Integrated logging tool

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: tool contains sectional case with installed collar locators (CL), gamma-ray loggers (GRL), pressure sensors (P), temperature sensors (T), humidimeter (W), thermoconductive flowmeter (TCF) and resistivity metre (RM) from top downward; in pressurised portion of the case there are GRL, LM and P sensors at that sensitive membrane of P sensor is connected to environment by hydrochannel, while T sensors, W, TCF and RM are located in pressurised cavities of non-pressurised portion of the case. At that T and W sensors are shifted in relation to longitudinal axis of the device at equal distances and are installed in the case at place with two pairs of mutually perpendicular reach-through windows having different width and equipped with cross bulkheads, at that the device is equipped with flowmeter module consisting of centraliser, liner, body and metre run with RPM sensor and rotation direction sensor installed along axis of the body. In the upper part of the device there is also force sensing device, and between the device and flowmeter module there is an additional docking device with clamper and double-hinged mutually perpendicular electroconductive unit with offset of rotation axes in relation to longitudinal axis of the device; the device is equipped with additional three dimensional module or humidimeter (W) or thermal moisture tester (T-W) or viscometer (V).

EFFECT: improving operational performance of the device and expansion of its application area.

6 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to geophysical technique and can be used when conducting geophysical surveys and repair and insulation works in horizontal and deviated existing oil, gas and hydrothermal wells to optimize their work, to build a profile of intake or absorption of well fluids to determine the flow rates of the layers and layers and during repair and insulation works.

This invention improves the reliability of a complex downhole device ("device", "downhole tool"), to improve the patency of it in horizontal and directional wells and to enhance the usefulness, effectiveness and quality of measurements to achieve a technical effect, consisting in the improvement of the operational characteristics of the device and extend its scope.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect is combined downhole tool containing a composite body, in which sensors are mounted locator (LM), gamma logging (ha), pressure (P), temperature (T), hygrometer (W), thermoconductive flowmeter (STI) and resistivity meter (RI) and sequentially, from top to bottom, placed in a sealed part of the composite casing, sensors GK, LM & P, and sensitive IU the bran sensor R are connected with the environment hydroprogne channel, and in sealed cavities leaky-part body - sensors T, W, TIS and RI, and sensors T and W are in one place and offset from the longitudinal axis of the device at equal distances, with the casing in place for installation of sensors T and W made two pairs perpendicular to each other, different width through Windows, provided with transverse ridges, and the device is equipped with an additional module flowmeter with clamp (U.S. Pat. No. 2292571 C1, RU, IPC G01V 5/12, 2005, BI No. 3, 2007).

The disadvantages of the device are:

the relative rigidity of the device with the module that restricts the passage of the instrument in places of transition well from the vertical section to the horizontal, and Vice versa;

- lack of control bending effort of bending, compression - tension arising from the transition from a vertical section of the well in horizontal and Vice versa;

- lack of control of the direction of lateral flow of the well fluid;

- no volume control of moisture content;

- no volume control temperature changes;

- the absence of viscosity control.

An object of the invention is to improve the operational capabilities of integrated geophysical downhole tool, increase the efficiency and quality of measurements in deviated and mountains of the horizontal wells and the expansion of the informativeness of the device.

This task is achieved by the fact that in complex downhole tool containing a composite body in which you installed the sensors locator (LM), gamma logging (ha), pressure (P), temperature (T), hygrometer (W), thermoconductive flowmeter (STI) and resistivity meter (RI), and sequentially, from top to bottom, placed in a sealed part of the composite casing, sensors GK, LM & P, and the sensitive membrane of the probe P is connected with the environment hydroprogne channel, and in sealed cavities leaking part of the composite casing sensors T, W, TIS and RI, and sensors T and W are in one place and offset from the longitudinal axis of the device at equal distances, and the device is equipped with a flowmeter module that contains the centralizer, liner, casing and mounted coaxially to the axis of the module housing impeller with sensors speed and direction of rotation, and, in the upper part of the device is additionally equipped with a sensor of effort (F), and between the device and the module installed docking station with lock and two-hinged perpendicular conductive node with an axial offset of the axes of rotation relative to the longitudinal axis of the device, and the device is equipped with additional volumetric module or hygrometer (W), or thermofloor (T-W), or viscometer ().

