Spacecraft equipment thermal control system
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft thermal-control equipment. Proposed system comprises two two-chamber fluid thermal boards 22 to support the equipment. Said thermal boards are mounted at manned compartment 1. External heat sink 12 is composed of four diametrically opposite heat exchange panels 14. Panel 14 is furnished with heat pipe with condenser 15 arranged inside panel 14 and evaporator 19 integrated with self-contained heat transfer element 16 mounted at spacecraft outer surface nearby panel 14. Element 16 comprises two one-chamber fluid thermal boards 18. Evaporator 19 is furnished with steam temperature regulator 17 to shut off or open heat pipe circuit depending upon set temperature. Thermal boards 22 are hydraulically communicated by circuits 13, 21 with appropriate one-way fluid thermal boards 18 of elements 16 to make one-phase working body line. Every circuit 13, 21 comprises electrically driven pump 3, drain-fill valves 5, hydropneumatic accumulator 8, pressure and flow rate gages 4, 7, 10, flow rate controller 11 and electric heaters 23. Every circuit 13, 21 has working body temperature transducers 20. Replaceable elements of said circuits are connected in main lines via hydraulic joints. Main lines are fitted in manned comportment 1 via sealed lead-ins 6. Heat control system comprises also the two-chamber gas-fluid heat exchanger 24 with two replaceable fans included into both circuits 13, 21.
EFFECT: expanded application range, higher reliability and reparability.
The invention relates to a temperature control system energy-consuming equipment, mainly, of space objects, designed for centralized power orbital complexes in long-term space flight.
The invention can be applied to the developing space technology, as well as in General engineering, for example, when developing Autonomous cooling systems hermetically sealed from the external environment inhabited areas.
Currently, domestic and foreign practice space for the temperature control of various equipment becoming more widespread begin to get control systems, using a two-phase working body that allows the transfer of large quantities of heat at low costs. This allows to reduce the electric power units, providing movement of such working fluids used in the hydraulic systems of systems, and hence the energy costs for heat transfer.
Alternative two-phase systems control the circulation of the working bodies which are provided with Electromechanical pumps are systems created on the basis of loop heat pipes, the movement of the liquid phase of the working fluid which is provided by capillary is Il, appearing in the corresponding structure, filling the line and playing the role of a capillary pump, and steam - due to the pressure difference between the evaporator and the condenser.
Achieved recent success in the development of a capillary pump for high performance allow you to consider using loop heat pipe as the outer contours for heat transfer radiative heat sinks manned space objects.
Known for thermal control system of the spacecraft, described in the patent RU №2384491. The system comprises a hydraulic circuit with two-phase fluid, combining the heat exchanger-evaporator, pump, bellows battery working fluid with a variable position of the bottom of the bellows, temperature sensor pair in the heat exchanger-evaporator and the radiator-condenser.
The hallmark of the system is the use of bucket pump separator liquid and vapor phases of the fluid at the inlet to the radiator-condenser (the emissivity of the radiator).
The disadvantage of the system is a limited resource exploitation, due to the presence of electric lifts and pumps, as well as the actuator changes the position of the bottom of the bellows desktop battery body.
Known for thermal control system to the economic system, described in the patent RU №2362712.
The system comprises a hydraulic circuit with a two-phase working fluid, connecting collectors cooled panels with installed equipment, with collectors panel radiator, hydraulic pump for pumping the liquid phase of the working fluid and the heat accumulator filled with both liquid and vapor phase of the working fluid.
The hallmark of the system is the use of bucket pump, installed at the outlet of the collector panel radiator, separator liquid and vapor phases of the working fluid. When this fitting flow of the liquid phase of the working fluid bucket pump connected with the inlet of the hydraulic pump, and an outlet choke feeding the vapor phase of the pump through the normally closed valve associated with the area of the vapor phase in thermal accumulator.
The disadvantage of the system is also limited resource exploitation due to the presence in the hydraulic circuit of the Electromechanical devices.
Known for thermal control system of the spacecraft, described in the patent RU №2369536.
The system includes a closed hydraulic circuit with two-phase fluid that combines two expandable panel blackbody radiator having a parallel input and output manifolds, and thermally panel with the mouth of blennie on their instruments and equipment. The composition of the paths includes a hydraulic pump and a battery with reserves of liquid and vapor phases of the working fluid located inside him.
A distinctive feature of the system is the presence in the hydraulic circuit of the switch of the flow of the working fluid, providing a uniform discharge of the heat load from each of the two panels.
The disadvantage of the system is the limited life due to the presence of Electromechanical devices and lack of reliability, because the circuit encompasses all parallel collector panels in a common line, in which depressurization any of the branches leads to failure of the whole circuit.
