 13 of the angle of rotation is made in the shape of a frame 22 mounted between the plates 7, 8-in blade 3 and is rigidly connected to the axle 2 (3, 7). Inside the frame 22, by means of bearings 23, moved the levers 24 and 25 (figure 2, 3, 6, 7)connected at one end between the axis 26 (figure 2, 3, 7). Thus, the movement of the levers 24, 25 is limited only along the frame 22. The other end of the lever 24 is connected to the plate 7 by means of hinge 28 (figure 2, 3, 6), the lever 25 is connected to the plate 8 by means of a hinge 29 (2, 6), holding lopas the ü perpendicular to the fluid flow (figure 5). To reduce the impact of processes that occur at the opening of the blades 3 of the turbine, inside the corners of the frame 22 has two springs 27 (Fig 3, 7), which is the damper.
Turbine with self-closing blades works as follows. Under the influence of fluid flow as shown by arrows (1, 5), on the front part of the blade 3, it starts to open (figure 2). After opening, the blade 3 by means of axis 2, is installed on the shaft 1 of the turbine, transmits the pressure force from the inner walls of the blade 3 to the shaft 1, which comes into rotation.
When opening the blade 3, plate 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 will prevent the movement of fluid flow, turbulence occurs. The pressure at the front of the blade 3 will be increased, and on the other lowered. This results in a sharp blow of the liquid at the front of the blade 3. The abrupt opening of the blade 3 leads to impact processes at the nodes and components, increasing the wear and deformation. To reduce the shock processes are spring 22 (Fig 3, 7), which soften the impact of the fluid on the front of the blade 3, and make opening the blade 3 smoother.
Since the pressure of the fluid flow is not evenly presses on the plate 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, due to non-uniform distribution of density and velocity of the fluid in the flow, to prevent turning of the blade 3 axis 2 is the holder 13 at the La rotation, who holds the levers 24, 25 and the frame 22 of the plates 7, 8.
The blade 5, located on the other side of the shaft 1 from blade 3 (Fig 1), will experience the pressure of fluid flow on the back, which will ensure its closing, thereby creating a minimum resistance to fluid flow. The blades 4, 6 operate in the same manner.
Turbine with self-closing blades containing a shaft and a number of identical blades, which form at least one impeller, the blades connected to the shaft by means of axes and consist of a series of plates and holder angle, with two rectangular plate attached to an axis that is installed on the shaft by means of bearings, the lower and upper parts of rectangular plates with blades attached two triangular plates, which are interconnected and rectangular plates using axes and bearings inside the blade holder has angle that contains a frame, which is rigidly attached to the axis mounted on the shaft on the frame by means of bearings at one end moved the levers, which are connected by the axis, the other ends of the levers connected to the respective rectangular plates with hinges, inside the frame at the corners are two springs.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method for conversion of energy of air or water flow currents is characterised by usage of a spring 8, with which a wing 1 or an airfoil is connected kinematically via a movable axis. The wing 1 or the airfoil is connected with the spring 8 with a sling 4. Directly near the wing 1 the sling 4 is equipped with auxiliary rear and front bridles 5 and 6. The bridles 5 and 6 limit the attack angle from the minimum to the maximum position by means of movement of the axis relative to the centre of forces application, creating a torque, which in its turn results in change of the attack angle and sling 4 tension.
EFFECT: simplified design, reduced material intensity, increased manufacturability and as a result lower specific cost of a generated kW*hr of electric energy.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: power plant for conversion of energy of air or water flow currents comprises a power takeoff shaft, with which a wing 1 or an airfoil is connected kinematically via a movable axis and introduced into the flow along with its motion. The power takeoff shaft is arranged in the form of a crankshaft 5. The wing 1 or the airfoil is connected with the crankshaft 5 with a sling 4. Directly near the wing 1 the sling 4 has auxiliary rear and front slings with a function of attack angle limitation. The power plant comprises a device for control of the attack angle 2 from the minimum to the maximum level, made as capable of moving the spring-loaded axis relative to the centre of application of aerodynamic forces depending on direction of crankshaft 5 movement, and as a result from head of air or water medium.
