Drainage system of road earth bed
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes drainage pipes of higher strength installed with a drainage inclination in an earth bed. Drainage pipes are arranged inside the earth bed body using a method of horizontal directional drilling. End sections of pipes protrude beyond limits of earth bed slopes and are connected to each other in a closed system, the outlet of which is made as capable of connection of compressor equipment. Sections of the drainage pipes arranged in the bed body are made as evenly perforated.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve draining properties of a system and bearing capacity of a road base by increasing a drying zone, realisation of the possibility to regulate drying process, and also reinforcement of an earth bed.
The invention relates to the field of road construction and can be used in the reconstruction of roadbed to struggle with the drawdown of the road base and frost heave problem areas of the road without stopping traffic.
A known design for protection of soil pavement from wetlands, including the floor, Foundation, drainage layer, subgrade, single transverse interceptor drain installed in the top of the concave vertical curve, posted on the project line subgrade containing a perforated drainage pipe with releases on the slopes of subgrade and coarse filter material disposed within the drainage layer and below it on the width of the Foundation (RF Patent No. 2305730, F02D 17/20, 2006).
The known system is intended for drainage areas of protracted slopes and concave longitudinal profile. Installation of the known system is performed only in the construction of the roadway and, as a consequence, problems on existing sites cannot be resolved.
Closest to the claimed system is a device to strengthen the slope of the subgrade, including placed in the body of the subgrade cross drainage pipe from a material of high strength, with agenoy intake device in the form of a perforated steel pipe, one end of which is provided with a water intake device, and is located in the saturated zone, and a second end removed from the drain bias on the surface of the slope is rigidly connected to the headstall made in the form of an anchor element (Patent RF №2305730, E02D 17/20, 2006)
The known device is intended to ensure slope stability of the subgrade and is not intended for improving bearing capacity of road Foundation. The known device allows the drainage of the Central narrow water-saturated zone in the ballast prism (water lens) of the subgrade. Each drain pipe is implemented as a separate element engaged in the diversion of water due to self-drain. Regulate the outflow of water is not provided. The system inoperable in the cold season.
The technical challenge is to improve the drainage system properties and bearing capacity of the road base by increasing the drainage area, the implementation of regulatory capacity dehumidification, as well as reinforcement of the subgrade.
The invention consists in that the drainage system of the subgrade of the road, including drainage pipes of high strength, installed with drain bias in the sub grade, according to the invention, the drainage pipes are placed inside the body see Lenogo canvas using the method of horizontal directional drilling, the ends of the tubes protrude from the slope of the subgrade and interconnected in a closed system, the output of which is arranged to connect the compressor equipment, and lots of drainage pipes placed in the body of the fabric, holds uniformly perforated.
Using the method of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) for laying drainage pipes inside the subgrade of the road allows the pipes to be laid across the roadway with a given angle in the profile of the road on existing sites, which greatly increases the carrying capacity of the road base by placing a kind of reinforcing lattice of high-strength pipes in the area of distressed stretch of road. Reinforcing lattice slows down the deposition of the problematic part of the road base or stops it.
Lots of drainage pipes located in the body of the fabric, holds uniformly perforated, allowing the vibrations of the road from passing on her transport to enhance the drying process of the soil.
Removing water from the soil subgrade of the road at different times of the year to maintain optimal humidity must be of different intensity. The inventive design allows to solve this problem, because the drainage system is designed with the ability to connect the comp is estomago equipment, which creates negative pressure in the system, initiating the suction of the liquid from the soil.
The interconnected ends of the drainage pipes create a closed system associated with the compressor (pump) equipment that creates the necessary vacuum and regulate the process of drying on the problematic parts of the road depending on the soil type, temperature, saturation of the soil water and the like, providing the necessary water flow.
The system is installed on the problematic stretch of road base, where he found frost heave and/or subsidence of the road base, the reason for this is water "lens" in the body of the road base.
The invention is illustrated as follows.
Figure 1 shows the placement of the drainage tube of the inventive system in the body of roadbed (cross section. Figure 2 is a view As in figure 1 in longitudinal section.
The road system includes perforated drainage pipe 1, which is placed inside the body of subgrade 2 under the road base 3.
The drainage tube 1 is placed in the following way. Using the installation of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) (not shown) using a drill (not shown) is conducted through pilot drilling subgrade 2 with a given slope.