Known thermostating system battery power system of the spacecraft, see the description of the patent RU No. 2196079, 15.12.2000,, IPC: B64G 1/00 (2006.01), B64G 1/50 (2006.01), F28D 15/00 adopted by the authors for the prototype.
The system contains contact heat exchangers (thermoplate evaporators), which are attached to the batteries tightening screws. Each such device comprises a heat pipe, flat body evaporators which form the heat transfer surface.
In turn, the condensers of the heat pipes located on both sides of each heat exchanging device is rigidly fixed to the plates and the heat-conductive material and form a separate thermoplate. To each such thermoplate through thermal interface material attached to the tube with a capillary structure, the role of the capillary pump and forming the evaporation zone of the contour of the heat pipe. All of the evaporation zone are combined in a common circuit and connected with the capacitor contour of the heat pipe located on the external surface emissivity of the radiator.
As the working fluid of the heat pipe and the contour of the heat pipe is used ammonia.
The system has the following disadvantages:
the main disadvantage of the system, precluding the possibility of its application within the inhabited sealed compartment space object is used as the working fluid of the heat pipe two-phase ammonia, is not valid for the crew compartments for reasons of toxicity and fire safety crew;
- inclusion of the evaporators contour of the heat pipes of each group thermoplast in a single Autonomous and laminated two-phase circuit with single accommodation for all evaporators condenser for external emissivity of the radiator reduces the reliability not only of this circuit, but also the entire spacecraft, as the loss of tightness of the two-phase circuit, for example, in the result of the meteor breakout of the radiator leads to failure of the entire spacecraft and the impossibility of ensuring thermal regime of the batteries of the power supply system;
- the presence of two consecutive intermediate links (heat pipes with a change in the physical state of the working fluid and the heat-conducting plate with a conductive heat transfer) between thermoplate batteries and evaporators contour heat pipe greatly increases the inertia of heat transfer. This, in turn, reduces the ability to maintain the temperature of the battery within the specified range during peak electrical loads;
- the necessary efficiency of heat pipes can only be achieved with non-detachable connection (welding, pressing through the heat conductive paste, etc.) evaporators and condensers respectively with thermoplate batteries and evaporators contour of the heat pipe, which makes a two-phase circuit is practically non-separable, i.e. beyond repair.
The purpose of this technical solution is the expansion of the scope of the system, improving the reliability of the external two-phase circuit, and as a result, the entire application as a whole, as well as the reduction of the inertia of the temperature control equipment and improving the maintainability of the system.
The technical result of the proposed use of technical solutions is that it allows you to create a system of temperature control, free from the disadvantages of the prototype.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that thermostatic system battery power system of a spacecraft, comprising a heat exchange device installed on the equipment, heat transfer elements, the contour of the heat pipe and the external radiative heat sink mentioned heat exchange device made in the form of a double chamber liquid thermoplast and external radiative heat sink comprises at least two panels that are located on diametrically-opposite parts of the body space of the object, in this case, each panel has its own contour of the heat pipe condenser which is placed on the design of the panel, as mentioned evaporator tubes containing the temperature controller pair has a thermal contact at the same time with two one-sheet liquid thermoplate, forming a single, self-contained heat transfer element of each panel, in addition, the system introduced two independent hydraulic circuits with single-phase working fluid connecting between the respective liquid cavity mentioned heat exchange device and a one-sheet gidromolot thermoplate heat transfer elements of the panels, and thermoplate heat transfer elements panels located on diametrically-opposite parts of the building the sa included in each hydraulic circuit with single-phase working fluid through hidroregjioni in parallel, and each such pair thermoplast - consistently.
Practical implementation of the proposed technical solutions consider the example of application equipment perspective of manned space object.
Principal hydraulic scheme of the system of temperature control equipment shown in the drawing, where indicated:
1 - inhabited sealed compartment;
2 - hydraulic connector;
3 - pump;
4 - differential pressure sensor;
5 - drainage and filling valve;
6 - hermetical input;
7 - gauge pressure;
8 - hydropneumatic compensator;
9 - air temperature sensor;
10 - flow of the working fluid;
11 is a control flow of the working fluid;
12 - external emissivity of the radiator;
13 - the first hydraulic circuit;
14 - panel external emissivity of the radiator;
15 - capacitor contour of the heat pipe;
16 - Autonomous heat transfer element;
17 - temperature controller steam;
18 - one-sheet liquid thermoplate;
19 - evaporator contour of the heat pipe;
20 - gauge of temperature of the working fluid;
21 - the second hydraulic circuit;
22 - double chamber liquid thermoplate;
23 - liquid heater;
24 - double chamber gas-liquid heat exchanger Assembly
System temperature control equipment is considered a space object contains two double chamber liquid thermoplate 22, through the heat-conducting strip (thermally expanded graphite) or through plastic heat-conductive grease the equipment is installed to provide the necessary mechanical and thermal contact. Both thermoplate placed in the instrumentation area inhabited sealed compartment 1.