EFFECT: simplified design, reduced material intensity, increased manufacturability and lower specific cost of a generated kW*hr of electric energy.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method to convert energy of air or water flow currents is characterised by using of a power takeoff shaft, with which a wing 1 or an airfoil is kinematically connected via a movable axis being introduced into the flow along with its movement. The power takeoff shaft is arranged in the form of a crankshaft 5. The wing 1 or the airfoil is connected with the crankshaft 5 using a sling 4, equipped with additional short slings in close proximity of the wing. Slings provide for limitation of the attack angle of the wing 1 in the specified range. With the help of the device to control the attack angle 2 the attack angle of the wing 1 is changed with a jump from the minimum one to the maximum one, moving with the help of the movable mass of the accelerometer rigidly connected with a cam the axis of the main sling relative to the centre of application of aerodynamic forces depending on the direction of the crankshaft 5 motion.
EFFECT: simplified design of a converter realised on the basis of the method, reduced metal intensity, higher manufacturability and as a result reduction of specific cost of a produced kW hour of power.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises carcass 1 and case 2 immersed in fluid, outer seat 3 rigidly coupled therewith, at least, three impellers 6, 7, 8 fitted on common lengthwise shaft 4, primary and secondary power takeoff shafts 9, 10 engaged via gears 12. Impellers 6, 7, 8 run in synchronism. Lengthwise shaft 4 turns in bearings 5 fitted in aforesaid carcass. Second impeller 7 fitted on shaft 4 via extra bearing engages with secondary power takeoff shaft 10 via chain gearing. Adjacent impellers are articulated to run in synchronous opposition.
EFFECT: higher engine output.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: turbine assembly for water power generation comprises, at least, two twin auger turbines 2, 4 with variable-inclination attachment 10, floatability component, bottom support 12 and elements to transmit power to power generator 22. Two twin auger turbines 2, 4 feature alternate auger helix pitch and relative overlap.
EFFECT: simplified process and design for relatively shallow waters.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: turbomachine with bladed rotors includes main housing 2, rotor 4 arranged in a movable manner in housing 1, at least two blades 5 that can be rotated and are uniformly distributed along the circle of rotor 4 and fixed on the axis parallel to the rotor axis, conical gears 7, 8, 9, 10 between each axis of blade 4 and coupling 12 rotating on shaft 14 of the rotor. The first rotor 4 is connected to the second rotor 20 that is connected to the first rotor 4 in a movable manner. The second rotor 20 includes at least two blades 22 that can be rotated and are uniformly distributed along the circle of rotor 20 and fixed on the axis parallel to the axis of rotor 20, a transfer mechanism between each axis of blade 22 and coupling 12 rotating on shaft 14 of the rotor.
EFFECT: creation of a turbomachine, in which kinetic energy of liquid can be optimally used with maximum efficiency.
13 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method to convert kinetic energy of a fluid medium flow into useful work including placement of (their) working element (elements) (WE) 1 in the fluid medium flow under conditions of interaction with the fluid medium flow and simultaneous communicating harmonic rotary and reciprocal movements to WE 1. The WE 1 is fixed in the fluid medium flow in a cantilever manner as capable of fixed rotation and rotary movement relative to the axis 6, on which they are fixed, matching the axis for connection of a slider 5 with a connecting rod 3. Reciprocal movements of the WE 1 are carried out in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the flow movement and matching the vector of a normal component of a driving flow force, the resulting component of which is directed perpendicularly to the side surface of the WE 1.
EFFECT: increased capacity, efficiency factor and reliability.