New features of the device are:

- set the sensor efforts in the upper part of the device, that allows you to control the emerging efforts of compression, tension and bending at the head of the instrument when it passes from a vertical section of the well in horizontal and Vice versa, which in turn, prevents the creation of an emergency in the borehole and to provide a soft passage of the device in the areas of maximum curvature of the tubing, and thus to improve the operational capabilities of the device;

- introduction to the docking station lock that ensures targeted coupling between the device and the modules, increasing the reliability and certainty of the connection;

- introduction of two-hinged perpendicular conductive node with an axial offset of the axes of rotation relative to the longitudinal axis of the device that is installed between the device and the modules attached to the device, which reduces the rigidity of the device and increases its permeability through the string of pipe in the places of their curvature, and thus increases the reliability of the device and improves its operational capabilities;

- introduction of additional volume module or hygrometer (W), or thermofloor (T-W), or viscometer (In) increases the information content, effectiveness and quality of measurements, improving its operational capabilities.

Consistent with the possibility of increasing the quality, accuracy and efficiency of measurement p is the psi module turbine flow meter, contains the centralizer, liner, casing and mounted coaxially to the axis of the module housing impeller rotation sensors speed and direction of rotation, there is a centralizer and two perpendicular impeller with sensors speed and direction of rotation, mounted orthogonal to and offset from the body axis relative to the impeller, installed coaxially to the axis of the module body, the wiring installed in the casing and a three-axis sensor position (P) and the connecting node.

New features of the device are:

- supply module flowmeter additional centralizer that allows you to more accurately center the axis of the module body in the well, providing the location of the orthogonal impellers along the axis of the well, increasing the quality and efficiency measurements;

- installation of two additional perpendicular impellers rotation sensors speed and direction of rotation located orthogonal impeller mounted coaxially to the axis of the module housing, which allows to measure the direction and amount of lateral flow of the well fluid, increasing the quality and efficiency measurement;

- the offset of the two perpendicular impellers relative to the impeller, installed coaxially with the axis of the housing, eliminates the influence of turbulence flows, voznikayushie the rotation of the impellers, that increases the quality of the measurement of lateral flows;

introduction three-dimensional position sensor (P) binds the measured information to the cross section of the well, increasing the accuracy and efficiency of measurement;

- the introduction of a docking station that provides the ability to connect with any module or device, allowing you to extend the operational capabilities of the device as a whole.

Consistent with the need to expand the operational capabilities of the device when used in directional and horizontal wells by improving the accuracy, efficiency and quality measurement device equipped with an additional module of volumetric moisture (W), containing hub retainer, guide installed on it elastic lever suspension system, the levers of which is oriented along the transverse plane of the module installed sensors hygrometer (W), against which the levers made by two pairs of through slots that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the lever, the housing with electro-scheme equipped with three-axis position sensor (P)and the centralizer.

Consistent with the need to expand the operational capabilities by improving the accuracy, efficiency and quality measurement device equipped with an additional module surround thermofloor (T-W), terrasim hub retainer, the guide installed on it elastic lever suspension system, the levers of which is oriented along the transverse plane of the module installed temperature sensors (T) and moisture (W), against which holds two pairs of through slots that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the lever, the housing with electro-scheme equipped with three-axis sensor position (P) and the centralizer.

Consistent with the rationale for the extension of operational capabilities, by improving the accuracy, efficiency and quality measurement device equipped with an additional module volume viscometer (In)containing hub retainer, guide installed on it elastic lever suspension system, the levers of which is oriented along the transverse plane of the module installed sensors viscosity (In), against which holds two pairs of through slots that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the lever body with the wiring diagram supplied with the three-dimensional position sensor (P) and the centralizer.