External emissivity of the radiator 12 is made of four panels external emissivity of the radiator 14, each pair of which are located on diametrically-opposite parts of the body of the space object.
This solution allows to increase the cooling capacity of the external radiative heat sink 12 with a long one-sided coverage of the space object by the Sun in flight conditions.
Panel of external emissivity of the radiator 14 is equipped with its own contour of the heat pipe; a condenser contour of the heat pipe 15 is made in the form of a special profile and placed inside the cell panel design external emissivity of the radiator 14 as a fixed element, and the evaporator contour heat pipe 19 is included in the design of Autonomous heat transfer element panel 16, which is located on the outer surface of the housing space object next to the panel of external emissivity of the radiator 14. On the outer metal wall panel external emissivity of the radiator 14 caused the ceramic coating type solar reflectors".
Autonomous heat transfer element 16 of the panel of external emissivity of the radiator 14 is in the form of a uniform design with two one-sheet liquid thermoplate 18 and evaporator contour heat pipe 19 to provide the necessary thermal contact between all components. The evaporator contour heat pipe 19 is equipped with a temperature controller pair 17 to be placed on the construction of Autonomous heat transfer element 16. The capillary structure, the role of the capillary pump contour heat pipe placed inside the evaporator contour heat pipe 19.
Drive Executive body of the temperature controller pair 17 is sealed bellows filled with a gas with a certain pressure corresponding to the temperature settings of the regulator. Until the vapor pressure in the evaporator contour heat pipe 19 reaches the value corresponding to the temperature settings of the temperature controller pair 17, the Executive body of the regulator closes highway capacitor contour of the heat pipe 15 located in the Autonomous heat transfer element 16 of the panel of external emissivity of the radiator 14, and the contour of the heat pipe off from work.
When blocking the road contour heat pipe steam at the input to the temperature controller pair 17, buy what asnau highway bypassed the entrance to the evaporator contour heat pipe 19.
When the vapor pressure in the evaporator contour heat pipe 19 value corresponding to the temperature settings (in our case 15±2°C), the Executive body of the temperature controller pair 17 opens the contour line of the heat pipe and the pipe starts to work.
Both double chamber liquid thermoplate 22 hydraulically connected two hydraulic circuits of the first hydraulic circuit 13 and the second hydraulic circuit 21 with the corresponding one-sheet liquid thermoplate 18 independent heat-transmitting elements 16 panels external emissivity of the radiator 14 with the formation of the closed hydraulic lines, filled single-phase working fluid.
Each of these hydraulic circuits 13 and 21 contains a pump 3, drainage and filling valves 5, hydropneumatic compensator 8, providing compensation for temperature changes in the volume of the working fluid, the differential pressure sensor 4, the pressure sensors 7, the flow of the working fluid 10, the flow regulator of the working fluid 11 and the liquid heaters 23.
To control the temperature of the working fluid in each. hydraulic circuits 13 and 21 is provided by the temperature sensors of the working fluid 20. Remanufactured elements of the hydraulic circuit included in the hydraulic line hydraulically through the connectors 2, enter hydrologically inhabited in the sealed compartment is organized through the inputs 6.
Hydraulic jacks 2 is made of "self-schema", in which the uncoupling is performed without the Strait of working fluid.
The system also contains a double chamber gas-liquid heat exchanger Assembly 24, hydraulically included in both of the hydraulic circuit in the first hydraulic circuit 13 and the second hydraulic circuit 21. This unit includes two replaceable fan (Fig. without positional notation). In addition, in each of these circuits includes the liquid heaters 23.
The system works as follows. For 2-3 min to activate thermally equipment on-Board computer complex (PVC) on command from the ground or from the remote operators runs a test application to verify its condition. This program includes both hydraulic circuit of the first hydraulic circuit 13 and the second hydraulic circuit 21. When switching circuits provides power to all electrically active units (pumps 3, fans double chamber gas-liquid heat exchange unit 24, the liquid heaters 23) and means BVK monitored readings of all sensor equipment system (to Trollius: the speed of the motors of the pumps, tahtaci part of the motor, on the scheme of figure 1 is not shown; the expenses of the working fluid in the branches of the hydraulic circuit system for sensors flow of the working fluid 10. the provisions of Executive bodies of the flow regulators of the working fluid 11, the current position of the temperature controllers pair 17, the pressure of the working fluid in the first and second hydraulic circuits 13 and 21 by the pressure sensors 7; the differential pressure between the inlet and outlet of the pumps 3 differential pressure sensors 4, the current values of temperature at the temperature sensors 9 and the temperature sensors of the working fluid 20. The position sensors of the Executive bodies of the flow regulator of the working fluid 11 and controls the steam temperature part of the said valve and the scheme of figure 1 is not shown.
