Method of predicting five-year long survival of patients with infiltrating brest cancer by determining index of dispersion of tissue structures
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to pathomorphological diagnostics. To predict five-year long survival of patients with invasive breast cancer index of dispersion of tissue structures is determined as difference between maximal and minimal values of number of cancer structures and/or fractions of parenchymal or stromal component in microscopy at small magnification (100x) divided by quantity of vision fields in which said values were counted. If index of dispersion of tissue structures is lower than 1.6, five-year long survival of patient can be predicted with 95% probability, if its value is higher than 2.3, prediction of five-year long survival is unfavourable.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to predict five-year long survival in patients with invasive breast cancer.
The invention relates to medicine, in particular, to the pathological diagnosis.
Analogs of the invention could not be found.
The use of the present invention provides the following technical result: the uneven distribution of tissue components and structures that constitute the tumor tissue, and group variability, showing this inequality in quantitative terms, can be used to predict the five-year survival rate of patients with infiltrating breast cancer.
In the process of morphological analysis of histological specimens infiltrating breast cancer their qualitative and quantitative analysis we have identified a significant irregularity in the distribution of tissue components and structures that constitute the tumor tissue not only from case observations, but in the different fields of view in the same patient. For example, the number of cancer structures from observation to observation can vary from tens to thousands in a single field of view. Attempts to search for any patterns above heterogeneity distribution and ordering of tissue structures has led to the conclusion about the necessity of search performance in quantitative terms, which would adequately reflect this Goethe is hennoste and at the same time to be sufficiently informative. In quantitative morphometric studies such indicator is the measure of variability of a variable or a relative indicator of the scale (the relative difference of the limits). He is the index of dispersion tissue structures (IDTS).
This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved by counting the number of cancer structures and the definition of parenchymal fraction (stromal) component in 30 fields of view using morphometric software. Then calculated the absolute difference of the extremes (maximum and minimum values) for the received data and ITS by the formula:
where max is the maximum value of the number of cancer structures and/or parenchymal fraction (stromal) component;
min - the minimum value of cancer structures and/or parenchymal fraction (stromal) component;
n is the number of fields of view (in this case 30), which was calculated values.
Then carried out the appropriate analysis of the obtained indicators of diversity or variability, reflecting ITS. For patients with infiltrating breast cancer, the relative difference of the extremes within no more than 1.6 to 30 fields of view micropreparative, with 95% probability it is possible to predict five-year survival. In slucas relative difference between the extremes of over 2.3 - the forecast five-year survival rates of adverse (with a 95% probability that the patient will not live more than 5 years).
Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including the search for patents and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not discovered similar, characterized by signs, identical with all the essential features of the claimed invention. Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of "novelty."
As a result of research 128 microslides with infiltrating breast cancer was made a count of the number of cancer structures in 30 fields of view (magnification zoom microscope 100x), was also determined the proportion of parenchymal component using morphometric program ImageTool 3.0 (USA). On the basis of the data obtained for each patient we obtained indices IDTS in the form of absolute and relative difference of the extremes of cancer structures and the proportion of parenchymal component (see table 1 and table 2).
As can be seen from the tables for all indicators showed statistically significant differences (p<0,003). 95% confidence intervals of the values of these parameters do not overlap and can serve as a reliable parameter for predicting cf the ka survival in a minimum of 5 years.
|Mean values and confidence intervals of individual variability in the number of cancer structures defined in 30 fields of view for each patient (case study)* infiltrating breast cancer|
|The name of the parameter variability||Prognostic group||M±m||95% confidence interval||The significance level of the difference|
|The absolute difference between the extrema||The survival rate over 5 years n=90||56,03±4,20||64,39-47,68||p<0.003 to|
|Survival less than 5 years n=38||93,37±11,98||69,09-117,65|
|The relative difference extrema||The survival rate over 5 years n=90||1,87±0,14||2,15-1,59||p<0.003 to|
|Survival less than 5 years n=38||3,11±0,40||2,3-3,92|
|Mean values and confidence intervals of individual variability in the share of the parenchyma of the tumor tissue, as defined in 30 fields of view for each patient (case study)* with infiltrating breast cancer|
|The name of the parameter variability||Prognostic group||M±m||95% confidence interval||The significance level of the difference|
|The absolute difference between the extrema||The survival rate over 5 years n=90||9,01±0,51||7,99-10,02||p<0.003 to|
|Survival less than 5 years n=38||18,33±1,49||15,3-21,36|
|The relative difference extrema||The survival rate over 5 years n=90||0,30±0,02||0,27-0,33||p<0,003|
|Survival less than 5 years n=38||0,61±0,05||0,51-0,71|
A method for predicting five-year survival of patients with invasive breast cancer by determining the index of dispersion tissue structures as the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the number of cancer structures and/or shares parenchymal or stromal component in microscopy at low magnification 100x, divided by the number of fields of view in which calculated these values, and when the value of the index of dispersion tissue structures less than 1.6 with 95% probability can be predicted five-year survival rate of the patient, and when it is more than 2.3 forecast five-year survival rate is unfavorable.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device includes sampling tube mounted in pipeline perpendicular to flow movement and provided with slot-like inlet from side of flow movement. Slots in inlet are made horizontally along the height of pipeline and are directed toward liquid flow. Depth of slots changes from small near pipeline walls to largest near pipeline axis. Opposite to inlet in sampling tube there made is a vertical slot.