6 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: driving mechanism comprises a symmetric wing 1 arranged in an uneven flow of water with side walls 2, the axis 3 of which is installed in hinged supports 4 at rear ends of cross beams 5, connected by front ends through hinged joints 6 to a support structure 7, and also an actuating mechanism 9 connected with the axis of the wing 1 by means of a gear 8. The mechanism 9 is equipped with an elastic air cushion 11 arranged in the upper part of the wing 1 above water 10 filling its lower part 10, a lever 12, fixed on the wing 1, and vertical traction rods 13. Traction rods 13 are connected by lower ends with bearings 14 installed on the axis 3 and are attached by upper ends by means of springs 15 to the structure 7. Between the structure 7 and the lever 12 there are the following components installed in series - an elastic element 16 and a controller 17 of wing 1 position. In walls 2 there are holes 18. The top of the holes 18 is arranged below the upper point of the wing 1 profile and matches the level 19 of its filling water 10 and the lower border of the cushion 11, which is arranged in the form of an elastic shell 20, filled with air 21.
EFFECT: higher efficiency due to parametric amplification of rotary oscillations of a driving mechanism wing.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric plant comprises a floating base made in the form of a catamaran, between bodies 1 of which there is a channel formed, a water wheel 2 arranged in the latter, with blades 3 fixed on its outer surface and an electric generator 4 kinematically connected with a shaft 5 of the water wheel 2. Walls of the channel formed by bodies 1 of the catamaran are made as narrowing. The channel is symmetrical relative to the plane stretching via the axis of the water wheel 2. To the outer wall of the catamaran body 1, on which the electric generator 4 is located, a shield 7 is fixed at the angle to the flow, and on its upper part a rope 9 is fastened that attaches the plant to the coast. An electric cable connecting the electric generator 4 with a load is fixed freely to the rope 9.
EFFECT: simplified possibility to fix a hydroelectric plant in a certain area of a water stream.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: run-of-river hydropower unit includes base with posts on which there rotated is shaft of wheel with carriers on the ends of which axles with blades are installed. On edges of blades there fixed are tie rods having on their ends the rollers rolling in turn along "П"-shaped guide tracks of side members, which are placed inside near the above carriers. "П"-shaped guide tracks are made in circumferential direction. Centre of circle of guides is offset downwards from shaft axis. Central holes are cut in side members to allow the passage of axes of blades. Guides in upper part have L-shape due to the cutout.
EFFECT: simplifying the design, increasing power, improving reliability and durability of hydropower unit.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.
EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: conversion of river stream energy into electric power.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant has base in the form of catamaran that mounts current generators and their drive, current parameters stabilizing system, turbine capable of running in fully submerged condition, and its hoist. Turbine is made in the form of belt conveyer installed on edge at certain angle to river stream. Blades made of flexible material are secured throughout entire width and length of belt. Each blade is made in the form of bucket capable of folding and resting on belt during transfer from working to idle side of conveyer, and it has pocket on external surface for automatic raising of blade by river stream during transfer from idle to working position. Turbine hoist has rocker arm for turbine suspension hinged on one end to catamaran and on other end, to turbine frame that mounts generator-drive bevel gear so that longitudinal axes of hoist rocker-arm hinges and longitudinal axis of bevel-gear driven pinion are disposed on same line. In addition, hydroelectric power plant is equipped with device enabling variation of turbine angle of installation to water flow.
EFFECT: enhanced power capacity.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: turbine is designed to convert energy of water or air streams inflowing from side. Proposed turbine has shaft hinge-mounted in post around which blades are installed for turning in radial directions between supports rigidly and normally connected to shaft. Turning of blades is limited by stops. Blades are made flat, with rounded off long edges, and are arranged around shaft minimum in two directions with spaces between edges. Turning of blades is limited by two stops, and tire in turbine, thus formed, repeats in length of shaft with uniform angular turn. Supports can be made in form of radial cantilevers with aerodynamic profiling of cross section. Stops are made retractable into support body if pressure force of blade exceeds calibrated force of spring holding the stop in working position.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of using energy of fluid medium flow, simplified design.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for creating stationary and transportable modular hydraulic plants and setting up unit hydraulic power stations. Proposed water-wheel generator has body, shaft with central bevel gear, planet pinion members, each containing blade and shaft with bevel gears on ends, one end of shaft being coupled with central gear. Central bevel gear is rigidly secured on one of ends of central shaft non-rotating around its axis and arranged vertically. Planet pinion members are arranged around central radially and uniformly. Shaft of each planet pinion member with bevel gears on its ends is made single-section, and bevel gear belonging to said shaft and pointed to side of blade of said planet pinion member engages with bevel secured rigidly and coaxially to smaller spur gear of blade reduction gear. Larger spur gear engages with smaller one, and it is secured on axle of blade installed vertically. Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation of brackets mounted by bases on cylindrical housing installed for rotation coaxially relative to central shaft, and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims. Upper rim, being drive wheel, is coupled with energy converters. Central shaft rests by both ends with locking on framework provided with pontoon devices. Invention makes it possible to use river current energy with maximum efficiency at no adverse effect on environment caused by submersion of river flood lands caused by building of dams, energy of ocean currents, energy of tides and ebbs owing to use of blades with two points of support. Versions of design of water-wheel generators are provided in description.