After withdrawal of the drill from the opposite slope of the subgrade Bur demont the shape, to the rod (not shown) attach the drainage tube 1 and on the reverse during installation HDD is produced by laying the specified pipe 1 into the body of subgrade 2 with a given slopeand.
Step drainage pipe 1, the diameter, the configuration of the perforation, type of ground filters and their presence is determined from the model calculation of drainage systems. The results of the calculations are affected by the type of soil, its porosity and the load acting on the stretch of road.
The ends 4 of the pipe 1 protrude from the slope of the subgrade 2. Connect them together using plumbing fixtures - connecting pipes 5 and fittings 6.
Formed a closed system, which by the drain fitting 7 can be connected compressor equipment 8. Drain fitting 7 come from the other side of the road, which is directed slope of the drainage pipe 1.
The drainage system works as follows.
Water from the soil subgrade drains to the drainage pipe 1 and by gravity merge through a drain fitting 7. The water flow increases from the vibration of the ground during movement of vehicles on road base 3.
If necessary, increase the intensity of dehumidification, connects the compressor equipment 8 (compressor) to the drain fitting 7. The compressor 8 creates a vacuum of 0.1-0.9 ATM, depending on the soil type is sidenote ground water, etc., providing the required water flow.
Drainage of the subgrade of the road, including drainage pipes of high strength, installed with drain bias earthen canvas, characterized in that the drainage pipes are placed inside the body of the subgrade using the method of horizontal directional drilling, the ends of the tubes protrude from the slope of the subgrade and interconnected in a closed system, the output of which is arranged to connect the compressor equipment, and lots of drainage pipes placed in the body of the fabric, holds uniformly perforated.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises k experimental drainage systems - versions of R replication with n number of experimental drains, connected with a closed header k-R, made of pipes with water impermeable walls without joints and water receiving holes and entering an inspection drop hydrometric manhole. M number of parallel pipes of closed headers enter the inspection drop hydrometric manhole at the same time and are made with a section with entering drains and an idle part. As the experimental drainage system version is moved away from the inspection drop hydrometric manhole, the idle part of the closed header of the previous experimental drainage system-version is shorter than the idle part of the closed header of each subsequent experimental drainage system version. Pipes of closed headers entering the inspection drop hydrometric manhole are equipped with a cantilever water outlet and are laid in one trench in tiers in different parallel vertical planes.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve conditions for mechanisation of field works, to perform reconstruction and repair of each header and its drains, without interfering with other headers, to reduce number of weed seed pilots.
SUBSTANCE: connection of drain pipes 1 and 2 includes a coupling placed onto end sections of pipes, in the form of a flexible toroid-shaped chamber 4 with a filler 5 from an elastic compressible material having a toroid shape, the surface of which is coated with an anti-friction lubricant. The toroid-shaped chamber 4 is made from a non-elastic shell, and end sections of drain pipes are made with longitudinal rounded corrugations 6. The outer perimeter of cross section of the corrugated part of pipes is equal to the perimeter of the cross section of the outer surface of the chamber shell, and length of corrugations on each end section of pipes is equal to the coupling length.
EFFECT: invention achieves required density of connection of drainage pipes and simplified coupling design.
SUBSTANCE: controller comprises a well 7, a stop element in the form of a valve 4 installed in it on the head of the drain, and the valve is connected with levers of a hinged mechanism, and a float 8. The lever mechanism is made as capable of free contact with the floating float 8. The float is installed in an additional chamber 6. The lever mechanism is installed on the horizontal axis 12. Besides, the axis of the lever mechanism divides it into two unequal parts 14 and 15, the top one of which is more than the bottom one. On the top part of the arm 14 there is a counterbalance reservoir 17 hingedly fixed, the centre of gravity of which is placed above the horizontal axis of rotation. On the bottom part of the arm 15 there is a mechanism hingedly fixed to change position accordingly above the float at elevations of maximum and minimum water level in the float chamber.
EFFECT: increased reliability of a device, higher accuracy of control and possibility to adjust system operation into a drying mode.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device to join drainage pipes 1 and 2 comprises connection elements 4, which are installed in holes 3 near ends of joined pipes and are made in the form of two cylindrical plugs with ball-shaped endings 7, equal to diameters of holes connected to each other with a link. Each connection element 4 is made as Z-shaped. The link in the middle part 5 has width equal to width of a water-receiving gap 6 equal to thickness of the pipe wall. Plugs with ball-shaped endings are introduced into holes of joined pipes, one at the inner side, and the other one at the outer side.
