Method of processing lipids
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing fat and fat-containing biomass. The method can be used in producing fuel and intermediate products for organic synthesis. The method is carried out via simultaneous exposure to ionising radiation and temperature of fatty material at normal or low pressure in a fluidised bed to obtain commercially valuable radiolysis products, which are a fuel (primarily diesel fuel) and intermediate products for organic synthesis. The material is exposed to an electron beam with energy of 0.1-8 MeV with dose rate higher than 0.05 kGy/s while heating below the dry distillation (pyrolysis) onset temperature. Alkanising the starting mass, use of catalysts and/or ultrasound can be additional controlling factors depending on composition of the starting material.
EFFECT: high degree of recycling material and output of valuable fractions of fuel hydrocarbons and intermediate products for heavy organic synthesis.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex
The invention relates to the field of gaseous and liquid products of the fuel destination and intermediates for heavy organic synthesis and can be used in the processing of fats and fat-containing biomass of plant and animal origin and production of waste-based lipids and products of their conversion.
There is a method of processing vegetable raw materials selected from materials based on lignin, starch, cellulose, polity, humic compounds or their derivatives, in gaseous, liquid and solid fuel mixture through dry distillation (pyrolysis), when plant material is simultaneously affected by ionizing radiation and temperature, and the volatile products are distilled off from the impact zone in a stream of gas or vapor (prototype) (1) [RF patent No. 233 8769].
However, this known method (1) receive carbon dioxide and hardly separated mixture of water and products related to the derivatives of furans, phenols, cyclic and acyclic carbonyl compounds. To convert liquid mixed product in a stable fuel requires additional hydrogenation and/or alkylation in a stream of hydrogen or razobratsya alkanes. Moreover, as a result of these transactions stabilization receive alternative fuel containing oxygen and, as a consequence, different from t the fuel of petroleum origin. For long-term storage of liquid products of dry distillation requires the addition of stabilizers.
Also known is a method of processing lipids (forming the basis of fats and fat-containing biomass) by exposure to ionizing radiation and temperature with the formation of radiolysis products (2) [Pisarevsky A.N., Gabrilovich IM, Mariinsky V.M., Soshin L.D., Poznyak A.L. Introduction in radiation Biophysics. Under the General Ed. Antishrinkage. Minsk: "Vysheishaya school". 1968, 364 S.].
However, this known method it is possible to obtain a reduction in the average molar mass of irradiated macromolecules lipids while maintaining their chemical nature, as well as a small amount of volatile and economically valuable liquid hydrocarbons, and only in a mixture with unusable products of radiolysis.
In the known method (2), based on the use of ionizing radiation and temperature, the feedstock is injected into the affected area and soak in it for a length of time sufficient for the formation of radiolysis products, which, remaining in the area, participate in regeneration of the original molecules or enter into new reactions interact with the formation of new, often undesirable products. Only after a period of exposure to ionizing radiation reaction mass is withdrawn from the reactor and separated from her about UKTI radiolysis, a complex mixture which requires complex procedures to separate them. The most valuable fraction of hydrocarbons comprises only a small proportion of radiolysis products (≤5 wt%).
The technical result achieved during the implementation of the present invention is:
a significant increase in the yield of condensed alkanes and alkenes fuel purposes;
- expansion of the range and increase the yield of valuable products - getting both fuel and valuable intermediates for the heavy organic synthesis;
- expanding the range of suitable raw materials for the expense involved in processing a new promising type of raw material, lipids (fats) of vegetable and animal origin;
extension of applicability of the resulting fuel products due to the proximity of their composition and properties of fuel oil origin;
- creation of conditions for effective management process, composition and quality of the final product;
- lowering the temperature and pressure processing.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that the processing of a new type of raw material under simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation and temperature is carried out at normal or reduced pressure in the fluidized layer by heating below the temperature of the beginning of the dry distillation (pyrolysis is).
Fluidized bed of raw material create by sparging gases by heating raw materials or components to the boiling point, or by emission of volatile decomposition products of raw materials.