EFFECT: simple design, high adaptability to manufacture and servicing of water-wheel generator.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: generation of electric energy by conversion of water flow.
SUBSTANCE: electric energy is generated with the aid of vane-type machine having at least one rotor, rotor-driven generator and float for vane-type machine; vane-type machine is anchored stationary and rotor is oriented in direction of water flow. Vane-type machine is held in suspended state below water surface. Float may be inflated with compressed air and may be filled with water when required. Rotor is mounted on axle oriented in way of water flow. Rotor blades may be turned with the aid of mechanism in direction of water flow or in opposite direction. Rotor axle is just hollow axle forming the float. Vane-type machine is invisible during operation of plant.
EFFECT: simplified construction; reduction of time required for mounting.
22 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: wind and hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wind and hydraulic motors with vertical shaft of rotation. Proposed vertical shaft turbine has shaft hinge-mounted on post with rigidly and normally attached supports, and blades arranged between supports and installed on axle for turning being limited by two locks. Supports are installed in two directions to form row. Blades are made of closed elastic material tightly enclosing thickened axle to prevent axial displacement and vertical rigid edge spring-loaded relative to axle. Moreover, each blade is provided with stops fixing elastic material relative to thickened axle. Turbine can be furnished with additional rows of supports with blades installed higher and/or lower than first row. Turbine can reliable operate irrespective of velocity and gusts of wind, region and place of mounting, including movable objects, with provision of efficiency 10-16% higher than that of similar constructions.
EFFECT: simple design, effective operation.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: the micro hydro-electric power station is designed for converting energy of flowing medium into electrical energy. The device contains of ground unit, consisting of electricity distributing device, control system and controlled ballast load, a fixed water tank, generator located lower than the level of water in the hermetic tank and connected to the ground unit using water resistant cable. The water turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, is mounted at the run-out and connected to the shaft of the generator through a gear transmission, in the form a multiplier located in a gondola. A cone is placed on the inlet of the run-out in front of the water turbine. The generator is located in the direction of flow behind the multiplier in the same gondola, which is supplied with a device for pumping water from its bottom part. The cone is made of flat elements; part of which is made in such a way that turning about longitudinal axes is possible. A driving gear is provided for this purpose.
EFFECT: increased operation reliability; power regulation.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of renewable energy sources, namely, wind energy conversion into electric energy. Converter contains frame and first and second blades that are kinematically connected with cord (chain), first and second drums (starts) that are motionlessly installed in the shafts of the first and second gears, which interact with the first and second gears via corresponding overrunning clutches, third gear and conical pair of gears with step-up gear and generator, fourth and fifth gears that interact with the third gear and third and fourth blades that are kinematically joined with cord (chain) and third and fourth drums (stars), which interact with fourth and fifth gears via corresponding overrunning clutches. Converter is made of two parts that are symmetrical in respect to outlet shaft of fifth gear, in which drive gear of conical pair is motionlessly installed. The second option of energy converter consists of two parallel adjacent pipes, in the middle of which leak-tight chamber is installed, and blades are installed inside pipes.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency factor and reduction of fluid medium energy conversion net cost.
9 cl, 8 dwg