In case of positive test results BVK off liquid heaters 23 and translates the second hydraulic circuit 21 in the mode of "cold reserve" (removes power from the pump 3 of this outline), leaves the included pump to the first hydraulic circuit 13 and engages thermostating equipment on double chamber liquid thermoplatic 22.
When the pump 3 in the first hydraulic circuit 13 occurs circulation-phase working fluid that transfers heat received from the heart of the tion in double chamber liquid thermoplatic 22, in the double chamber gas-liquid heat exchange unit 24, on the outside of the emissivity of the radiator 12.
Here the heated working fluid of the first hydraulic circuit 13 is pumped through one-sheet liquid thermoplate 18 all four Autonomous heat transfer elements 16 panels external emissivity of the radiator 14, where contact by the transfer of heat to the housing of the evaporator contour heat pipe 19. This heat and is spent for evaporation of the liquid phase of the working body contouring heat pipe.
The resulting steam through the temperature controller pair 17 is fed to the condenser contour of the heat pipe 15 located on the panel of the external radiative heat sink 14 where it condenses (the temperature of the enclosure panel of the external emissivity of the radiator 14 is significantly below the temperature setting of the temperature controller pair 17), giving heat of condensation to the body panel. Hence this heat is dissipated into space.
The liquid phase condensed working fluid discharge pressure of the capillary pump of the contour of the heat pipe on the highway capacitor contour of the heat pipe 15 is returned to the evaporator contour heat pipe 19, the closing process.
As mentioned above, the temperature of the vapor in the evaporator contour heat pipe 19 by using a temperature controller pair 17, the support is carried out in the range of 15±2°C, so with nearcooperative temperature phase of the working fluid at the exit of a one-sheet liquid thermoplate 18 Autonomous heat transfer elements 16 panels external emissivity of the radiator 14 will be maintained at 18±2°C.
The duplication of temperature controllers pair of 17 Autonomous heat transfer elements 16 panels external emissivity of the radiator 14 and precise temperature maintenance of single-phase working medium at the inlet to the inhabited sealed compartment 1 provides a flow regulator of the working fluid 11. This regulator is controlled BVK and depending on the sensor temperature of the working fluid 20 perepuskat more or less of the flow rate of the working fluid past the external emissivity of the radiator 12, maintaining the temperature of the working fluid at the entrance to the inhabited sealed compartment 1 at 21±0.5°C.
When working cooled equipment, due to the large number of bodies coming in the first hydraulic circuit 13 in the double chamber liquid thermoplatic 22, the air temperature in the habitable pressurized compartment 1 in a given range is supported with double chamber gas-liquid heat exchange unit 24. In periods when the controlled equipment does not work (prevention, repair, etc), compensation part postupayushih first hidraulicas the third circuit 13 provides heat the liquid heater 23. Controls the operation of this unit BVK on signals from the temperature sensors 9, installed in habitable pressurized compartment 1.
The specified resource system temperature control is provided by alternate operation of the first and second 13, 21 hydraulic circuits with single-phase working fluid, replacement of pumps 3 and fans gas-liquid heat exchange Assembly 24, as well as multiple overlapping panels external emissivity of the radiator 14.
Thus, the set of new features that are absent in the known technical solutions, enables a new technical result, namely:
- to create a system of temperature control of energy-consuming equipment without the use of compartment elements of the system, filled with ammonia, and thereby improve the safety of the crew;
- significantly increase the reliability of the system and the spacecraft as a whole by design external emissivity of the radiator as a stand-alone panels, each of which has its own contour of the heat pipe with its evaporator, located in its own Autonomous heat transfer element, and a capacitor.
Therefore, the loss of integrity of one, two or more contouring heat pipes does not complete (as a prototype) system output of p is I (depending on the number of leaky pipes, respectively, decreases only the cooling capacity of the system);
- to improve the efficiency of each pair of Autonomous sections emissivity of the radiator system, located on diametrically-opposite parts of the body of the spacecraft (and, therefore, of the radiator as a whole);
to reduce the inertia of the temperature control apparatus, mounted on thermoplate, by reducing the intermediate heat transfer devices between the buildings thermoplast and external radiative heat sink;
- to create a system with good maintainability with surface preparation, as in the case of refusal of a standalone panel emissivity of the radiator (for example, loss of tightness of the contour of the heat pipe), this panel with minimal effort (due to the inclusion of the panels in the path of a single-phase working fluid by using a self-hydraulic connectors) can be removed from the system and replaced with serviceable.