EFFECT: improved reliability of water-receiving gap fixation and prevention of pipes collision against each other in process of mechanised installation.
SUBSTANCE: drain opening is closed with the plug with a branch pipe provided with a branch with a valve and a dispensing container. The branch is connected by the hose to the exhaust pipe of the internal combustion engine, and the exhaust gases are fed into the drain cavity. The dispensing container is filled with fine powder of colloidal copper. The valve is opened, and the powder is fed into the drain cavity. The supply of gases is stopped when the dispensing container is completely empty. The colloidal copper powder together with the stream of exhaust gases is fed onto the inner surface of the drainage pipes and the slits of the drainage pipes.
EFFECT: increased intensity of suppression of life activity of iron bacteria.
SUBSTANCE: method of performance control of transverse drains on catena lies in determining the timeliness of their lowering of the level of groundwater, and ensuring the required drainage rate. To implement the method the measurement of position of the depression curve in the drain spacing on the established wells is carried out. To do this, between the wells the distance is specified depending on the distance between the drains. The first and the last wells in the drain spacing are located in the trench where the drains are stacked. The second and the penultimate wells are located at one metre from the drains. The remaining wells are located taking into account the asymmetry of the depression curve between the transverse drains. The distance from the upper and lower drains is calculated based on the distance Ev. The distance Ev is defined as the distance from the vertical at the point on the depression curve with its tangent line, parallel to the soil surface, in which there is a minimum drainage rate - the maximum approximation of the groundwater level to the soil surface.
EFFECT: improvement of drainage performance and improvement of effectiveness of use of drained mineral soils of catena.
SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by means of heading of containers, such as a cutting cylinder, onto a monolith. At the same time previously the soil is sampled. For this purpose a site is chosen, and in its centre a circular trench is dug with depth of not more than by 25 mm lower than the height of the cutting cylinder, belting the untouched soil, representing a truncated cone in shape, the diameter of the upper base of which is by 10…15 cm more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base is more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder by 15…25 cm. From the soil left untouched the monolith is cut with the diameter of at least by 6 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder and the height that is at least by 25 mm smaller than the cylinder height. At the same time the cylinder is periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to monitor the diameter of the cut monolith. After cutting of the monolith and putting of the cutting cylinder on it, the cylinder is pushed into soil, until its upper layer levels with the monolith surface. In the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith four Z-shaped supporting monolith-supporting plates are inserted with height equal to 3/4 of the cutting cylinder height. Evenly they are distributed along the cylinder perimetre and put on its upper edge. The slot between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder, the soil monolith and its supporting plates is filled with a molten waterproof material, having lower temperature of melting, for instance, a mineral wax. Afterwards the monolith is cut at the bottom at the lower edge of the cylinder, it is installed on the solid surface, packed and delivered to the area of filtration tests performance.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of soil filtration coefficient detection and accuracy of establishment of land reclamation system parameters, efficiency of using reclaimed soils, expanded zone of application of monoliths for detection of filtration coefficient.
SUBSTANCE: method for erection of a vertical drain includes drilling of a well with simultaneous fixation of its walls with a casing pipe, where a casing filter string is lowered. Previously, before lowering of the filter string, a perforated pipe of smaller diameter is lowered into the well, and inside this pipe a filter pipe is lowered, which has been previously perforated and wrapped into a net of non-ferrous metal. Geotextile is wrapped onto the net, which is fixed by a copper wire. The perforated and filter pipes are aligned so that the distance between the inner wall of the perforated pipe and the filter pipe is identical along whole circumference. Then the space between the pipes is filled in layers with a sand and gravel mixture. A well pump is installed inside the filter pipe with installation of coupling pipes and electric cables. Afterwards the casing pipe is withdrawn from the well, and a conductor is arranged from the earth surface.
EFFECT: increased reliability of drain operation.
SUBSTANCE: closed collector comprises a trench with an inclined bottom, a perforated pipeline wrapped with a protective-filtering material and laid onto the trench bottom, and solid or interrupted filtering fill of the trench with a water-permeable material with filtration ratio higher than filtration ratio of soil that surrounds the trench, and entering the closed collector. In order to increase quality of arrangement of a longitudinal profile of the trench bottom by the mechanised method and to reduce volume of manual completion of its bottom to the bottom meeting the laid requirements, the average minimum inclination of the trench bottom along the entire length of the collector is accepted as equal to 0.006. At the same time the length of the closed collector is accepted depending on natural inclination of soil surface under specific conditions, but at least 50 m.
