Method of processing lipids

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing fat and fat-containing biomass. The method can be used in producing fuel and intermediate products for organic synthesis. The method is carried out via simultaneous exposure to ionising radiation and temperature of fatty material at normal or low pressure in a fluidised bed to obtain commercially valuable radiolysis products, which are a fuel (primarily diesel fuel) and intermediate products for organic synthesis. The material is exposed to an electron beam with energy of 0.1-8 MeV with dose rate higher than 0.05 kGy/s while heating below the dry distillation (pyrolysis) onset temperature. Alkanising the starting mass, use of catalysts and/or ultrasound can be additional controlling factors depending on composition of the starting material.

EFFECT: high degree of recycling material and output of valuable fractions of fuel hydrocarbons and intermediate products for heavy organic synthesis.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of gaseous and liquid products of the fuel destination and intermediates for heavy organic synthesis and can be used in the processing of fats and fat-containing biomass of plant and animal origin and production of waste-based lipids and products of their conversion.

There is a method of processing vegetable raw materials selected from materials based on lignin, starch, cellulose, polity, humic compounds or their derivatives, in gaseous, liquid and solid fuel mixture through dry distillation (pyrolysis), when plant material is simultaneously affected by ionizing radiation and temperature, and the volatile products are distilled off from the impact zone in a stream of gas or vapor (prototype) (1) [RF patent No. 233 8769].

However, this known method (1) receive carbon dioxide and hardly separated mixture of water and products related to the derivatives of furans, phenols, cyclic and acyclic carbonyl compounds. To convert liquid mixed product in a stable fuel requires additional hydrogenation and/or alkylation in a stream of hydrogen or razobratsya alkanes. Moreover, as a result of these transactions stabilization receive alternative fuel containing oxygen and, as a consequence, different from t the fuel of petroleum origin. For long-term storage of liquid products of dry distillation requires the addition of stabilizers.

Also known is a method of processing lipids (forming the basis of fats and fat-containing biomass) by exposure to ionizing radiation and temperature with the formation of radiolysis products (2) [Pisarevsky A.N., Gabrilovich IM, Mariinsky V.M., Soshin L.D., Poznyak A.L. Introduction in radiation Biophysics. Under the General Ed. Antishrinkage. Minsk: "Vysheishaya school". 1968, 364 S.].

However, this known method it is possible to obtain a reduction in the average molar mass of irradiated macromolecules lipids while maintaining their chemical nature, as well as a small amount of volatile and economically valuable liquid hydrocarbons, and only in a mixture with unusable products of radiolysis.

In the known method (2), based on the use of ionizing radiation and temperature, the feedstock is injected into the affected area and soak in it for a length of time sufficient for the formation of radiolysis products, which, remaining in the area, participate in regeneration of the original molecules or enter into new reactions interact with the formation of new, often undesirable products. Only after a period of exposure to ionizing radiation reaction mass is withdrawn from the reactor and separated from her about UKTI radiolysis, a complex mixture which requires complex procedures to separate them. The most valuable fraction of hydrocarbons comprises only a small proportion of radiolysis products (≤5 wt%).

The technical result achieved during the implementation of the present invention is:

a significant increase in the yield of condensed alkanes and alkenes fuel purposes;

- expansion of the range and increase the yield of valuable products - getting both fuel and valuable intermediates for the heavy organic synthesis;

- expanding the range of suitable raw materials for the expense involved in processing a new promising type of raw material, lipids (fats) of vegetable and animal origin;

extension of applicability of the resulting fuel products due to the proximity of their composition and properties of fuel oil origin;

- creation of conditions for effective management process, composition and quality of the final product;

- lowering the temperature and pressure processing.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the processing of a new type of raw material under simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation and temperature is carried out at normal or reduced pressure in the fluidized layer by heating below the temperature of the beginning of the dry distillation (pyrolysis is).

Fluidized bed of raw material create by sparging gases by heating raw materials or components to the boiling point, or by emission of volatile decomposition products of raw materials.

