Combined frame-raft foundation for low height construction on soft soil

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: combined frame-raft foundation for low height construction on soft soil includes a girder reinforced concrete foundation under all bearing walls of the building from factory-built slabs joined to each other and combined into a system of cross bands laid onto a levelled base on the hydraulic insulation layer in the form of a film under the entire building, each of the slabs is made with a section of closed shape with an insulant arranged inside, and the space between the slabs of the frame is filled with earth mass and a layer of the insulant on top, forming the bearing structure of the first floor slab. Slabs of the girder reinforced concrete foundation under all bearing walls are made in the form of a shell of trapezoid rigid shape of section of spatial and closed type, formed from upper and lower slabs of the spatial type, connected to each other. The lower slab is arranged as wider than the upper one and is equipped with boards along the length. The upper slab is made with inclined ribs. In the boards and in the lower part of inclined ribs there are slots, where bushing keys are embedded, with the help of which the upper and lower slabs are connected to each other, and in the places of joints the slabs are equipped with reinforcement protrusions for joining with reinforcement of adjacent elements with node embedding.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of a frame raft foundation due to increased rigidity, improved thermal protection properties, reduced material intensity and labour costs in manufacturing, provision of operation reliability.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction of foundations of low-rise buildings on soft soils, which are characterized, on the one hand, small weight, low-rise buildings, and on the other hand, weak load-bearing properties of the base (less than 1 kg/m2).

In traditional solutions, according to the construction rules is SP-50-101-2004 p, States that "in complex engineering-geological conditions (specific soils, high groundwater levels, etc. can be used types of foundations specified in 8.2 b and C, i.e. the foundations on locally aggregated basis (wyrmbane or vyshtampovannyj pits, precast blocks, and others), short piles". In p the same SP stated: "precast-monolithic and monolithic foundations of all walls must be rigidly interconnected and connected with cross-belts." Specific primers also include loose, watery, tatahouine and other

Known columnar-belt Foundation, including poles, laid to a depth of freezing, and the tape-grillage connecting the upper end walls of the pillars in a single structure. A distinctive feature of this Foundation is the presence of the air gap 10...15 cm below the ribbon. Outside the gap is closed by a blind area not associated with tape-raft. Of Foundation for heaving soils air gap compenser is no extension heaving of the soil, and narcisistic - provides a soft resting at home on the base. (Yakovlev R.N. Universal Foundation. Technology TISE, 2006).

Known nezapuschenny the Foundation laid on locally compact Foundation made in the form of reinforced concrete or concrete element, placed on a bed of narcisista material - sand large and medium size, fine gravel, etc. That fill material (layer-by-layer seal, as when the device pillows) and sinus trench. The blocks are connected by welding or twisting through the armature releases, filled with concrete and form a monolithic horizontal frame, a redistributive uneven deformation of the soil (Bogdanov .F. Foundation from a to I. Moscow, 2005, 39, p.75).

Known slightly the Foundation, which is a concrete or reinforced concrete element, arranged, usually on a pad or filling of narcisista material, which reduces the displacement of the Foundation in the period of soil freezing and thawing. As the material spreading device of the pillow can be used sand gravelistoe, large or medium size, fine gravel, boiler slag, and napocensia soils (VSN 29-85. Projecting slightly foundations of low-rise rural buildings n the heaving soils. Moscow 1985 Item 3.2-3.4, figure 2).

The disadvantages of the above known analogues foundations are: lack of reliability for the construction of the weak, sagging, heaving soils and seismic zones because of the sensitivity to uneven ground deformation; substantial heat loss through the Foundation; increased consumption of materials and high labor costs associated with strengthening the Foundation and the use of specialized equipment.