New features of the device are:

- the device is further provided with volumetric module, or hygrometer (W), or thermofloor (T-W), or viscometer () that allows you to broaden the scope of the measurement plane of the cross-section of the well, increasing the accuracy and efficiency of measurement;

- installation Stikovica the node with lock increases the reliability of the design modules, and, consequently, the entire device;

- introduction guide installed on it elastic lever suspension system, the levers of which is oriented along the transverse plane of the module installed or sensors hygrometer (W), or sensors thermofloor (T-W), or sensors viscosity (), that allows to make measurements at different points in the transverse plane of the wells at the same time, increasing the efficiency measurement;

- performing on instruments in the field installation of the sensors on the two pairs of through slots that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the lever, ensure the reliability of the flow, i.e. amivest sensors, improving the quality of measurement;

introduction three-dimensional position sensor (P) binds the measured information to the cross section of the well, increasing the accuracy and efficiency of measurement;

- introduction of the centralizer, ensures the alignment of the installation of the elastic suspension system axis of the well, increasing the quality of the measurement and removing lateral loads with elastic lever system.

Consistent with the rationale for the extension of operational capabilities, by improving the quality and reliability of the obtained information additional volumetric modules hygrometer (W), thermoplasmata (T-W) and viscometer (In) equipped with an additional sensor, respectively hygrometer (W), temperature(T-W) and viscosity (), set along the axis of the guide and oriented in the transverse plane of the remaining sensors, and, on the rail at the installation location of the sensor is a through slot.

New features of the device are:

- installation of additional volumetric modules additional sensor along the axis of the guide with its orientation in the transverse plane of the remaining sensors, allowing you to more accurately calculate the field distribution of temperature, humidity and viscosity cross-sectional wells, enhancing the quality of measurements and the reliability of the received information;

- running through slots in the guide at the place of installation of the sensor, which improves amivest sensors, ensuring the reliability of flow and increasing the quality of the measurement.

From the analysis of patent and technical literature such solution is not known, which allows to make a conclusion about the "Novelty" and "Inventive step" offer a comprehensive downhole tool.

Figure 1 presents a generic variant of the design of the proposed technical solution downhole tool.

The downhole tool includes:

- part housing 1;

sensor LM 2, measuring the magnetic inhomogeneity of the column, by converting the measurement into an electrical signal;

Yes the chick Ledger 3, measuring volumetric heterogeneity annular space, converting the measurement into an electrical signal;

sensor R 4 measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the well fluid by converting it into an electrical signal;

sensor T 5 measuring thermal field wells with conversion into an electrical signal;

sensor W 6, converts data of humidity into an electrical signal;

sensor STI 7 measuring the flow rate by converting the flow of wellbore fluid into an electrical signal;

sensor RI 8 measuring the conductivity of the borehole fluid;

- part housing 1 comprises a sealed portion 9, which sequentially from top to bottom placed sensors 3, 2 and 4, and the sensitive membrane of the sensor 4 is connected with the environment hydroprogne channel 10, and leaking part 11, where in sealed cavities installed sensors 5, 6, 7 and 8, and the sensors 5 and 6 are in one place and offset from the longitudinal axis of the device at equal distances, and the body is made of two pairs of different width perpendicular through the Windows 12 and 13, provided with the ridges 14 and 15;

- docking station 16 with the retainer 17 and the instrument head 18 for cable lug;

module flow meter 19, the clamp 20, the shank 21, the housing 22 and is installed along the axis of the casing by the impeller 23 with the Dutch the kami turns 24 and the direction of rotation 25, designed for flow measurement of borehole fluid;

sensor effort F 26 that is designed to convert the axial force bending, compression-tension acting on the device side of the cable into an electrical signal;

two-hinged perpendicular conductive node 27 axial displacement of the axes of rotation 28 and 29 relative to the longitudinal axis of the device, providing freedom of movement of the instrument through the borehole in two perpendicular planes;

- additional bulk modulus, which depending on the current task may be a module or hygrometer (W) 30, or thermofloor (T-W) 31 or viscometer (In) 32, measuring, depending on the manufactured Assembly complex, three-dimensional or humidity, or temperature and humidity, or the strength of the cross-section of the well. Any of the additional modules is established between the module flow meter 19 and the device rigidly connecting the flow meter through the docking station 38, and with the device through the two-hinged perpendicular conductive node 27.

The downhole tool works as follows.