Thermostating system equipment space object, comprising a heat exchange device for installation of equipment, heat transfer elements, the contour of the heat pipe and the external radiative heat sink, characterized in that the said heat transfer device is made in the form of a double chamber liquid thermoplast and external radiative heat sink comprises at least two panels, RA is formed on diametrically opposite parts of the body space object, each such panel has its own contour of the heat pipe condenser which is placed on the design of the panel, as mentioned evaporator tubes containing the temperature controller pair has a thermal contact simultaneously with two one-sheet liquid thermoplate, forming a single, self-contained heat transfer element of each panel, in addition, the system introduced two independent hydraulic circuits with single-phase working fluid connecting between the respective liquid cavity mentioned heat exchange device and a one-sheet liquid thermoplate heat transfer elements of the panels, and thermoplate heat transfer elements panels located on diametrically-opposite parts of the body included in each hydraulic circuit with single-phase the working fluid through hidroregjioni in parallel, and each pair of such thermoplast - consistently.
SUBSTANCE: noiseless heat-pipe cooling system includes a heat source, a closed flat heat-pipe evaporator and a condenser, which are equipped with steam and liquids branch pipes connected to each other via a steam line and a condensate line. Inner surface of the bottom of the evaporator is covered with a wick. Outer surface of the evaporator housing opposite a heat source is covered with zigzag-shaped ribs, and inner surface is covered with a grid from porous material. The grid is connected at its ends to a wick-header adjacent to the inner surface of its side end faces and lower end face, which is connected through a condensate inlet branch pipe to a transport wick arranged in a condensate line. A capillary heat-pipe condenser-cooler represents a flat rectangular housing with longitudinal vertical through air slots, which is equipped with condensate inlet and outlet branch pipes arranged in its opposite end faces. The condenser is separated on inner side with a vertical partition wall with vertical slots, which is adjacent to end partition walls of air slots into a steam header and a working chamber. Inner surface of lower wall of the housing of the heat-pipe condenser-cooler is coated with a wick layer on which in the working chamber in cavities between side vertical walls of two adjacent air slots there arranged are condensation and cooling sections. Each of the sections consists of two vertical partition walls, between which a vertical distributing steam channel is arranged, which is interconnected with the steam header through a vertical slot. Vertical chambers of residual condensation are located between side vertical walls of two adjacent air slots and two above said vertical partition walls. Each vertical partition wall consists of several vertical perforated plates arranged with a gap relative to each other and covered with a layer of hydrophilic material or made from it, the holes in which are made in the form of horizontal conical capillaries. Capillaries are located so that small holes of conical capillaries of the previous plate are located opposite large holes of conical capillaries of the next plate. Plates of vertical partition walls with large holes of conical capillaries face the cavity of each steam chamber, and plates of vertical partition walls with small holes of conical capillaries face the cavity of each chamber of residual condensation. Inner surface of side vertical walls of vertical chambers of residual condensation is covered with a grid from porous material. All gaskets from porous hydrophilic material and grids from porous material are connected to a wick layer that in its turn is connected through the condensate outlet branch pipe to the transport wick of the condensate line.
EFFECT: invention allows improving reliability and efficiency of a noiseless heat-pipe cooling system.
SUBSTANCE: heating radiator from a heat pipe arranged so that a working substance evaporation zone is in a pipe plugged at one side in the lower part of the pipe, and the entire pipe is in coolant, and a condensation zone is at least between two shaped metal sheets, besides, in the section such connection of sheets may look like an ellipse in case of two sheets, as a triangle in case of three sheets, as a parallelogram in case of four sheets, as a star in case of 10 and more sheets, and the condensation zone is arranged higher than the evaporation zone.
EFFECT: simplification, cost reduction and convenience of radiation structure installation.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises evaporator in contact with heat generator, two condensers in contact with heat-controlled hardware and radiator, respectively, steam line, condensate line, and three-way valve with bellows. In compliance with first version, device additionally incorporates bypass line while condensers are connected in series. In compliance with second version, said condensers are connected in parallel. In both versions, device is equipped with sensor composed of capillary tube partially gilled with two-phase heat carrier. One end of said tube is connected with bellows while opposite end, tightly closed one, stay in contact with heat-controlled hardware.