Known foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils, taken as a prototype, including tape reinforced concrete Foundation under all load-bearing walls of the building, linked and combined in a system with cross-belts, and the foundations for low-rise construction in monolithic or precast-monolithic design is made in the form of plate-frame Foundation under all load-bearing walls of the building, laid on an aligned basis without amplification special means for waterproofing layer in the form of a film under the entire building, including the blind area, the cross-section elements are plate-frame Foundation is a closed box-like shape, consisting of upper and lower concrete slabs, combined with the extreme lateral and middle thickened ribs, between which laid the slab insulation, the protruding portion of the plates is about stamping Foundation for the plane of the exterior walls acts as a base and docked with the blind areas, laid on a heated basement in case of swelling soils, a space between the frame elements laid earthen mass and a layer of insulation on top, forming the supporting structure of the floor of the first floor, and precast-monolithic execution elements are plate-frame Foundation is made in the factory version as the teams with the armature releases for mating with a valve adjacent elements with monolithic node (patent # 105637 U1, priority date 11.01.2011, publication date 20.06.2011, the authors Ubowski NP and others, RU, prototype)

The disadvantages of the prototype are: insufficient rigidity of the frame to provide low sensitivity to uneven ground deformation due to the rectangular cross section of the element plate-frame Foundation; low thermal insulation properties due to the presence of partitions mentioned in the loft, made in the form of thickened ribs; increased consumption of concrete to perform element of rectangular cross-section with a thickened middle rib with increasing height to provide sufficient rigidity.

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils by increasing stiffness, improve thermal insulation properties, reduction in the consumption of concrete and labor costs in manufacturing is Olenyi, and ensure reliable operation.

To solve the problem in plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils, including tape reinforced concrete Foundation under all load-bearing walls of the building of the plates prefabricated, linked and combined in a system with cross-belts, laid on an aligned basis for waterproofing layer in the form of a film under the entire building, each of the plates is made with a cross section of a closed shape with inside insulation and the space between the plates of the frame laid the earthen mass and a layer of insulation on top, forming the supporting structure of the floor of the first floor, according to the invention, the plate strip concrete Foundation under all load-bearing walls made in shell trapezoidal rigid shaped cross-section spatial and closed type, formed of upper and lower plates of a spatial type, interconnected, while the bottom plate is made wider than the top and is provided along the length of the sides, and top plate are made with inclined edges, and the sides and in the lower part of the inclined ribs made grooves in which zamonolichennyj pins, with which the upper and lower plates are connected, and joints of plates provided with reinforcement bars for mating with the valve neighbouring the x elements with monolithic node.

According to the invention, the space inside the shell trapezoidal rigid forms filled insulation of any type.

The effectiveness of the proposed plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils based on all the advantages inherent in the prototype in comparison with the known analogues, and increase its effectiveness due to a change in cross-sectional shape of the plates of the Foundation in the form of a shell trapezoidal rigid forms of spatial and closed type. Due to the change in cross-sectional shape of the plate solved the question of material, as a result of having been removed inefficient zone was reduced cross-sectional area and, consequently, the consumption of materials. The proposed cross-sectional shape is also more advantageous from the point of view of heat-shielding function and design of the transmission.

The implementation of the plates of the inventive plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils in the form of a shell trapezoidal rigid shaped cross-section spatial and closed type, formed of upper and lower plates fastened together by concreting grooves keys and the space between the grooves is a more simple design in manufacturing. This design of the base allows you to use the te slab insulation and other insulation, lacking strength properties. Thus, this design enhances the efficiency of the plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils by reducing labor costs in the construction of foundations on weak and heaving soils, rigidity, reliability, improved thermal insulation properties and reduction of consumption of concrete and reinforced concrete.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a partial cross section of the Foundation; figure 2 - Assembly slab Foundation, figure 3 - General view of the Foundation axonometric view.

Plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils executed under all load-bearing walls of the building 1 and consists of plates, made in the form of shell trapezoidal rigid shaped cross-section spatial and closed type, formed of a top plate 2 and bottom plate 3 spatial type, connected to each other. The lower plate 3 is made wider than the upper plate 2 and is provided along the length of the flanges 4. Top plate 2 is made with inclined ribs 5. The flanges 4 and in the lower part of the inclined edges 5 are made grooves 6, in which zamonolichennyj pins 7 through which the upper 2 and lower 3 plates interconnected. The space between the upper 2 and lower 3 plates filled with insulation 8 of any type. In m the hundred joints plate provided with a release valve 9 for mating with a valve adjacent elements with monolithic node.

Plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction in soft ground, laid on the aligned base 10 on the waterproofing layer 11 in the form of a film under the entire building. The space between the plates of the Foundation excavation mass 12 and the insulation layer 13 on top, forming the supporting structure of the floor 14 of the first floor.

All strip concrete Foundation made in the factory version with the installation of the loops 15 in the lower plate 3.

Production work on the device plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils is as follows.

On the levelled base 10 is placed several layers of waterproof film 11 with a low coefficient of friction under the entire area of low-rise buildings. On waterproofing film 11 under load-bearing walls of low-rise buildings stacked elements of the bottom plate 3 a spatial type, there is, for example slab insulation 8, and then on the bottom plate 3 is placed top plate 2 and is their connection by seminolecounty keys 7 in the grooves 6, made in the flanges 4 and in the lower part of the inclined edges 5. In the joints of plates connecting reinforcement bars 9 neighboring elements and perform the monolithic nodes.

The space between the plates of the Foundation from the inside Zaklady the Ute earthen mass 12 and the insulation layer 13 on top, forming the supporting structure of the floor 14 of the first floor.

If necessary, for economic and operational needs in the gap between the frame elements can be arranged underground room (technical cavity)with independent designs from plate-frame basis. It is very important for weak soils, because the room is actually best in warm conditions and is used for household needs.

Feasibility advantage of the plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils

The use of foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils allows the construction in difficult ground conditions (very weak, sagging, heaving soils and other) without the prior hardening of the soil, using the natural properties of the soil, combining structural and functional properties and provides strength, rigidity, allows the use of any insulation. Due to the spatial rational shaping increases the Flexural rigidity, because of this design becomes insensitive to non-uniform deformation of the base, thereby improving the reliability of operation without prior significant earthworks and devices pillows.

This design contributes to the reduce labor costs and reduce construction costs by reducing the volume of earthworks, which is minimized as it does not require excavation device pillows and the use of specialized equipment.

This design improves thermal insulation properties by reducing heat loss through the floor and Foundation by 10-15%. The insulation is protected from moisture and damage, ie ensured its longevity and, therefore, protects the soil from frost heaving. In addition, insulated mass of soil forms a bearing construction of the basement floor.

A sliding layer in the form of several layers of film under the Foundation waterproofing system performs functions that creates the possibility of slippage powerful seismic waves under the Foundation.

Thus, this construction of the Foundation of the plates in the form of a shell trapezoidal rigid shaped cross-section spatial and closed type for low-rise construction on soft soils is effective and has the reliability, durability, efficiency.

1. Plate-frame foundations for low-rise construction on soft soils, including tape reinforced concrete Foundation under all load-bearing walls of the building of the plates prefabricated, linked and combined in a system with cross-belts, laid on an aligned basis for waterproofing layer in the form of a film under the entire building, each p is it made with a cross section of a closed shape with inside insulation, and the space between the plates of the frame laid the earthen mass and a layer of insulation on top, forming the supporting structure of the floor of the first floor, characterized in that the plate strip concrete Foundation under all load-bearing walls made in the form of shell trapezoidal rigid shaped cross-section spatial and closed type, formed of upper and lower plates of a spatial type, interconnected, while the bottom plate is made wider than the top and is provided along the length of the sides, and top plate are made with inclined edges, and the sides and in the lower part of the inclined ribs made grooves in which zamonolichennyj pins, with which the upper and the bottom plate are connected, and joints of plates provided with reinforcement bars for mating with a valve adjacent elements with monolithic node.

2. Plate-frame Foundation according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner space of the shell trapezoidal rigid forms filled insulation of any type.



 

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