EFFECT: increasing sample uniformity and improving accuracy of sample composition determination.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves analysis of an image of mixture surface and determination of coefficient of its non-homogeneity. The investigated mixture is uniformly distributed on a smooth surface and divided into necessary number of portions; digital images of their surfaces with build-up of brightness histograms are obtained. Then, each portion is divided into equal number of parts (probes) with build-up of their brightness histograms. Mixture non-homogeneity coefficient is calculated by comparing digital images of parts (probes) of a piston with an image of the whole portion of the investigated mixture as per brightness histograms.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity, increasing speed and accuracy of determination of quality of mixture of components that differ as to colour.
SUBSTANCE: sampling device comprises a probe with a sharp-edged cutting edge in the lower part, a flange with a chamfer in the upper part, which is attached coaxially to the rod of a smaller diameter with a measuring scale, and a sample extractor. The cylindrical probe in the lower part is provided with two oval cutting bits with sharp-edged cutting edges. The flange in the upper part with the manufacturing hole made perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the sampling device is attached to the bar consisting of rods of circular section which are screwed in one another with dimensional manufacturing holes. The openings are made on the surface of the rod in every 500 mm from the oval cutting bits of the probe, and their diameter is equal to diameter of the probe extractor - a rod with a conical groove. Moreover, between the cutting bits and the flange on the probe surface two longitudinal grooves are arranged opposite each other.
EFFECT: reduction of the labour intensity of sampling by providing easier penetration of the sampling device in the estimated mass, providing the possibility of batch sampling from a depth of 1,5-2 m, ensuring easy removal of the sampling device at deep layers of silage.
SUBSTANCE: device for silage sampling comprises a probe with a sharp-edged cutting edge in the lower part, a flange in the upper part, which is rigidly attached to the bar with a measuring scale, and a sample extractor. The probe 1 of square or rectangular cross section is provided in the lower part with two sharpened cutting edges 2 in the form of a dovetail. In the upper part the probe is provided with two fixing holes 3 providing its attachment to the flange 4 of the square or rectangular cross section by means of its spring-loaded clamps 6. For smooth transition from the square section of the probe 1 to the circular, the rod flange 4 in the upper part is made in the form of a truncated pyramid 11. The rod consists of bars 10 of circular section screwed into each other, with measuring technological holes 12, applied on its surface after every 100 mm. In these holes on the rod with the pin 15 a device is fixed, consisting of a sleeve 13 with two handles 14, and the extractors of the sample from the probe is the upper part of the rod, the diameter of which is less than the internal dimension of the probe.
EFFECT: reduction of labour intensity of sampling due to easier penetration of the device in the estimated mass, providing the possibility of batch selecting at a depth of 1,5-2 m.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to pathological anatomy. To estimate blood supply of left part of large intestine in experiment on human corpse, alternating introduction of dye solution is performed into superior mesenteric artery, internal iliac arteries and into inferior mesenteric artery with further visual observation over spread and intensity of staining of intestine tissues with dye. Introduced dye solution consists of 500 ml of distilled water, 200 g of lead nitrate and 20 ml of 1% of water solution of methylene blue. In order to estimate blood supply of left half of intestine concentration of lead nitrate in percent is determined in samples of intestine tissues by means of low-vacuum scanning electron microscope with system of energy dispersive microanalysis.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to objectively determine degree of participation of superior mesenteric, internal iliac and inferior mesenteric arteries in blood supply of left half of large intestine in experiment on human corpse.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: test engineering.