The downhole tool connected to geophysical logger via logging cable, lower on the cable through the tubing to the bottom of a well.

Module flow meter 19 with more the positive volumetric module (hygrometer 30 or thermofloor 31, or viscometer 32) is input into the horizontal section of the well, however, triggered a two-hinged perpendicular conductive node 27 axial displacement of the axes of rotation 28 and 29 relative to the longitudinal axis of the device, providing freedom of movement of the instrument through the borehole in two perpendicular planes. After the module passes the device. The moment you pass bottleneck is recorded by the sensor 26 and effort is controlled by the operator.

During the descent of the downhole device to produce a background measurement of all parameters recorded by the downhole tool. When this heater sensor STI is turned off, and the sensor itself works as a backup thermometer.

While the downhole tool in the well borehole fluid washes the body of the downhole tool and all of its sensors. When reaching the bottom, turns on the heater, sensor CAPABILITIES, and, when lifting the downhole tool, write from all sensors.

According to the results of measurements made conclusion about the state of the well and production process taking place in it.

Figure 2 presents a variant of the module structure of the flow meter 19 which are connected to the downhole device.

Module flow meter 19 contains:

the centralizer 20;

the shank 21;

housing 22;

the impeller 23 is installed the second coaxially to the axis of the module housing and is equipped with speed sensors 24 and the direction of rotation 25;

- additional elastic centralizer 33 mounted on the housing 22 of the module;

two perpendicular impeller 34 and 35, mounted in the module housing orthogonal impeller 23 and is equipped with speed sensors 24 and the direction of rotation 25;

- wiring diagram 36 mounted in the casing and a three-axis position sensor 37;

- docking station 38.

Module flow meter operates as follows.

With the passage of the module flow meter on the well bore axial impeller 23 under the action of flow of the well fluid flowing along the well axis, rotates around its axis. Perpendicular to the impeller 34 and 35 are closed from the axial flow. Upon the occurrence of lateral flows start to rotate perpendicular to the impeller 34 and 35 and, depending on the flow or absorption and volume change or the rotation speed of the impellers, or the direction of their rotation. Rotation of the impellers 23, 34 and 35 is fixed by the speed sensors 24 and the direction of rotation 25, the respective impellers. The position sensor 37 located in the housing 22, binds data rotation and the moment of the emergence and change of lateral flows to the plane of the cross-section of the well, and sensors 2 and 3, located mainly in the downhole tool to the wellbore.

Figure 3 presents the design of multipurpose the th volumetric module (moisture (W) or thermoplasty (T-W), or viscometer (In)installed between the appliance and module flow meter.

Universal module contains:

- docking station 39 with the latch 40;

- the guide 41 installed on it elastic (springs 42) lever suspension system 43, the levers 44 which are oriented in the transverse plane module is equipped with measuring sensors 45. The sensors 45, depending on the destination module may be or hygrometer sensors 30, or combined in pairs sensors thermofloor 31, or sensors viscometer 32. The levers 44, in the place of installation of the sensors 45 made two pairs of through slots 46 and 47 that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the lever;

- case of 48 from the circuit 49, equipped with three-axis position sensor 37;

- flexible centralizer 50;

- measuring sensor 51, similar to the sensors 45, mounted on the axis of the housing (guide 41), and, in place of the sensor, made by two pairs of through slots 52 and 53 that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the module.

Universal surround the module works as follows.

Universal bulk modulus, namely - or module hygrometer 30, or module thermofloor 31, or the viscometer module 32, in the composition of the downhole tool passes through the borehole. Flexible centralizers 50 and 33 (the centralizer module flowmeter) gliding along the wellbore, ensure the sustainable centering on the axis of the bore of the guide 41 installed on it elastic (springs 42) lever suspension system 43, the levers 44 which are oriented in the transverse plane module is equipped with measuring sensors 45. The sensors 45 are evenly distributed around the perimeter of the hole, and the sensor 51 is installed in the guide 41 - axis module. Elastic linkage suspension system 43 of the walls of the borehole does not apply. The sensors 45 and 51, conduct measurements in the transverse plane of the wells, and the position sensor 37 mounted in the housing 48 in conjunction with the circuit 49, binds the measured information to the cross section of the well.