The proposed technical solution, the principle of the dry distillation of the feedstock, including paragenetically decomposition at high temperatures without air, not used. Moreover, heating of the raw material up to the temperature of the beginning of the dry distillation is not allowed.
Irradiation of the fluidized bed of the raw materials is carried out at normal or reduced pressure. In practice, use a vacuum up to 100-150 mm Hg
In a specific implementation, the formation of gas bubbles and boiling of raw materials initiate directly accelerated electrons with energies of 0.1-8 MeV at a dose higher than 0.05 kGy/s
To increase the relative yield and quality of the liquid products of the fragmentation of raw materials is recommended recovery of gaseous products to be mixed with the feedstock entering the impact zone.
Appropriate intake regulating acidity and molecular weight distribution in the target product, is the use of alkaline materials.
In particular the performance impact combined with homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis, which allows you to adjust the selectivity of exposure and removal of products of f is amentacea.
Practical technique that increases the degree of conversion of the feedstock is more exposure to ultrasound.
The authors of this technical solution set that as the degree of utilization of raw materials and the output of valuable fractions usual fuel hydrocarbons can be significantly improved, and technology of obtaining them can be greatly simplified if the processing of a new type of raw material - lipids - in case of simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation and temperature to carry out under normal or reduced pressure in the fluidized layer by heating below the temperature of the beginning of the dry distillation (pyrolysis).
First established that the new combined influence enables low-temperature processing, the selectivity of the decomposition of the original components and purpose of the process of radiolysis of lipid material. Economically valuable fraction fuel components and intermediates for heavy organic synthesis, resulting in the impact zone, inhibits the decomposition of raw materials, and should not allow its accumulation in the impact zone.
The following examples illustrate the claimed technical solution.
Table 1 shows the composition and yields (wt.%) products of processing of raw materials; and in table 2 - composition and yields (wt.%) food processing p and additional control factors. In tables 1 and 2 the following symbols are used:
E - energy electrons;
R - power absorbed dose;
In - fluidized bed ("+" - lash by sparging or heat; "-" - lash due to radiolysis);
T is the maximum temperature in the zone of influence.
P is the absolute pressure.
Example 1. As raw materials use lipids isolated from algae (Neochloris oleoabundans). Liquid raw material at a temperature of 270°C served under vacuum (~700 mm Hg) in the zone of irradiation by accelerated electrons generated by the electron accelerator URT-1, at dose rate of 0.11 kGy/s and the maximum energy of 1 MeV electrons. In the volume of raw materials inject recycled argon, creating a fluidized bed. Volatile products originating from the irradiation zone, fractionary. The resulting condensed fractions include liquid hydrocarbons (mainly diesel)light glycerides, big alcohols and ethers is their total yield of 79% by weight of the feedstock. Gaseous fuel (5%wt.) consists mainly of fragmentation of alkanes. Gaseous waste (16%wt.) are a mixture of CO, H2and CO2that is, in principle, can be considered as raw material for production of synthesis gas. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, alcohols, glycerides and esters (their total output is 34 wt.%) can have a dual use - on the one hand, they at the of odni for use in standard diesel fuel, on the other hand, they are popular intermediates for heavy organic synthesis. Thus, when full conversion of raw materials received 84 wt.% target products. The results are presented in table 1.
Example 2. According to the method of example 1 was subjected to the processing of the drug rapeseed oil. As the source of ionizing radiation used γ-isotope60With. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 1.
Example 3. According to the method of example 1 was subjected to the oil extracted from grape seeds. As the source of ionizing radiation used γ-isotope137Cs. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 1.
Example 4. According to the method of example 1 was subjected to oil-palm. As the source of ionizing radiation used linear electron accelerator of well-10-10T. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 1.
Example 5. According to the method of example 1 was subjected to processing animal fat (melted butter). As the source of ionizing radiation used linear electron accelerator of well-10-10T. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 1.