SUBSTANCE: complex comprises a housing representing the interconnected vertical panels on which the samplers with absorption packets with hubs are located. The complex also comprises solenoid valves, filters-dehumidifiers, tanks with sensors measuring temperature and pressure, sampling manifold, the gas turbine aircraft engine (GTAE) located in front of the testee, a diffuser with jet tubes, a vacuum pump, and a control panel. At that the complex is equipped with an additional tank with temperature and pressure sensors and a solenoid valve, and the samplers and solenoid valves are uniformly distributed in equal parts on the manifolds, each of which is connected to the corresponding tank.
EFFECT: enhancing the technological capabilities of the complex, reducing the time of air sampling from the compressor GTAE for its subsequent analysis for the content of harmful impurities and their concentrations, saving expensive jet fuel, increased ease of use of the complex, and reducing wear of GTAE.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forensic medicine. To diagnose cause of death from mechanical asphyxia sectional examination of brain is carried out. Macroscopic and microscopic changes of hypophysis are detected. If constellation of such diagnostic signs as: plethora and dilatation of cavernous sinus; plethora and visually detectable hemorrhages into hypophysis capsule and its pedicle and presence of microfocal hemorrhages; plethora of microhemocirculation vessels of hypophysis lobe; small hemorrhages in neurohypophysis are present, death resulting from mechanical asphyxia is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to diagnose cause of death from mechanical asphyxia.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: automated system for monitoring exhaust gases of processing plants comprises the data processing module that comprises the server and the automated worksite equipped with a computer and a display device that provides visualisation of the results of monitoring of exhaust gases and analysis of the technical condition of the processing plants, and connected through a network equipment, local area networks with the system and module of preparation and measurement, comprising sampling sampling unit containing sampling device and the sample delivery line and the gas analysis unit. The sample delivery line is made with the ability to maintain a constant temperature of the gas sample throughout the entire length and is provided with shutoff and control valves operating in an automatic mode as a result of the control action of the programmable controller.
EFFECT: effective operational monitoring and diagnostics, and timely maintenance of processing plants.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: bathometer-degasifier of bottom waters comprises a sealed housing with a device for changing the internal volume, a valve and taps for gas and water. The housing is provided with internal pressure compensator and comprises the upper and lower valves in the form of coaxial cylindrical pistons which are provided with cuffs of V-shaped cross section and mounted in the upper and lower mounting holes made in the housing and provided with cuffs of V-shaped cross section. The pistons are mounted on the rod which is connected to the suspension and the load and mounted in the housing with the ability to move for the pistons exit from the mounting holes and their mounting in the mounting holes. The rod is kinematically connected with lock of open and closed states of the bathometer-degasifier, connected to the sensor of touching the bottom. And the housing is also provided with a water intake device with a filter.
EFFECT: increased reliability of samples of bottom water and gases dissolved in it and providing the ability of sampling from deep waters.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: microadmixture detector contains desorption chamber, which forms zone of desorption and has casing, channel of sample supply for introduction of sample into desorption chamber and channel for exhaust of sample-capturing gas from desorption chamber. Channels of sample supply and gas exhaust are connected with desorption chamber in realisation of process of preliminary concentration of sample-capturing gas in desorption chamber of microadmixture detector by changing desorption chamber volume, which results in providing continuous supply and accumulation of sample. Method of analysis for microadmixture detector includes continuous supply of sample into desorption chamber of microadmixture detector, which forms desorption zone. Method also includes continuous exhaust of sample-capturing gas from desorption chamber and preliminary concentration of gas, which contains captured sample, in desorption chamber by changing desorption chamber volume, with continuous supply of sample into desorption chamber and continuous exhaust of sample-capturing gas.
EFFECT: reduction of probability of non-detecting substances and increase of detector sensitivity.