EFFECT: adjusted heating of equipment, higher accuracy of adjustment.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchange device comprising a lower part - a heating and evaporation zone and an upper part - a cooling and condensation zone, a body with heat-insulated walls and nozzles for supply and drain of a heated solution, comprises a longitudinally ribbed pipe located in a mixing chamber of a furnace, at the same time the ribbed pipe exiting the furnace goes into a shell and tube heat exchanger, which comprises a body, three pipes exiting from the ribbed pipe at the angle of 15 degrees, changing into horizontal pipes, at each end of which there is a socket, and seven tubes of identical diametre exit from the each socket, besides, body walls are heat-insulated with a heat insulation material, for instance, penofol, and the body comprises three nozzles for supply and drain of the heated solution and a nozzle for emptying a reservoir, at the same time the device is equipped with a pressure gauge, a safety valve and a tap for coolant filling and has a line of excessive pressure compensation for coolant filling with the device on, which is equipped with a valve, besides, in the device there is a reverse line of the circulating circuit and an expander with a nozzle.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency, reliability and effectiveness of device operation.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: external combustion engine includes sealed housing in the form of flattened cone, which is partially filled with heat carrier. Housing includes evaporator and condenser. The housing includes heat-insulating ring being the element of the housing and rigidly attached both to evaporative section, and to condensation section of the engine housing. Turbine impellers with moving blades enclosed with a rim are rigidly attached to heat-insulating ring. Turbine impellers are rigidly attached to engine shaft. Turbine wheels with guide vanes enclosed with the rim representing an internal annular magnet are installed on the shaft. Rims of all wheels are installed so that an annular gap with housing is formed. Wheels with guide vanes are installed with possibility of being rotated in relation to the shaft - on bearings. External annular magnet rigidly attached to the housing is installed above internal annular magnet. Propeller is rigidly fixed on the engine shaft. The condenser includes bars, on which there rigidly fixed are cone-shaped plates of wave-like profile both on internal, and external sides of the housing. Combustion chamber with injectors is located around evaporator.
EFFECT: reducing mass and dimensions characteristics of the engine; enlarging its functional capabilities.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of heat pipe quality control is proposed using non-contact optic heat supply and temperature measurement methods, as well as digital methods of processing of the recorded brightness contrast of heat field. At that, quality of heat pipe is determined as per value of asymmetry coefficient of isothermic surface relative to heat supply zone, and defect zone is determined as per distortion of shape of isothermic lines.
EFFECT: improving informativity and reliability of heat pipe quality control; reducing the time required for test performance.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to has phase catalytic process equipment to be used in chemical, petrochemical and other industries exploiting gas phase catalytic reactions. Reactor comprises housing with reactor gas feed branch pipe and reaction product discharge branch pipe, heat pipe and pipes filled with catalyst. Heat pipe is formed by wall and housing first and second bottoms. Space between housing and first bottom is communicated with reactor gas feed branch pipe while that between housing and second bottom communicates with reactor product discharge branch pipe. Tubes filled with catalyst extend inside heat pipe. Note here that ends of tubes with catalyst extend beyond heat pipe limits. Heat feed to heat pipe and removed therefrom via housing.
EFFECT: uniform feed of heat, simplified heat feed and removal.
16 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a heat pipe comprising a body with a polished inner surface, a system of capillary channels is made in the form of a plate perforated with holes, having width of more than the length of the vessel opening diametre, and the plate is installed in the body, in the section across the body length, in a crescent-shaped form, besides, ends of the plate tightly adjoin the body walls and have an angle between the body wall and the plate up to 1 degree, and the body has at one end a plug as permanently connected, and at the other side of the body there is a valve in the form of a helical pair to pour liquid containing the following mixture: ether - 20%, industrial ethyl alcohol - 60%, acetone - 20%.
EFFECT: development of a heat pipe with minimum quantity of parts and maximum even heating along the entire surface of the pipe.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: steam turbine multiheat-pipe plant includes evaporation chamber consisting of vertical evaporation sleeves connected to each other. Sleeves are connected to separation section the inner surface of which is covered with a grid consisting of strips made from porous material. Distributing header with nozzles is located at the top of separation section and demister and steam connection pipe is located at the bottom of separation section. Plant includes working chamber with power turbine the shaft of which is connected on the outer side with working element. Working chamber is equipped with high pressure steam inlet connection pipes and exhaust steam outlet connection pipes. Condensing chamber consists of distributing section the cover plate of which is equipped with exhaust steam inlet connection pipe. Bottom is covered with wick mass with holes and provided with holes to which vertical condensation sleeves covered on the inner side with a grid consisting of strips made from porous material, which is connected to wick mass, are connected. In the wick centre there located is cylindrical reservoir and feed pump the shaft of which is passed through cover plate of condensing chamber coaxially to shaft of power turbine wheel and rigidly attached to it. Pressure connection pipe is connected via pipeline to distributing header of evaporation chamber.
EFFECT: improving reliability and efficiency of steam turbine multiheat-pipe plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a multi-wick heat exchange partition comprises a body, inside which there are evaporation areas, transport (wick) areas, condensation areas, casing boards are coated with a wick from inside, which in its turn is coated with a jacket having triangular slots made on its upper and lower edges and attached to the cover and the bottom of the casing coated with a grid made of capillary material strips and forming cells from inside. Besides, in the casing cavity the above grids of the cover and the bottom are connected to each other by vertical wicks coated with cylindrical jackets with triangular slots made on their upper and lower ends and attached to the cover and the bottom of the casing.