Example 6. Lipids isolated from algae (Neochlorisoleoabundans), processed according to the method of example 1, but instead of nitrogen to create a fluidized bed used a fraction of the synthesized gaseous fuel. Table 2 shows that the addition of gaseous fuel to raw materials allows to increase the yield of liquid fuel, to increase the fraction of synthetic intermediates and reduce the output of waste gases. The total yield of the target products increased by 10 wt.%.
Example 7. According to the method of example 2 was processed rapeseed oil, padmalochan sodium ethylate. Presented in table 2 data indicate the influence of alkali to increase the share of synthetic intermediates, the reduction of gaseous waste and increase yield of the desired conversion to 87 wt.%.
Example 8. Grape seed oil is processed according to the method of example 3, but to create a fluidized bed used a fraction of the synthesized gaseous fuel. When this oil was dissolved Nickel catalyst. The effect of a change of control effects, as can be seen in table 2, is a marked redistribution of the composition of the liquid products in the direction of increasing the fraction of synthetic intermediates and increase the yield of the target of the conversion. The yield of gaseous waste falls by half.
Example 9. According to the method of example 4 was subjected to the processing of palm oil, which was dispersively Nickel catalyst. The creation of boiling SL which I was initiated solely by radiation due to the selection of bubbles of gaseous and vaporous products of radiolysis. Presented in table 2 data indicate the influence of the catalyst on the overall yield of the desired conversion despite significant growth in output of synthetic intermediates and the reduction of gaseous waste.
Example 10. Animal fat was processed according to the method of example 5, but in combination with the influence of the generator of ultrasonic vibrations. In the one and a half times increased the yield of gaseous fuel by reducing the yield of liquid products and gaseous wastes. The overall yield of the desired conversion increased slightly. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 2.
Similar results were obtained when using different gases like nitrogen, argon, helium, methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide and flue gas.
In all cases, implementation of the proposed method at high pressure and without the fluidized bed received the following negative results:
- 2-3-fold increase in colabrative and carbonization;
- reducing the yield of the desired conversion of at least 1.5-2 times, accompanied by increased release of toxic and unusable compounds;
- the formation of products with residual radioactivity, when E≤10 MeV.
- deep degradation of volatile fuel compounds to CO2and H2About when E≤0.1 MeV.
Thus, the method according to the implemented technical solution delivers targeted the transformation of fatty raw materials into valuable gaseous and liquid products. This is especially valuable for disposal of large waste oil plants and fat production.
Currently, the industrial utilization of lipids in the production of biodiesel is mainly in their interesterification and the removal of glycerol. The resulting biodiesel is composed mainly of methyl esters of fatty acids. This mixture is very unstable and has a limited shelf life.
The inventive method allows compact installations to utilize maximum fat raw materials, receiving over a wide range of valuable organic compounds, which is the key raw material for new developed technology platforms.
The inventive method provides the following results:
output recyclable fuel and synthetic products exceeds 80% and can reach 95% by weight of the processed raw materials; liquid target products have reliable domestic and industrial use as a motor fuel and intermediate products for the heavy organic synthesis.
by - products are carbon oxides, which are necessary for the reproduction of the original fatty materials (lipids) plants, primarily biomass of algae (as in open ponds and bioreactors);
the method is characterized environmental cleanliness, POSCO is ECU does not and is not focused on the use of toxic reagents and its implementation is not associated with the occurrence of harmful effects on the environment and production personnel;
the method provides low energy consumption and the consumption of raw materials due to the complete absorption of energy in the processed mixture, low pressure to create a moderate heat and the desired hydrodynamic regime through absorption energy electron radiation.
1. Method of processing of fats and fat-containing biomass by simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation and temperature, characterized in that the processing of raw materials is carried out at normal or reduced pressure in the fluidized layer by heating below the temperature of the beginning of the dry distillation of the feedstock.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the boiling of raw materials directly initiate electron beam with energies of 0.1-8 MeV at a dose higher than 0.05 kGy/s
3. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, characterized in that the reduction of gaseous products is mixed with the feedstock entering the impact zone.
4. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, wherein the treated alkaline raw materials.
5. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, characterized in that the impact combine with homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis.
6. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, characterized in that the exposure to radiation and temperature combined with ultrasonic near the action.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mixtures of alkyl ethers of fatty acids for use as raw material for producing biofuel which contains at least 50 wt % alkyl ethers of saturated fatty acids containing 6-14 carbon atoms, alkyl ether of myristoleic acid and alkyl ethers of monounsaturated fatty acids containing more than 14 carbon atoms, less than 10 wt % alkyl ether of myristic acid and alkyl ethers of saturated fatty acids containing more than 18 carbon atoms. 1) said alkyl ethers of fatty acids contain alkyl ether of lauric acid (C12:0), said alkyl ether of lauric acid makes up 5-20 wt % of the mixture; or 2) said mixture contains 15-40% alkyl ethers of fatty acids containing 6-14 carbon atoms and 60-85% alkyl ethers of monounsaturated fatty acids containing more than 18 carbon atoms. The invention also relates to a method of producing said mixture.
EFFECT: invention provides a fuel mixture which is less likely to freeze in cold climate conditions.
27 cl, 13 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of producing fatty acid esters, which are used as diesel biofuel, from whole oilseeds, involving the following consecutive steps: a) preheating unhulled and cleaned whole seeds; b) squashing the oilseeds together with their shells; c) drying the squashed seeds until achieving water and volatile substance content of 0.5-2.5%; d) re-esterification by bringing the squashed seeds into contact with an alcohol medium in the presence of a catalyst; e) separating the liquid and solid phases obtained from re-esterification; f) neutralising the liquid phase obtained at step (e); and g) removing alcohol and separating glycerol from fatty acid esters, which are then purified. The invention also relates to a method of producing an oil cake, meant for use as animal feed, from the obtained solid phase, which involves the following steps: 1) removing alcohol from said solid phase; and 2) adding glycerol obtained at step (g) of the method on any of the previous claims.
EFFECT: method of obtaining fatty acid esters from squashed oilseeds.
25 cl, 12 tbl, 19 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing organic carbonates and carbamates. Described is an alcoholysis method, involving: feeding reactants and a trace amount of a soluble organometallic compound, which is soluble in the reactants, into a reactor containing a solid alcoholysis catalyst, wherein the trace amount ranges from about 1 ppm to about 3000 ppm with respect to total mass of the added reactants; where the soluble organometallic compound and the solid alcoholysis catalyst each independently contains a Group II to Group VI element. Described is a method of producing dialkylcarbonates, involving: feeding an alcohol and an alcoholysis reactant, containing at least one compound from urea, organic carbamate and cyclic carbonate, in the presence of the catalyst system described above. Described is a method of producing diarylcarbonate, involving: feeding an aromatic hydroxy compound and dialkylcarbonate in the presence of the catalyst system described above. Described is a method of producing alkylarylcarbonate, involving: feeding an aromatic hydroxy compound and dialkylcarbonate in the presence of the catalyst system described above. Described is a method of producing biodiesel, involving: feeding an alcohol and glycerine in the presence of the catalyst system described above The methods described above involve reaction of a spent solid alcoholysis catalyst, involving: removal of polymer materials deposited on the catalyst; and redeposition of catalytically active metals on the solid catalyst.
EFFECT: longer duration of the cycle of the alcoholysis method.
36 cl, 7 tbl, 18 dwg, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to new compounds of formula (I) where X is carboxylic acid, carboxylates, carboxylic anhydride, diglyceride, triglyceride, phospholipid, or carboxamides, or to any their pharmaceutically acceptable salt. The invention particularly refers to (4Z, 7Z, 10Z, 13Z, 16Z, 19Z)-ethyl 2-ethyldocosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexanoate. The invention also refers to a food lipid composition and to a composition for diabetes, for reducing insulin, blood glucose, plasma triglyceride, for dislipidemia, for reducing blood cholesterol, body weight and for peripheral insulin resistance, including such compounds. Besides, the invention refers to methods for treating and/or preventing diabetes, dislipidemia, peripheral insulin resistance, body weight reduction and/or weight gain prevention, insulin, blood cholesterol, blood glucose and/or plasma triglyceride reduction.