The proposed technical solution, the principle of the dry distillation of the feedstock, including paragenetically decomposition at high temperatures without air, not used. Moreover, heating of the raw material up to the temperature of the beginning of the dry distillation is not allowed.

Irradiation of the fluidized bed of the raw materials is carried out at normal or reduced pressure. In practice, use a vacuum up to 100-150 mm Hg

In a specific implementation, the formation of gas bubbles and boiling of raw materials initiate directly accelerated electrons with energies of 0.1-8 MeV at a dose higher than 0.05 kGy/s

To increase the relative yield and quality of the liquid products of the fragmentation of raw materials is recommended recovery of gaseous products to be mixed with the feedstock entering the impact zone.

Appropriate intake regulating acidity and molecular weight distribution in the target product, is the use of alkaline materials.

In particular the performance impact combined with homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis, which allows you to adjust the selectivity of exposure and removal of products of f is amentacea.

Practical technique that increases the degree of conversion of the feedstock is more exposure to ultrasound.

The authors of this technical solution set that as the degree of utilization of raw materials and the output of valuable fractions usual fuel hydrocarbons can be significantly improved, and technology of obtaining them can be greatly simplified if the processing of a new type of raw material - lipids - in case of simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation and temperature to carry out under normal or reduced pressure in the fluidized layer by heating below the temperature of the beginning of the dry distillation (pyrolysis).

First established that the new combined influence enables low-temperature processing, the selectivity of the decomposition of the original components and purpose of the process of radiolysis of lipid material. Economically valuable fraction fuel components and intermediates for heavy organic synthesis, resulting in the impact zone, inhibits the decomposition of raw materials, and should not allow its accumulation in the impact zone.

The following examples illustrate the claimed technical solution.

Table 1 shows the composition and yields (wt.%) products of processing of raw materials; and in table 2 - composition and yields (wt.%) food processing p and additional control factors. In tables 1 and 2 the following symbols are used:

E - energy electrons;

R - power absorbed dose;

In - fluidized bed ("+" - lash by sparging or heat; "-" - lash due to radiolysis);

T is the maximum temperature in the zone of influence.

P is the absolute pressure.

Example 1. As raw materials use lipids isolated from algae (Neochloris oleoabundans). Liquid raw material at a temperature of 270°C served under vacuum (~700 mm Hg) in the zone of irradiation by accelerated electrons generated by the electron accelerator URT-1, at dose rate of 0.11 kGy/s and the maximum energy of 1 MeV electrons. In the volume of raw materials inject recycled argon, creating a fluidized bed. Volatile products originating from the irradiation zone, fractionary. The resulting condensed fractions include liquid hydrocarbons (mainly diesel)light glycerides, big alcohols and ethers is their total yield of 79% by weight of the feedstock. Gaseous fuel (5%wt.) consists mainly of fragmentation of alkanes. Gaseous waste (16%wt.) are a mixture of CO, H2and CO2that is, in principle, can be considered as raw material for production of synthesis gas. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, alcohols, glycerides and esters (their total output is 34 wt.%) can have a dual use - on the one hand, they at the of odni for use in standard diesel fuel, on the other hand, they are popular intermediates for heavy organic synthesis. Thus, when full conversion of raw materials received 84 wt.% target products. The results are presented in table 1.

Example 2. According to the method of example 1 was subjected to the processing of the drug rapeseed oil. As the source of ionizing radiation used γ-isotope60With. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 1.

Example 3. According to the method of example 1 was subjected to the oil extracted from grape seeds. As the source of ionizing radiation used γ-isotope137Cs. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 1.

Example 4. According to the method of example 1 was subjected to oil-palm. As the source of ionizing radiation used linear electron accelerator of well-10-10T. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 1.

Example 5. According to the method of example 1 was subjected to processing animal fat (melted butter). As the source of ionizing radiation used linear electron accelerator of well-10-10T. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 1.