EFFECT: improved efficiency and reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft and onboard equipment design, mainly to thermostatic systems. Spacecraft integrates target hardware and service systems modules and is equipped with thermostatic jacket composed of rectangular parallelepiped. Three-layer cellular thermo panels with metal facing with heat pipes arranged there between are secured at sides of said parallelepiped. Jacket shell has a liquid heat carrier channel arranged at spacing equal that of heat pipes. Heat carrier has heat and mechanical contact with heat pipes. Channel length, heat pipe length and spacing between said pipes are selected to make jacket temperature differences along two mutually perpendicular directions not exceeding preset tolerances. One of thermo panel jacket walls composed of five-layer cellular panel allows a thermal contact between target hardware modules and service systems. Pipes of hydraulic main line are laid at thermo panel outer lining. End face thermo panel is composed of perforated metal plate for target hardware covers. Every plate hole is aligned with optical axis of appropriate hardware. End face thermo panel inner surface accommodates hydraulic main line pipes. Stable-size bearing structure (for example, of black-reinforced plastic) for target hardware is secured inside the jacket along spacecraft lengthwise axis. Service instrumentation of target hardware module is mounted at jacket top end wall. Jacket outer section is isolated from space by vacuum shield heat insulation.
EFFECT: higher quality and accuracy of target data.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems of, mainly, telecommunication satellites. Proposed method comprises intermittent control over availability of required amount of heat carrier in thermal control liquid circuit. For this, actual dose of heat carried drained from hydraulic accumulator fluid chamber is defined from pressure and temperature measurements of heat carrier in said circuit and those in hydraulic accumulator gas chamber. Besides, working fluid saturated gas elasticity in hydraulic accumulator gas chamber is defined at measured temperature to compare to actual heat carrier drained dose with design magnitude. In fueling of liquid circuit, portions of heat carrier are drained therefrom starting from completely compressed bellow to completely stretched bellow. After draining every portion, heat pressure in liquid circuit an gas chamber pressure in hydraulic accumulator are measured. Dependence of total drained dose on difference between liquid circuit heat carrier pressure and fluid saturated gas elasticity in hydraulic accumulator gas chamber (as-measured after draining) is plotted. In spacecraft operation, said plot is used to define actual heat carried drained doze for given time interval.
EFFECT: simplified control at higher accuracy.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: when realising the method to detect location of a leaking point in a closed hydraulic manifold equipped with a flow booster and a hydraulic-pneumatic compensator of temperature change of working fluid volume, medium pressure is reduced in the gas cavity of the hydraulic-pneumatic compensator to the level of this pressure stabilisation within the limits of measurement error. After confirmation of leak availability previously medium pressure is established in the gas cavity of the hydraulic-pneumatic compensator, and this pressure is equal to measured pressure of atmosphere in a room tightly isolated from the environment Pa, and reduction of this pressure to the specified level of stabilisation is carried out with the connected working fluid flow booster, at the same time actual head
EFFECT: development of a simple and efficient method, safe for operators working in residential premises tightly isolated from external media, to determine location of a leaking point in a hydraulic manifold of a system of facility thermal control after confirmation of leak availability.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with first version, proposed system comprises radioisotope heat generator (HG), controlled contour heat tube (HT), radiative heat exchanger and three-way valve. HT condenser is built in radiative heat exchange disconnected by three-way valve with the help of bypass line at platform temperature dropped below preset magnitude. Platform is mounted parallel with lunar gravitation field vector. HTs are built in said platform so that their bottom zones have thermal contact with HG at platform bottom. Top zones of HTs have thermal contact with evaporator of controlled contour HT at platform top. In compliance with second version, built-in HTs are arranged also parallel with lunar gravitation field vector. Note here that, additionally, incorporated is uncontrolled contour HT with its evaporator having direct teat contact with HG while condenser stays in contact with bottom zones of built-in HTs. Top zones of said HTs are interconnected by, at least, one collector pipeline and with controlled contour HT evaporator.
EFFECT: maintenance of preset thermal mode without suing electric drives and extra electric power.
16 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems of, mainly, telecommunication satellites. Proposed method comprises periodical telemetry measurements of gas temperature in tight container and rpm of fan motor mounted therein. Gas pressure in tight container is defined from gas temperature measured by remote means with the help of transducers and said motor rpm. Note here that that data are used obtained in preliminary independent fan tests describing the rpm-to-gas pressure ratio.
EFFECT: higher reliability, decreased weight and lower power consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems of, mainly, telecommunication satellites. Proposed thermal control system comprise fluid circuit accommodating heat exchangers of instrumentation, radiator, hydraulic accumulator and electrically drive pump. Hydraulic accumulator includes gas chamber and fluid chamber separated therefrom by bellow and communicated with fluid circuit nearby inlet of aforesaid pump. Said gas chamber is partially filed with required amount of two-phase working medium (Freon 141b) and, additionally, with minimum necessary amount of nitrogen gas. Said amount is defined by equation of gas state incorporating minimum permissible pressure at pump inlet for pump cavitation-free operation. Other parameters represent maximum possible volume and minimum possible temperature of gas camber in spacecraft operation. Said parameters serve to ensure pump cavitation-free operation with cutting in hydraulic accumulator heater in spacecraft ascent or solar orientation in orbit.