10 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to surgery. To carry out pre-operation diagnostics of hepatic failure in patients with obstructive jaundice, examination of patient is performed. Acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids are identified in blood by gas chromatography method. Level of citrulline in blood is determined by method of colorimetry. If concentration of acetic acid is within the range from 0.4258 to 1.1000 mmol/l, that of propionic acid is higher than 0.0214 to 0.0970 mmol/l, of butyric acid higher than 0.003 to 0.009 mmol/l, of isovaleric acid higher than 0.00004 to 0.003 mmol/l, and if level of citrulline is in the range from 27.3±12.36 to 31.5±11.03 mmol/l, hepatic failure is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to diagnose hepatic failure in patients with obstructive jaundice before operation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to pediatrics and can be used in neurology, medical psychology and psychiatry. Clinical examination of children is carried out by complaints, anamnestic information and data of physical examination. Assessed are: symptoms of vegetative manifestations at the moment of examination and peculiarities of sensomotor reactions: weight and length of body at birth, gestation age, response to stimulation in children of first year of life, sleep in children of first year of life, EEG in children of early age, parasomnia, enuresis, meteosensitivity, headaches, vessel lability, vestibulopathy, peculiarities of motor sphere, feeding behaviour, skin manifestations, course of infectious and somatic diseases, menstrual disorders in adolescent girls, brain ultrasound examination. Connection of said disorders with predominant dysfunction of right or left brain hemispheres is determined.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase reliability of diagnostics, which is achieved due to taking into account vegetative reactions and disorders in child of first year of life.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to therapeutic dentistry, orthodontics and prevention of dental diseases, and is intended for estimation of quality of oral cavity care in patients during treatment with non-detachable orthodontic appliances. Lingual, vestibular, occlusive, distal and medial surfaces of teeth are examined with determination of presence of dental deposit on them. In the process of vestibular surface examination its vestibular-medial, vestibular-central and vestibular-distal parts are successively examined. Surfaces of teeth of entire dentition are examined. Hygienic index is determined as ratio of the sum of the number of examined dental surfaces and their parts without presence of dental deposit to the total number of examined dental surfaces and their parts. If hygienic index is from 0 to 0.3, quality of oral cavity care in patients with non-detachable orthodontic appliances is estimated as unsatisfactory, from 0.4 to 0.6 as satisfactory, and from 0.7 and higher as good.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase accuracy of estimating quality of oral cavity care in patients with non-detachable orthodontic appliances due to examination of all teeth, includes into dentition, for presence of dental deposit on 7 zones of each tooth.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to pathological anatomy, and can be used for specifying pathogenesis of manifestations of connective tissue pathology. For this purpose non-specific signs of chronic inflammation are identified in blood. Biopsy of skin is carried out. Sections of connective tissue sample are made. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (SGAG), immunohistochemical markers of apoptosis induction, mast cells are identified in obtained sections. Presence of non-specific signs of chronic inflammation in blood, as well as sharp reduction of SGAG content in reticular dermis, proapoptotic changes of cell elements of reticular dermis, appearance of mast cells in external layers of reticular dermis are used to make conclusion about presence of systemic reaction of connective tissue, conditioned by development of syndrome of combined dystrophic-degenerative changes of mesenchymal derivatives in case of local chronic inflammatory process (SCDDCMD IN CASE OF LCIP), is made.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to carry out differential diagnostics between diseases of connective tissue of hereditary or involutional etiology, and states, conditioned by systemic reaction of connective tissue at the background of SCDDCMD IN CASE OF LCIP development, as well as to diagnose prenosological pathologic changes of connective tissue to presence of chronic inflammation focus.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine. In order to determine fetoplacental insufficiency in pregnant women, who had cytomegalovirus infection exacerbation in third trimester of pregnancy, measurement of titre of antibodies to cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood, and after that, content of leptin in parturient woman's placenta is carried out at the moment of exacerbation. If antibody titre is 1:1600 and leptin level 29.18±0.71 ng/ml, presence of fetoplacental insufficiency is determined.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to diagnose fetoplacental insufficiency in pregnant women who had cytomegalovirus infection exacerbation in the third trimester of pregnancy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to allergology and pulmonology. In order to determine Chlamydia infection in patients with bronchial asthma clinical and anamnestic indices are given points, which are summed up. Presence in patient's family of chlamydiosis (any localisation) - 3 points; presence of Reiter's syndrome in parents - 3 points; duration of bronchial asthma disease for more than 2 years - 2 points; exacerbation of bronchial asthma 2 times per year and more often - 3 points; progressing course of bronchial asthma - 3 points; presence of three and more chronic diseases of different organs and systems of organism - 3 points; presence of intoxication symptoms - 1 point; frequent stresses - 1 point; work at an enterprise with harmful work conditions - 1 point; smoking and/or alcoholism and/or drug addiction and/or toxicomania - 2 points; living in difficult climatic conditions for more than 10 years - 1 point. Total sum of points equal or more than 13 testifies to Chlamydia infection in patients with bronchial asthma.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to determine Chlamydia infection in patients with bronchial asthma.
1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to paediatric surgery, and can be used for predicting results of operative treatment of rectum and anus atresia in children. Anorectal area is examined by methods of laser Doppler flowmetry, optic tissue oxymetry and laser fluorescence in not less than 4 points. In each of the points determined are: index of microcirculation - Imi, volume of blood filling - Vbi, index of blood oxygenetion - SO2i; intensity of radiation of collagen and elastin fluorescence - Ifki, If"э"i and intensity of diffused laser radiation Ili. Specific consumption of oxygen by tissue, as ratio SO2i/Vbi, ratio of index of microcirculation to volume of blood filling- Imi/Vbi are calculated and coefficient of fluorescent contrast of fraction of tissue proteins ηfi is determined by means of computer processing. All obtained values on 4 points are averaged to obtain average values of SO2/Vb; ηf, and if values SO2/Vb =0.01-2, Im/Vb=0.01-1; ηt=0.01-1, prediction is estimated as favourable.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to estimate change of blood flow, hypoxia and disorganisation of intercellular components of connective tissue of anorectal area in a reliable way and make prognostic conclusions as to selection of individual treatment.
SUBSTANCE: content of erythropoietin is determined in blood plasma by method of enzymatically amplified chemiluminiscence analysis. If content of erythropoietin is higher than 17.6 IU/l, initial stage of chronic renal failure is diagnosed.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to increase test accuracy, reduce time of the test and make it cheaper.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely paediatric neurology. The prognostic coefficients of an insufficiency risk factors: maternity aid +14.07, prolonged labour +13.62, prenatal discharge of amniotic fluid +10.09, emergency Cesarean section +8.02, duration of delivery less than 6 hours +7.23, augmentation of labour +5.62, elective Cesarean section +5.12, the absence of intranatal factors -6.53; antenatal factors - acute respiratory viral disease during pregnancy +9.21, multiple pregnancy +7.78, incomplete pregnancy +7.78, anaemia +7.61, overmature pregnancy +6.99, a risk of miscarriage +6.78, nephropathy of pregnancy +6.42, toxicosis +6.02; the newborn status - birth weight less than 3 kg +12.3, birth weight 4 kg and more +6.53, one minute Apgar score 7 points and less +8,-16, five minutes Apgar score 7 points and less +11.46, the absence of neonatal asphyxia in a newborn of weight 3000-3999 g -4.34. Total coefficient is calculated, and if the derived value is -13 to +13, a minimal probability is predicted; the value of +13.01 to +30 show a moderate probability, and the value of 30.01 and higher testifies to a maximal probability of forming peripheral cervical insufficiency.
EFFECT: method provides higher prediction accuracy.
2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, diagnostics, may be used in sports and rehabilitation therapy. When estimating a load strength whereat the muscular work power supply for a linear increasing load test starts involving the active anaerobic processes, the moment of aerobic-anaerobic transition (MAAT) is shown by a maximum position of a time history curve of the hemoglobin concentration in the working muscle measured by IR-spectroscopy to intensity or a high-frequency component of the surface electromyogram of the above muscle.
EFFECT: method provides specifying the MAAT with no near-limit loads used, with enabled MAAT estimation in separate relatively lightweight muscles which when contracted cause no visible changes of the systemic physiological values, simplicity and non-invasiveness of the procedure.
FIELD: medicine, clinical toxicology.
SUBSTANCE: at patient's hospitalization one should gather the data of clinical and laboratory values: on the type of chemical substance, patient's age, data of clinical survey and laboratory values: body temperature, the presence or absence of dysphonia, oliguria being below 30 ml/h, hemoglobinuria, erythrocytic hemolysis, exotoxic shock, glucose level in blood, fibrinogen and creatinine concentration in blood serum, general bilirubin, prothrombin index (PTI), Ph-plasma, the state of blood clotting system. The state of every sign should be evaluated in points to be then summed up and at exceeding the sum of points being above "+20" one should predict unfavorable result. At the sum of "-13" prediction should be stated upon as favorable and at "-13" up to "+20" - prediction is considered to be doubtful.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of prediction.
2 ex, 3 tbl