EFFECT: higher clinical effectiveness.
61 cl, 4 tbl, 16 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a product used in chocolate, margarine or shortening, obtained by melting a mixture of components (a) and (b), where component (a) contains triglyceride of disaturated medium-chain fatty acids and monosaturated long-chain fatty acid and (b) contains triglyceride of 1,3-disaturated long-chain fattya cids and 2-monosaturated long-chain fatty acid, wherein the bond length determined through X-ray diffraction, measured in the product is equal to greater than 65 Å, where the medium-chain fatty acid(s) contain(s) 6-12 carbon atoms, and the long-chain fatty acid(s) contain(s) 14-24 carbon atoms.
EFFECT: owing to formation of intramolecular compounds, fats and oil contain a larger amount of symmetrical triglycerides such as cocoa oil, and contain medium-chain fatty acids which do not form separate crystals and can endow the product with a smooth texture and prevent turbidity.
8 cl, 9 dwg, 17 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of producing carboxylic esters via esterification of carboxylic acids and/or re-esterification of carboxylic esters with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a metallic catalyst, in which the reaction takes place at temperature higher than 150°C, said metallic catalyst is an alkali-earth metal salt and an aliphatic carboxylic acid containing 10-24 carbon atoms, and at the end of esterification or re-esterification, respectively, the metallic catalyst is extracted and then reused as a liquid catalyst in the method of producing carboxylic esters via esterification of carboxylic acids and/or re-esterification of carboxylic esters with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a catalyst. The advantage of the method lies in that, in the initial mixture, free fatty acids can be present in any concentrations. These free fatty acids are also esterified in the said reaction to fatty acid alkyl esters. Hence, low-quality fat/oil can be processed. Another advantage of the method is that, the esterification/re-esterification reaction can also take place in the presence of water. Thus, water-containing material, particularly hydrous alcohol, can also be used. Unreacted free fatty acids or glycerides are returned for esterification/re-esterification, owing to which no losses occur. In contrast to processes without catalysts, the disclosed method has an advantage in that, the reaction can take place with amounts of alcohol which are a little higher than stoichiometric amounts, which markedly increases profitability of the method.
EFFECT: improved method of producing carboxylic esters.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of alkyl ester obtainment involves, for instance: mixing of triglyceride-containing oil source with primary alcohol or secondary alcohol in organic solvent to obtain a solution; where each organic solvent molecule includes 4-8 carbon atoms and heteroatom; triglyceride reaction with primary alcohol or secondary alcohol in the presence of lipase immobilised on a carrier, to obtain alkyl ester, where solution does not undergo phase separation in the course of reaction, and glycerin is produced as a by-product; and obtainment of alkyl ester by phase separation in alkyl ester and glycerin after extraction of organic solvent and unreacted primary or secondary alcohol by condensation.
EFFECT: obtainment of mix with high content of high-purity alkyl esters.
46 cl, 8 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fat-and-oil industry. Non-stick blend according to the first version contains interesterified textured lipid that is a product from interesterified reactionary load reaction, herewith the mention ed reactionary load contains from 25 to 75 wt % from total weight of triglyceride load with average chain length containing fat acid with length from C6 to C12, included into reaction from 75 to 25 wt % from total weight load, food long-chain oil containing fat acid chains with length at least C16, and modifier that includes glyceride composition. According to the second version propellant is introduced additionally into composition for simplification of delivery by spraying of edible non-stick blend. Herewith mentioned propellant is paraffin hydrocarbon. All ingredients are added in accordance with certain ratio. Usage method includes spraying of non-stick composition to the container, heating of the latest thus to perform thermal processing and cooling down of the container and cleaning it in mild cleaning conditions.
EFFECT: invention provides for decrease of scorching, decrease of darkening effect, decrease slag formation and improve cleaning.