EFFECT: reduced sedimentation of drainage lines and demand for their washing, provides for reliable hydrological action of a closed collector in process of its operation of many years for at least the rated service life.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding into the drain cavity of internal combustion engine exhaust gases. Along with the feeding of the exhaust gases into the drain cavity the spray of aqueous solution of formalin is fed. The drops of the aqueous solution of formalin with the flow of exhaust gases are fed to the inner surface of the drainage pipes and to the slits of the drainage pipes. Formalin blocks the bacterial process of converting the iron compounds into insoluble forms.
EFFECT: iron bacteria are killed, the process of coloring with ochre stops.
SUBSTANCE: method to construct a soil structure on a waterlogged area includes erection of a discharge system from soil strengthened with a binder, for instance, oil, layerwise filling of the main part of the structure, laying an underlying layer and a coating onto its surface. Under significant hydraulic heads of surface waters at the structure, within the discharge system they erect horizontal waterproof and filtering rolls with height of 0.3…0.5 m. Then the main part of the structure is filled in layers, and simultaneously the discharge system is erected in the form of perpendicularly arranged waterproof and filtering vertical membranes.
EFFECT: higher reliability and life of structure service, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness of structure erection.
SUBSTANCE: method for road construction includes separation of a section intended for road construction into serially arranged construction sites, delivery of loose material to a construction site with technological transport. The road surface is formed in the following manner: loose material is packed into strong material, forming a continuous tape of specified length, layers of road surface are formed by laying the tape in rows along or across the construction site.
EFFECT: construction time is reduced, efficiency increases, and more durable road surface is provided.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the method for construction of roads on frozen soils protective elements in the form of a movable car-dome are installed to ensure tightness of their connection with a road foundation, and negative temperature is created inside a car-dome, road foundation is prepared, an earthfill is filled inside the car-body along its entire length, and the car-dome is moved along the road route axis to the distance equal to the distance of the car-dome length. Besides, at least two air impermeable car-domes are installed as arranged one after the other, the first of which is designed to prepare a frozen foundation, and the second one - to fill an earthfill.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of earthfill construction on frozen soils and its stability during operation.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to erect embankment on frozen soils, according to the invention, a finished frozen dry soil and cement mixture is produced in winter, for this purpose a frozen highly icy soil is used, which is crushed - ground to produce frozen crumbs, and a binder, for instance, cement, which are mixed, stacked, and the finished frozen (dry) soil and cement mixture is filled into an embankment in winter. At first the dry fiber-reinforced cement mixture is prepared from cement and fiber, stacked, afterwards a finished frozen (dry) mixture is prepared from a dry fiber-reinforced cement mixture and a ground frozen soil, and laid into an embankment. The finished frozen dry mixture is prepared from a crushed frozen soil and an expanding cement, in the amount complying with the change of its volume during expansion in process of hydration and equal to the volume of ice in the frozen crushed soil. The dry cement and sand mixture is prepared from cement and dried (conditioned) sand, stacked, then the finished frozen dry mixture is prepared from a dry cement and sand mixture and a ground frozen (finely dispersed) soil, besides, the volume of (conditioned) sand is equal to the volume of cavities between grains of the ground frozen soil, afterwards the prepared finished frozen (dry) mixture is laid into the embankment.
EFFECT: invention may be used in erection of oil and gas and transport structures on frozen soils, both in summer and winter periods of the year.
SUBSTANCE: in an embankment on the frozen ground including a trench, a convex layer of a frost protection material in a solid enclosure, ice-rich soil and a drainage soil layer, according to the invention, an embankment base and ramps are made of discrete impenetrable solid elements. In the base, they are layered all the way down the trench, and in the ramps - full-height embankment. The gaps between said discrete solid elements are filled with a frost-free material. In the layered discrete impenetrable solid elements of the base, there are air gaps, while the ramps are covered with antifiltration sheets. The air gaps can be discrete and located in mutually perpendicular directions, or in the form of pits staggered in the base. The discrete solid elements are appropriate to be filled with ice-rich soil produced of, e.g. trenching.
EFFECT: higher stability of the embankment ensured by higher degree of frost-bound soil condition, and reinforcement of separate areas of an embankment body, prevention of continuous water saturation, ground filtration and liquefaction in ice thawing.