EFFECT: higher efficiency without increase in weight.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems and its application in electric rocket engine. Proposed heat sink comprises radiating ribs SS made integral with casing SM, and heat transfer system TC. The latter is made, mainly, from hypereutectoid alloy At-Si and includes ring element LM and LP. Elements LP are connected to polar tips PR while elements LM are connected with permanent magnets MR. Heat conducting layers made of more magnetically soft material, for example, gold may be arranged at said connections. Thermal expansion factor of TC differs by 10%…30% from that of polar tips and permanent magnets. Surface of magnets MR facing chamber wall K.W has reflection coating RE reducing heat transfer from chamber wall to magnetic core. Said coating, for example of gold, in interrupted in lengthwise direction nearby polar tips PR. In operation of ion accelerator chamber wall KW is heated to emit heat outward toward magnetic system. Heat absorbed by magnetic system is carried via magnets MR, pole tips PR and TC (elements LP, PM) to casing SM and emitted by ribs SS in space.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of heat transfer and operation of ion accelerator.
23 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems of, mainly, telecommunication satellites. Thermal control system liquid circuit assembled, it is flushed with clean solvent (isooctane) before tightness test. Then, said solvent is removed by blowing with compressed air and vacuum drying is carried out. For complete discharge of isooctane prior to liquid circuit vacuum drying, hydraulic accumulator temperature is measured and liquid circuit is evacuated for short term. Vacuum is defined by elasticity of hydraulic accumulator working fluid saturated vapors minus pressure corresponding to maximum rigidity of hydraulic accumulator bellow at complete expansion. Then, prior to vacuum drying, liquid circuit is additionally blown with compressed air to eliminate solvent in air at liquid circuit outlet.
EFFECT: complete removal of isooctane prior to liquid circuit vacuum drying.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems of, mainly, telecommunication satellites. Said systems of the craft use heat tube combined with backed-up fluid circuits. Craft simulator comprises thermal (and mass) simulators of transponder instruments arranged at craft inner skin of the north and south panels. Horizontal heat tubes are built in said panels while fluid manifolds of aforesaid circuits are arranged on inner skin between said simulators. Platform instrumentation simulators are installed at lining of cellular panels with built-in fluid manifolds. Full area of outer surfaces of north and south panels is configured for craft with maximum possible power consumption of, for example, 16 kW. Electrically driven pump and circuit hydraulic accumulators are also configured to this end. For particular thermal craft models with lower power consumption of, for example, 10 kW, symmetric identical parts of areas of north and south panels with no heat simulators are provided with shield-vacuum heat-insulation. Note here that heat carrier flow rate in fluid circuits is controlled by throttles. This allows required temperature mode for transponder and platform instrumentation simulators.
EFFECT: simplified design and making.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems of, mainly, telecommunication satellites. Proposed method comprises telemetry measurements (for example, at poll rate of 0.5 s in preset time interval) of such parameters as thermal control parameters, heat carrier total consumption in liquid circuit and heat carrier temperature at circuit points. Said circuit comprises parallel branches with temperature transducers arranged at their ends. Third temperature transducer is arranged at common outlet. Electrically driven pump forces heat carrier in said circuit. In making, thermal control system is provided with heat insulation at sections between said transducers to define heat carrier volume between said sections and the point whereat two heat carrier flows of said parallel branches get mixed. Measurements data is used to define actual heat carrier flow rate in parallel branches by formulas that allow for transfer delays in measurements by temperature transducers.
EFFECT: higher accuracy, validity of diagnostics and forecast of efficiency.
FIELD: space technology.
SUBSTANCE: unconfined space of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator is subject to periodical change at the same average-mass temperature of heat-transfer agent. The ratio of Vi≤(Vi+l+nϕ) 1) is used to judge if leak-proofness corresponds to standard value, where Vi is volume of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator for i-th measurement, Vi+l is volume of gas chamber of hydropneumatic compensator for subsequent measurement, n is time interval between i-th and i+1 measurement, ϕ is standard value of volumetric loss of heat-transfer agent during specific time interval. Difference in unconfined spaces achieved between (i+1)-th and i-th measurement is used to determine real leakage of heat-transfer agent from system during specific time interval. Current value of unconfined space of system hydro-pneumatic compensator gas chamber is measured instead of measuring working pressure of the system for the same average-mass temperature of heat-transfer agent. Difference between measured spaces related to time interval between measurements has to be value of real leakage of heat-transfer agent observed during specific time interval.
EFFECT: simplified and reliable method of inspection.