38 cl, 20 ex
SUBSTANCE: fatty acid esters are applied in manufacturing of, e.g. a pharmaceutical, dietary and cosmetic product, diesel fuel, as well as an intermediate product for making fatty alcohols, surface-active substances, lubricants by interesterification of fatty acid triglycerides of refined or unrefined natural oils containing free fatty acids, with lower monoatomic alcohols in stirring with alkali or earth metal hydroxide or alcoholate added as a catalyst at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Then it is settled; heavy glyceric phase is removed, and water is added to remove impurities from ester phase through stirring, settling, and removing aqueous phase. Interesterification process including stirring, settling, separating the heavy glyceric phase, adding water for impurity removal in stirring, settling and removing aqueous phase is performed in a stirrer installation in a tank of variable filling level wherein a settling section is excluded from component reaction process, and the catalyst and alcohol are supplied in a circulation pattern, while removing the heavy phase and aqueous phase is performed through a drainage hole in the tank bottom. The mole ratio of initial fatty acid triglycerides of natural oil and lower monoatomic alcohol is 1:3 respectively.
EFFECT: improved method for preparing fatty acid esters.
6 dwg, 1 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to advanced process for making iron (II) phthalate by direct reaction of iron or its alloy and carboxylic acid with air oxygen and stimulating iodine added in intensive mechanical mixing of the reaction mixture and crushed ferriferous material with using a blade paddle mixer, wherein phthalic acid content in primary charge is taken 1.55-2.0 mole/kg. Liquid phase solvent is n-butyl alcohol. Iron is presented with crushed grey cast iron in amount 30% of the other charge weight. Stimulating iodine is dosed in amount 0.075-0.17 mole/kg. Charge process proceeds as follows: solvent, acid, crushed grey cast iron, stimulating iodine. The same process is started and proceeds in a vertical beaded mill with a blade paddle mixer rotated at 960-1440 rpm in ratio of glass beads to charge 1:1 without air sparging, but even without blocking free contact of air to intensively mixed reaction mixture in the reactor within 35-50°C and current control by sampling method to accumulate iron (II) salt in amount 1.49-1.65 mole/kg. Then in continued mixing, the reaction zone is isolated from access for air. Nitrogen is delivered to sparging within 10-30 min. Thereafter mixing is stopped, reaction mixture suspension is separated from glass beads and unreacted cast iron particles and supplied to filtering. Deposit is washed 1-2 times with liquid phase solvent and delivered to vacuum drying, further to afterpurification. Filtrate and washing solvent are supplied back to the repeated process. Filtration and following end salt deposit handling are ensured in nitrogen environment.
EFFECT: improved process of iron phthalate.
18 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to utilisation process of associated petroleum gas in gas hydrate form with simultaneous separation of oil and water and can be used in oil producing and oil refining industries and in power engineering. The invention refers to utilisation method of associated petroleum gas by its conversion to gas hydrate in oil-water emulsion, in which oil-water emulsion with volumetric water content of 75% is exposed at the temperature of -4°C to prevent separation of the emulsion, supplied to the reactor that has been pre-cooled to -5°C, together with associated petroleum gas, heated in the reactor to the temperature in the range of 1°C to 3°C with further quick temperature decrease (during 30 minutes) in the reactor to -10°C at the pressure of 4.3 atmospheres, at which growth of gas hydrate in the emulsion takes place, which is followed by displacement effect of the formed gas hydrate to the surface of dehydrated oil; at that, volumetric water content in the emulsion is decreased from 75% to less than 5%.
EFFECT: effective gas utilisation and effective oil dehydration, as well as reduction of operating and capital costs.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of small arms, namely, to a powder charge for light-gas weapons or firearms. The powder charge comprises gaseous borane and ammonia or borane solution in ammonia and is designed for placement under pressure in a charging powder chamber or a cartridge in the form of a metal or composite balloon, actuation of which is initiated by a source of heat arranged in the breech part of the weapon or on the front end of the cartridge from inside or outside. It is also possible to use catalysts in the form of coal, soot, graphite or methane, and also reaction moderators, such as hydrides, having negative enthalpy of formation, i.e. endothermic reaction of decomposition, for instance, hydrides of beryllium, lithium, aluminium, calcium or their mixture. The source of heat represents a cap, an electric spiral, a spark or an explosive or a cumulative charge arranged inside or outside the cartridge.