4 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for erection of embankment on frozen soils includes laying of heat insulation layer onto foundation, filling of embankment layer from highly icy soil, with further filling of upper draining layer of soil. According to invention, prior to installation of heat insulation layer, transverse slots are cut in embankment foundation and filled with non-heaving material, then internal long strip is filled from highly icy soil, long vertical filtering webs are installed, then long extreme strips are filled together with upper draining layer, afterwards conditioning is carried out, as well as further dehydration of embankment.
EFFECT: reduced costs and efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to structures for protection of road carpet soil foundations against overwetting. Road structure including coat, foundation, draining layer, earth bed, lean-to cross catching drain installed on concave section of vertical curve, top of which is located on project line of earth bed, comprising perforated drain tube with tubular extensions to slopes of earth bed, and filtering coarse-grain material installed within the limits of draining layer and below by foundation width. Interruption of filtered water is done by arrangement of catching drains at borders of sections with slopes, which provide for efficient drying of draining layer on top sides, and distance from curve top to borders of sections is defined by product of curve radiuses to border slopes.
EFFECT: preservation of stable strength in period of structure thawing in sections of concave vertical curve, top of which is located on project line of longitudinal profile of road, and sections are limited by opposite slopes of at least two ppm, and also prevention of water supply to concave section, and therefore, provision of stable strength of structure.
SUBSTANCE: road structure including coat, foundation, draining layer, earth bed, lean-to cross catching drain arranged in top of concave vertical curve installed on project line of earth bed, comprising perforated drain pipe with extensions to slopes of earth bed and filtering coarse-grained material installed within the limits of draining layer and below by foundation width. Draining layer used in drying section is material with filtration coefficient that exceeds value of material filtration coefficient at approaches to this section, preferably at least 10 m/day, and distance from top of curve to borders of efficient drying sections is determined by product of curve radiuses by border slopes.
EFFECT: efficient drying of draining layer in road carpet in period of structure thawing in concave sections of longitudinal profile with zero inclination in top of curve on project line of earth bed and limited by opposite slopes of at least two ppm, and also higher efficiency of drying and prevention against deformations and damages of earth bed and road carpet.
SUBSTANCE: embankment on frozen soil includes base with placed thereon technological layers of soil, divided by width with soil longitudinal lines. According to the invention, in the base of the embankment there are cross slots filled up with frost-free material. Top of the base is covered with waterproofing material, with placed thereon heat insulation layer in the shape of non-isosceles triangle with the corner offset towards the lateral side of the embankment in the direction of solar radiation; heat insulating layer is covered with waterproof casing with arranged there at the width of the embankment longitudinal soil lines, whereat along the lateral slopes of the internal soil line there are placed filtrating cloths meeting with lower part of waterproof casing and separating it from lateral soil longitudinal lines.
EFFECT: prevention of water saturation and soil fluidisation at ice thawing, during its operation, securing enhanced strength of earth bed due to reinforcement of its separate zones.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention deals with preparation for construction activities within unstable ground sites. Method of construction under unstable ground conditions includes the following operations: placement of reinforcing material onto the construction site ground with the material selected from the following list: rope, gasket, reinforcement net, meshed material, geotextile material and the reinforcing elements arranged lengthwise or netlike; pouring a liquid dual-component hydrophobic expanding polymer onto the reinforcing material. After curing the polymer and the reinforcing material form a consolidated constructional foundation spanning over the ground unstable zones. There is also description of the construction method variant as well as a structure built through it.
EFFECT: arrangement of a reinforced foamed material foundation enabling the earth foundation consolidation and minimisation of its disintegration which eventually results in decreased settling of buildings and structures erected on such reinforced foamed material foundations.
17 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: road building, particularly to construct road pavement.
SUBSTANCE: pavement comprises sand underlayer with hydrophobous roll material and monolithic cement concrete layer. Pavement is provided with geomesh arranged on underlayer. Geomesh has threads working in tension in longitudinal and transversal directions and forming lower monolithic layer. Pavement comprises three-dimensional honeycomb geogrid having cells filled with monolithic cement concrete to form intermediate layer and with fiber threads randomly directed and uniformly distributed over the whole volume to form upper layer.
EFFECT: reduced water impermeability and increased wear resistance and bending strength; possibility to use pavement without rigid base construction.