Method to restore mined pits for construction of cemetery
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of the drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the pit by dumping of stripping rocks with subsequent terracing of hill slopes and arrangement of places for burial of remains, at the same time underground tomb structures are arranged on terraces, being designed for several graves, besides, each tomb structure is made with hydraulic insulation, drainage system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the ventilation system is additionally equipped with a separate air duct installed with an angle of inclination of not more than 35 degrees and made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of cane located in the ground in close proximity from the tomb structure with the possibility to connect each subsequent grace to it in the tomb structure.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs and costs of recovery works, rational usage of land.
The invention relates to the technical reclamation career grooves, remaining after the extraction of building stone and other subsurface minerals.
There is a method of recovery of disturbed lands in open field development , selected as a prototype, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, keeping the cuts sediments, representing a geological monument of nature, free, laying drainage layer construction waste, of a thickness not less than 0.6 meters and particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, layer fertile soil, forming the centre of the quarry hill through landfill overburden followed by terracing the slopes of the hill and the device on the terraces of places for burial of the remains.
The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create the fertile soil layer, which in turn leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, to the irrational use of land the x space, rising labor costs and a significant increase in the cost of the rehabilitation works.
The proposed solution reduces the effort and costs of rehabilitation activities, and promotes the rational use of land.
This is achieved in that in the method of restoring the depleted quarries, including the mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, keeping the cuts sediments, representing a geological monument of nature, free, laying drainage layer construction waste, of a thickness of not less than 0.6 meter and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, forming the centre of the quarry hill through landfill overburden followed by terracing the slopes of the hill and the device on the terraces of places for burial of the remains, according to the invention, on the terraces arrange underground sklepowe structures designed for multiple burials, and each sklepowe building designed with waterproofing, drainage, drainage and ventilation systems, while the ventilation system is further provided with a separate air duct, made in the form of a hollow is the anal, filled with stems of reeds and set in the ground with angle less than 35 degrees in the immediate vicinity sklepowego structures with the possibility of accession by each subsequent burial in scapula construction, with the upper end of the duct is located on the ground surface of the canvas terraces.
Introduction this technical solution reduces the cost of rehabilitation services, through the use of construction waste generated as a result of reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, as well as eliminating the need for extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer. Given that the generated construction waste disposed to landfill disposal of household and industrial waste, the implementation of the present invention will improve the ecological situation. The device on the terraces family sklepowych underground structures will eliminate the looming shortage of land for burial.
The drawing shows the circuit implementation of this method. The method is as follows.
First on the area of disturbed land perform planning work. Define in the space career sections sediments of the middle ages, representing the geological nature monument of the device of the Museum of the Earth. rudnyy absolute elevation (ground level) shall be established with consideration of the feasibility study. The layout of the site comply with planned giving the surface a slight bias towards the General lowering of the earth's surface. Then proceed to the mined-out space career 1, stacking layers of construction waste is similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions. The tab construction waste is produced, keeping the free sections of sediments, representing a geological monument of nature, with the possibility of access to them and observing them. Each stacked layer compacted by the method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms. The stacking of layers to produce the upper boundary of the groundwater level 2. Then stack the draining layer 3 of construction debris, similar in composition to natural minerals, thickness not less than 0.6 meter and particle size fractions of 150-200 mm Line it and condense.
Then, starting from the center of the pit 1, produce filling in the dump overburden. When the height of the hill 4 the career center will reach average absolute marks, proceed to the construction of terraces 5. After laying out the plot and propasti furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces, paths and driveways, form the canvas terraces 5. The construction of terraces 5 given width, not less than seven meters with a cross slope of up to two degrees of production is t using a universal bulldozer. Then, starting from the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the quarry arrange retaining wall 6 to strengthen terraces 5. Retaining wall 6 prevents the erosion of soil. Then on the terraces 5 equip sklepowe underground structure 7 to create places of burial 8. In sklepowych underground structures 7 are working on waterproofing, make drainage, drainage and vent systems. In the immediate vicinity sklepowych underground structures 7 installing additional hollow duct 9, is filled with stems of reeds, and combine it with the first and subsequent burial. In order to eliminate stagnant zones in the duct 9 is installed with an inclination angle less than 35 degrees, and its upper end is situated above the surface of the canvas terraces 5. Installation of ducts 9 accelerates the mineralization of burial due to the access of air to the graves. Cylindrical or triangular stalks of the cane is strong and durable, have a water repellent effect and provide continuous access of air to the graves. The first burial carried out to a depth of three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to ground cloth terraces shall not be less than one meter. Walkways, driveways spread natural or IP is ostendam stone.
Example. Depleted quarries cement plant near the city of Podolsk, Moscow region opened sections of the deposits of the Moscow stage of the middle division of the Carboniferous system, which is dated to the period Podolsky horizon. In order to preserve the historic and scientific value of stratotype Podolsky horizon tab construction waste is produced, keeping the cuts sediments of the middle age free, with access to them, observing them.