Example 6. Lipids isolated from algae (Neochlorisoleoabundans), processed according to the method of example 1, but instead of nitrogen to create a fluidized bed used a fraction of the synthesized gaseous fuel. Table 2 shows that the addition of gaseous fuel to raw materials allows to increase the yield of liquid fuel, to increase the fraction of synthetic intermediates and reduce the output of waste gases. The total yield of the target products increased by 10 wt.%.

Example 7. According to the method of example 2 was processed rapeseed oil, padmalochan sodium ethylate. Presented in table 2 data indicate the influence of alkali to increase the share of synthetic intermediates, the reduction of gaseous waste and increase yield of the desired conversion to 87 wt.%.

Example 8. Grape seed oil is processed according to the method of example 3, but to create a fluidized bed used a fraction of the synthesized gaseous fuel. When this oil was dissolved Nickel catalyst. The effect of a change of control effects, as can be seen in table 2, is a marked redistribution of the composition of the liquid products in the direction of increasing the fraction of synthetic intermediates and increase the yield of the target of the conversion. The yield of gaseous waste falls by half.

Example 9. According to the method of example 4 was subjected to the processing of palm oil, which was dispersively Nickel catalyst. The creation of boiling SL which I was initiated solely by radiation due to the selection of bubbles of gaseous and vaporous products of radiolysis. Presented in table 2 data indicate the influence of the catalyst on the overall yield of the desired conversion despite significant growth in output of synthetic intermediates and the reduction of gaseous waste.

Example 10. Animal fat was processed according to the method of example 5, but in combination with the influence of the generator of ultrasonic vibrations. In the one and a half times increased the yield of gaseous fuel by reducing the yield of liquid products and gaseous wastes. The overall yield of the desired conversion increased slightly. The process conditions and the results obtained are presented in table 2.

Similar results were obtained when using different gases like nitrogen, argon, helium, methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide and flue gas.

In all cases, implementation of the proposed method at high pressure and without the fluidized bed received the following negative results:

- 2-3-fold increase in colabrative and carbonization;

- reducing the yield of the desired conversion of at least 1.5-2 times, accompanied by increased release of toxic and unusable compounds;

- the formation of products with residual radioactivity, when E≤10 MeV.

- deep degradation of volatile fuel compounds to CO2and H2About when E≤0.1 MeV.

Thus, the method according to the implemented technical solution delivers targeted the transformation of fatty raw materials into valuable gaseous and liquid products. This is especially valuable for disposal of large waste oil plants and fat production.

Currently, the industrial utilization of lipids in the production of biodiesel is mainly in their interesterification and the removal of glycerol. The resulting biodiesel is composed mainly of methyl esters of fatty acids. This mixture is very unstable and has a limited shelf life.

The inventive method allows compact installations to utilize maximum fat raw materials, receiving over a wide range of valuable organic compounds, which is the key raw material for new developed technology platforms.

The inventive method provides the following results:

output recyclable fuel and synthetic products exceeds 80% and can reach 95% by weight of the processed raw materials; liquid target products have reliable domestic and industrial use as a motor fuel and intermediate products for the heavy organic synthesis.

by - products are carbon oxides, which are necessary for the reproduction of the original fatty materials (lipids) plants, primarily biomass of algae (as in open ponds and bioreactors);

the method is characterized environmental cleanliness, POSCO is ECU does not and is not focused on the use of toxic reagents and its implementation is not associated with the occurrence of harmful effects on the environment and production personnel;

the method provides low energy consumption and the consumption of raw materials due to the complete absorption of energy in the processed mixture, low pressure to create a moderate heat and the desired hydrodynamic regime through absorption energy electron radiation.

1. Method of processing of fats and fat-containing biomass by simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation and temperature, characterized in that the processing of raw materials is carried out at normal or reduced pressure in the fluidized layer by heating below the temperature of the beginning of the dry distillation of the feedstock.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the boiling of raw materials directly initiate electron beam with energies of 0.1-8 MeV at a dose higher than 0.05 kGy/s

3. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, characterized in that the reduction of gaseous products is mixed with the feedstock entering the impact zone.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, wherein the treated alkaline raw materials.

5. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, characterized in that the impact combine with homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis.

6. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, characterized in that the exposure to radiation and temperature combined with ultrasonic near the action.



 

Same patents:

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27 cl, 13 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

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25 cl, 12 tbl, 19 ex

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36 cl, 7 tbl, 18 dwg, 14 ex

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61 cl, 4 tbl, 16 dwg, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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8 cl, 9 dwg, 17 tbl, 6 ex

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5 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex

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46 cl, 8 ex

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38 cl, 20 ex

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6 dwg, 1 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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18 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

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1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.

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9 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

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9 cl

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.

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9 cl

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.

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9 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

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5 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of bird lime recycling process, to use recycling products in a complex manner and to ensure environmental safety of the recycling process.

8 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: reactor of synthetic gas has jacket-tubular configuration. Also, a flow of fluid medium has a lengthwise configuration in tube space through a tube bunch. The reactor has a distributing plate of fluid medium at inlet of tube space below a lower end of the tube bunch and a flow sleeve on outlet circular space of increased diametre at an upper end adjacent to a tube sheet, which prevents direct inflow of fluid medium of tube space into outlet of fluid medium of tube space. The tube bunch includes multitude of circular partitions and grate partitions. A lengthwise configuration of flow facilitates lower pressure drop in tube space and lower cost in comparison with regular heat exchanger of reforming with cross flow.

EFFECT: improved main design of heat exchanger of reforming.

18 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains 0.1-49.9 pts.wt alkyl sulphide of formula: R1-S-R2. R1 and R2 are identical or different and denote: an alkyl radical containing 1-4 carbon atoms; or R1 and R2 together with the sulphur atom denote a saturated or unsaturated ring containing 3-5 carbon atoms which is possibly substituted. The composition also contains 50-99.8 pts.wt of at least two acrylic esters whose alkyl radicals contain 1-12 carbon atoms, preferably 1-8 carbon atoms. The mixture also contains 0.001-0.1 pts.wt of a compound which inhibits polymerisation of acrylic esters, preferably containing a stable nitroxide radical. The composition is used to ordourise ordourless gaseous fuel. To this end, an effective amount of the composition in pure or diluted form is added to gaseous fuel. Content of the composition in the gaseous fuel ranges from 1 to 500 mg/Nm3, and preferably from 20 to 50 mg/Nm3. The composition gives gas a strong smell which enables to detect gas leakages and eliminate explosion hazards.

EFFECT: composition is highly environmentally friendly and can be used on injection stations requiring one storage reservoir, one pump and one injection nozzle, which significantly simplifies servicing.

12 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: in process of combined gas treatment the throughput capacity is monitored, gas is previously cleaned from acid components by means of absorption. Deep cleaning is done by a conveyor-membrane method. Besides, as the throughput capacity reduces by 20%, membranes are cyclically in a conveyor method moved for regeneration cleaning, with their replacement for new or regenerated ones.

EFFECT: increased quality of natural gases cleaning with simplification of the process technology with reduction of the specific energy consumption rates and quantity of materials spent for adsorption.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for obtaining an ether additive, which involves mixing of dicarboxylic acid with ether so that water, ether and excess alcohol is obtained with further separation of water and alcohol from ether by rectification; at that, as an acid there used is oxalic acid, and as alcohol - n-butanol or 2-ethylhexanol. Cyclohexane used as a solvent is supplied for mixing of oxalic acid with alcohol, and rectification is performed in two columns so that cyclohexane (solvent) is obtained in the first column, which is returned to the stage of mixing with oxalic acid and alcohol and supply of residue of the first column to the second one so that alcohol and target product (ether additive) are obtained in it.

EFFECT: method allows simplifying the process and making it more economic by excluding the use of a catalyser, processing stages of reaction mass with an agent decomposing the catalyser, and reaction mass sorption and filtration stages.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

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