Set downhole tool with additional modules is formed depending on the amount and procedure for the detailed study of a particular well, which is, depending on the task, according to the methods adopted by the geological survey geophysical company, consistent with geological survey oil and gas company.

The proposed device is implemented in the design and manufacture of integrated downhole equipment model "Owl" and tested in the oil fields of Western Siberia, which allows to make a conclusion about the "Industrial applicability".

This device allows to increase the reliability of the downhole tool, by introducing a control for the axial force, to improve the patency of it in horizontal and deviated the well is Oh, by introducing inter-swivel, and to improve the efficiency and quality of measurements, by introducing additional measurement parameters on the plane of the cross-section of the well, which achieves the technical effect consists in the extension of the value and reliability of the received information that, ultimately, leads to improvement of the operational characteristics of the integrated downhole tool and expand its scope.

1. Combined downhole tool containing a composite body in which you installed the sensors locator (LM), gamma logging (ha), pressure (P), temperature (T), hygrometer (W), thermoconductive flowmeter (STI) and resistivity meter (RI), placed sequentially from top to bottom, in a sealed part of the composite casing sensors GK, LM & P, and the sensitive membrane of the probe P is connected with the environment hydroprogne channel, and in a sealed cavity leaky-part body - sensors T, W, TIS and RI, moreover, the sensors T and W is displaced relative to the longitudinal axis of the device at equal distances and installed in place of the shell, which is made of two pairs perpendicular to each other, different width through Windows, provided with transverse ridges, and the device is equipped with a flowmeter module that contains the centralizer, HVO who tovik, case and installed on the axis of the housing impeller with sensors speed and direction of rotation, characterized in that the upper part of the device is additionally equipped with a sensor effort F, between the device and the module flow meter installed docking station with lock and double-hinged perpendicular conductive node with an axial offset of the axes of rotation relative to the longitudinal axis of the device, and the device is equipped with additional volumetric module or hygrometer (W), or thermofloor (T-W), or viscometer ().

2. Combined downhole tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the flowmeter module that contains the centralizer, liner, casing and mounted coaxially to the axis of the casing impeller with sensors speed and direction of rotation, provided with an additional centralizer and two mutual perpendicular impellers with sensors speed and direction of rotation, mounted orthogonal to and offset from the axis of the housing relative to the impeller, coaxially to the axis of the module housing, the circuit installed in the housing and provided with a three-dimensional position sensor (P), and the connecting node.

3. Combined downhole tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the module volumetric moisture (W) contains: hub retainer, guide installed on it elastic lever suspension system, growling at the Ah which is oriented along the transverse plane of the module installed sensors hygrometer (W), against which the levers made by two pairs of through slots that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the lever body with the wiring diagram supplied with three-dimensional position sensor (P), and the centralizer.

4. Combined downhole tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the module surround thermofloor (T-W) contains: hub retainer, guide installed on it elastic lever suspension system, the levers of which is oriented along the transverse plane of the module installed temperature sensors (T) and moisture (W), against which holds two pairs of through slots that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the lever body with the wiring diagram supplied with three-dimensional position sensor (P), and the centralizer.

5. Combined downhole tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the module volume viscometer (C) includes: hub retainer, guide installed on it elastic lever suspension system, the levers of which is oriented along the transverse plane of the module installed sensors viscosity (In), against which holds two pairs of through slots that are offset from the longitudinal axis of the lever body with the wiring diagram supplied with three-dimensional position sensor (P), and the centralizer.

6. Combined downhole tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the additional bulk mo is Uli hygrometer (W), thermofloor (T-W) and viscometer (In) equipped with an additional sensor, respectively hygrometer (W), thermoplasmata (T-W) and viscosity (In)mounted on the axis of the guide and oriented in the transverse plane of the remaining sensors, and on the rail in place, install an additional sensor is a through slot.