Sources of information
1. Patent of Russia №2448252, CL IS 41/32, BI No. 11, 2012
The way of restoration of worked-out quarries for the construction of the cemetery, including the mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, keeping the cuts sediments, representing a geological monument of nature, free, laying drainage layer construction waste thickness of not less than 0.6 m, and particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, forming the centre of the quarry hill through landfill overburden followed by terracing the slopes of the hill and the device on the terraces of places for burial of remains, characterized in that on the terraces satisfied with underground lapopie structures designed for multiple burials, and each sklepowe building designed with waterproofing, drainage, drainage and ventilation systems, while the ventilation system is further provided with a separate air duct, installed with an inclination angle less than 35° and is made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of reeds, located in the soil in the immediate vicinity sklepowego structures with the possibility of accession by each subsequent burial in sklepowe construction, with the upper end of the duct is located on the ground surface of the canvas terraces.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a mined-out space of a quarry to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of a drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the mined-out quarry from stripping rocks with terracing of its slopes, installation of a drainage system, retaining walls, and arrangement of places on terraces for burial of remains, at the same time retaining walls for terraces are made of reinforced concrete cylindrical piles by means of their submersion in soil, pile caps are rigidly connected to each other with the help of concrete mortar, and on terraces they arrange underground vault structures with hydraulic insulation, water disposal system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the first burial is made for depth of more than three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to the level of terrace surface ground shall make at least one meter.
EFFECT: rational use of restored land areas.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate extraction, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks, mining of a quarry field, filling of the mined space of the pit with construction wastes and further compaction. Then terracing is carried out at one of pit slopes with the help of a bulldozer. Places for burial of remains are arranged on terraces. On the other slope of the pit a vertical wall is arranged for burial of urns with ashes of deceased, where horizontal rows of niches are arranged, being made by means of horizontal pushing of pipe sections of rectangular cross section.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works, rational use of land areas.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: separate excavation of soil layer and overburden rocks, their movement and stocking into individual strip dumps is performed; open-pit field development, laying and levelling of overburden rocks and their compaction is performed to form an impervious screen. Then, backfill material is added, which consists of a mixture of overburden rocks and non-organic wastes - dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production and citrogypsum from production of citric acid in the following ratio (wt %): overburden rocks : dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production : citrogypsum = 2 : (1 - 1.5): (0.2 - 0.3).
EFFECT: reduction of adverse effect on the environment owing to avoiding open-area storage of wastes, and production of citric acid, and their use as part of backfill material during recultivation of open pits.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.
EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.
SUBSTANCE: separation of tailings into fractions is performed at tailing drain points on inclined surface, on which system of settling trenches with reinforced-concrete trays laid in them is created. Width of the tray bottom is equal to width of bucket of extraction-loading equipment. Then, mechanical cleaning of settling trenches from conditioning tailings is performed.
EFFECT: reduction of impoverishment of tailings and costs for development of useful components.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.
EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation, in particular, to restoration of disturbed lands located in overmoistened areas. The method is based on stimulating the processes of natural overgrowing and including a complete or partial removal of layer of sand previously applied to the bog to a residual layer above the surface of the bog 1-15 centimetres.
EFFECT: method enables to stimulate the natural overgrowing of disturbed lands, particularly wetland areas with the settlement and development of local wild plant species.
SUBSTANCE: method includes water draining from an open pit, filling of a worked-out area. At the same time the worked-out area is filled with a mineral mass containing metals; water draining from the open pit and worked-out area filling are carried out simultaneously. Besides, the volume of the filled material is comparable to the volume of drained pit water, metals are extracted from the drained pit water by means of electric exchange sorption, technical water produced after sorption is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to process needs of production, and the other is sent via an electric cavitation plant to produce active oxygen, then is sent back to the pit to activate the process of internal pit leaching.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of water-logged pits reclamation.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in removal of water from a drop, giving the specified position to the drop bottom, laying of a water-impermeable geomembrane onto this bottom and covering of a geomembrane and a beach with a protective layer from natural soil. The geomembrane edge is installed above the rated water level in the pond, created in the drop with atmospheric precipitation and put into economic turnover. In plan beyond the geomembrane the protective layer in its base comprises an antifiltration layer coupled with a geomembrane.
EFFECT: reduced scope of planning works and dust generation, increased suitability of area of a preserved pond for further use in a direction previously not characteristic for it.
5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of pits conservation, including open-pit field mining, foundation pit with flattening of pit edges and their reinforcement along the periphery and pit flooding with water. Note that edges flattening is done till reaching the angle of safe cut. Along the lower flooded area of the edges along the whole periphery together with flattening of edges from sheared massive there formed is a retaining embankment till the mark corresponding the minimum water level in pit. After that the retaining embankment is covered by protective layer from macrofragmental material till the mark exceeding the maximum water level in pit to the height of wave run-up. Dumping of protective layer from macrofragmental material is done by segregation of consertal rocks as a result of mining-and-transport equipment unloading at the upper edge of the pit, the edges flattening till reaching the angle of natural slope is done above the minimum water level in pit.
EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves waterproofing sump walls and bottom; filling thereof with used drilling mud; pumping-out liquid phase and filling thereof with peat and mineral ground. Liquid phase is previously accumulated in the sump and cleaned. Mineral ground, peat and used drilling mud are mixed one with another and supplied to bank slope or to road slope. Then grass is planted on slopes. Cleaned liquid phase is used for grass watering.
EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.
EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.
SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.
EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.
EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.
EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.
FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.
SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.