EFFECT: invention provides for high initial speed of a projectile, structural simplification of a weapon, increased rate of fire, lower weight of a weapon and cost per shot.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rifles and specifically to a powder charge for a light-gas gun or firearm. The powder charge contains gaseous borane and phosphine or a solution of liquid borane and phosphine and is meant to be put under pressure in a cartridge chamber or bore in form of a metal or composite cylinder, actuation of which is triggered by a heat source lying in the breech end or the front end of the bore, inside or outside it. Use of catalysts in form of carbon, soot, graphite or methane is also possible, as well as retarders such as hydrides, having a negative enthalpy of formation, i.e. an endothermic decomposition reaction, e.g. hydrides of beryllium, lithium, aluminium, calcium or a mixture thereof. The heat source if a capsule, an electric coil, a spark or an explosive or cumulative charge, lying inside or outside the bore.
EFFECT: invention provides high muzzle velocity, simplifies the design of the gun, increases firing speed, reduces the weight of the gun and cost of firing.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with first version, proposed shot comprises shell filled with pressurised mix of borane and phosphine, or solution, or emulsion of said substances. In compliance with second version, shot comprises shell accommodating explosive charge of smaller volume while clearance between explosive and shell is filled with pressurised gaseous mix of borane and phosphine, or solution, or emulsion of said substances.
EFFECT: higher power of explosive rupture.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: charge comprises a shell filled with a pressurised gaseous mixture or a solution of borane and ammonia, or emulsion of borane in liquid ammonia. According to the second version the charge comprises a shell into which an explosive charge of smaller volume is placed, and the space between the explosive and the shell is filled with a pressurised gaseous mixture or a solution of borane and ammonia, or emulsion of borane in liquid ammonia.
EFFECT: increased brisance of the charge.
SUBSTANCE: method of intensifying fuel oxidation in combustion systems involves increasing the rate of oxidation, raising oxidation temperature and/or increasing the rate of increase of oxidation temperature. The method involves adding a catalytic additive to an oxidant and/or fuel before or during the fuel oxidation process, where the catalytic additive is a solid substance, its solution or suspension, or a liquid substance or its emulsion, in form of a separate catalytic substance or a catalytic mixture of substances. The catalytic substance or at least one of the substances in the catalytic mixture contains at least one functional carbonyl group and has in the infrared spectrum at least one intense absorption band in the region from 1550 to 1850 cm-1. Said catalytic substance or at least one substance in the catalytic mixture is selected from: monocarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; dicarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; carboxylic acid salts; dicarboxylic acid salts; carboxylic acid amides; dicarboxylic acid amides; carboxylic acid anilides; dicarboxylic acid anilides; carboxylic acid esters; dicarboxylic acid monoesters or diesters; carboxylic acid imides; dicarboxylic acid imides; carbonic acid diamide; acyclic and cyclic carbonic acid esters; urethanes; aminocarboxylic acids whose molecules contain amino groups (NH2 groups) and carboxyl groups (COOH group); peptides and proteins whose molecules are built from a-amino acid residues linked by peptide (amide) bonds C(O)NH. The catalytic additive is added in amount of 0.0000001-01 wt %. The fuel used is solid, gaseous or liquid fuel selected from AI-92 petrol, diesel or masout.