 

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1 ex

FIELD: geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes lowering protective container to the well to portion of intensive curvature of shaft, which container is fixed at end of drilling pipes, lowering of geophysical device into protective container on lower portion of logging cable, delivery of protective container with geophysical device to pit-face by consecutive extending of drilling pipes column, lowering of upper portion of logging cable through remote-controlled compactor of logging cable fixed on branch of swivel, into drilling pipes, until electric contact to free end of lower portion of logging cable via detachable connecting sleeve, geophysical examining of shaft during raising of geophysical device together with drilling pipes with appropriate connection-disconnection of fixing ends of lower and upper portions of logging cable when screwing away each following drill stand. When examining wells having extensive steeply slanted portion of well shaft with zenith angle of 50-90, where lowering of upper portion of logging cable to electrical contact with free end of lower portion of logging cable via detachable connecting sleeve under its own weight is difficult due to friction at drilling column wall, forced lowering of detachable connecting sleeve is performed by feeding washing liquid under pressure into drilling pipes and concurrent adjustment of pressure in chamber of remote-controlled compactor of logging cable. Pressure in chamber of remote-controlled logging cable compactor is achieved to be close to pressure of washing liquid in drilling pipes, to provide for optimal speed of cable lowering and its pressurization, and after connection of detachable connecting sleeve to lower portion of logging cable during raising and lowering of drilling pipes, examinations of well are performed.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes examination of exploring, product or force well, drilled in oil or gas saturated bed, in two stages. At first stage water is forced and water loss is measured. At second stage bed fluid is extracted and debits are measured on basis of oil or gas and water, and at both stages pit-face pressure is measured. On basis of measured parameters water level in production is determined, and volumes of extracted and forced water. Type of carbonate collector is determined on basis of dynamics of change of pit pressure at first and second research stages and change of relation of collected volume of extracted water to total volume of forced water during second stage, in time. For better identification of purely cracked and porous collector types, sampling and laboratory research of productive interval core is additionally performed, and results are taken in consideration during identification of carbonate collector type.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring tank and tachometer generator and pressure and temperature sensors on it. It is mounted at distance of one tubing pipe from extracting pump, where pressure is higher than saturation pressure, i.e. in one-phase liquid flow, and serves as connecting sleeve. At distance of two tubing pipes from deep station in connection sleeve additionally mounted is sensor of liquid hydrostatic pressure. Measurement of base parameters characterizing production of oil and gas product wells, is performed directly in the well close to position of extracting pump. Device allows to perform systematical measurements of product parameters individually for each product well at all stages of deposit extraction. Use of deep stations for measuring parameters of oil and gas wells product excludes use of expensive and complicated switching execution mechanisms of automated group measuring plants.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: during recording of pressure change pressure is measured at mouth at tubing column entrance and in inter-tubular space. Recording of pressure change is performed on basis of pressures comparison before and after stopping of well on basis of speed of pressure fall at mouth and in inter-tubular space after stopping of operation well and on basis of pressures comparison before and after well launch for forcing on basis of speed of pressure increase at mouth and in inter-tubular space after well launch. As criterion of pressurization estimation a calculated value of liquid flow, which enters and exits inter-tubular well space is taken.

EFFECT: higher trustworthiness.

1 ex

FIELD: geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring amplitudes of longitudinal acoustic wave on two working emitted frequencies of signal along casing column within given range. Amplitudes of longitudinal wave of acoustic signal are recorded along column at two frequencies (high Ahf and low Alf) and on basis of relation of these values, normalized by maximal values at portion of non-cemented column Avr (Ahf/Avr and Alf/Avr), separation of cementation defects by major types is performed (ring space, volumetric defect, mixed defect) and values of their openness are measured.

EFFECT: higher trustworthiness and higher precision.

2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes lowering equipment into well and performing analysis during extraction of oil from oil beds. In accordance to invention after raising down-pumping equipment from the well liquid is replaced with degassed liquid, and research is performed during pumping in of degassed liquid into oil beds and extraction of degassed oil from oil beds, at the same time pumping is performed using exhaust gases under high pressure from moving compressor, and extraction of degassed oil - by letting exhaust gases out of the well. During that on basis of share of oil beds in total debit of product and extraction and on basis of face pressures during extraction and removal bed pressures of oil beds are determined together with their productiveness coefficient.

EFFECT: higher reliability and precision.

1 ex

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