EFFECT: faster fuel oxidation, high oxidation temperature, higher rate of increase of oxidation temperature, higher enthalpy of combustion products, more complete fuel combustion, fewer solid deposits on engine parts, reduced harmful emissions with exhaust gases, reduced fuel combustion.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: bird lime is previously dehydrated and dried, heated up to the temperature of its destruction without oxygen access with subsequent separation into carbonaceous residue and steam and gas mixture. The steam and gas mixture is condensed to form a liquid and a non-condensed part of the steam and gas mixture. The non-condensed part is processed into power, which is used for power supply to drives during realisation of the method and to supply electric loads of poultry factories. The liquid part is used as liquid fuel and is separated into two parts. Heat produced from combustion of the first part of liquid fuel is used for power supply to processes of heating up to the destruction temperature and bird lime drying. The second part of the liquid fuel is collected into an accumulating tank, is used as a commercial product or for process and household needs of an enterprise. The carbonaceous residue is used as adsorbent for cleaning of gases that are discharged after bird lime drying and in process of treatment of water that was produced at the stage of preliminary dehydration of bird lime. After saturation of carbonaceous residue it is used as a fertiliser and an additive to improve soil structure.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of bird lime recycling process, to use recycling products in a complex manner and to ensure environmental safety of the recycling process.
8 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: reactor of synthetic gas has jacket-tubular configuration. Also, a flow of fluid medium has a lengthwise configuration in tube space through a tube bunch. The reactor has a distributing plate of fluid medium at inlet of tube space below a lower end of the tube bunch and a flow sleeve on outlet circular space of increased diametre at an upper end adjacent to a tube sheet, which prevents direct inflow of fluid medium of tube space into outlet of fluid medium of tube space. The tube bunch includes multitude of circular partitions and grate partitions. A lengthwise configuration of flow facilitates lower pressure drop in tube space and lower cost in comparison with regular heat exchanger of reforming with cross flow.
EFFECT: improved main design of heat exchanger of reforming.
18 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition contains 0.1-49.9 pts.wt alkyl sulphide of formula: R1-S-R2. R1 and R2 are identical or different and denote: an alkyl radical containing 1-4 carbon atoms; or R1 and R2 together with the sulphur atom denote a saturated or unsaturated ring containing 3-5 carbon atoms which is possibly substituted. The composition also contains 50-99.8 pts.wt of at least two acrylic esters whose alkyl radicals contain 1-12 carbon atoms, preferably 1-8 carbon atoms. The mixture also contains 0.001-0.1 pts.wt of a compound which inhibits polymerisation of acrylic esters, preferably containing a stable nitroxide radical. The composition is used to ordourise ordourless gaseous fuel. To this end, an effective amount of the composition in pure or diluted form is added to gaseous fuel. Content of the composition in the gaseous fuel ranges from 1 to 500 mg/Nm3, and preferably from 20 to 50 mg/Nm3. The composition gives gas a strong smell which enables to detect gas leakages and eliminate explosion hazards.
EFFECT: composition is highly environmentally friendly and can be used on injection stations requiring one storage reservoir, one pump and one injection nozzle, which significantly simplifies servicing.
12 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in process of combined gas treatment the throughput capacity is monitored, gas is previously cleaned from acid components by means of absorption. Deep cleaning is done by a conveyor-membrane method. Besides, as the throughput capacity reduces by 20%, membranes are cyclically in a conveyor method moved for regeneration cleaning, with their replacement for new or regenerated ones.
EFFECT: increased quality of natural gases cleaning with simplification of the process technology with reduction of the specific energy consumption rates and quantity of materials spent for adsorption.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for obtaining an ether additive, which involves mixing of dicarboxylic acid with ether so that water, ether and excess alcohol is obtained with further separation of water and alcohol from ether by rectification; at that, as an acid there used is oxalic acid, and as alcohol - n-butanol or 2-ethylhexanol. Cyclohexane used as a solvent is supplied for mixing of oxalic acid with alcohol, and rectification is performed in two columns so that cyclohexane (solvent) is obtained in the first column, which is returned to the stage of mixing with oxalic acid and alcohol and supply of residue of the first column to the second one so that alcohol and target product (ether additive) are obtained in it.
EFFECT: method allows simplifying the process and making it more economic by excluding the use of a catalyser, processing stages of reaction mass with an agent decomposing the catalyser, and reaction mass sorption and filtration stages.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl