Drip irrigation system for fruit and berry and forest nurseries

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: drip irrigation system for fruit and berry and forest nurseries comprises a hydraulically connected water source (1), a pumping station (6), a filter, a pressure gauge (15), a shut-off valve, the main pipeline, a network of distribution (17) and irrigation pipelines (18), and droppers. The water source (1) of the pumping station (6) is provided with a diversion chamber-collector (5) equipped with a trash screen (3) and a fish protection structure (4). Pumps of the pumping station (6) are connected to a water-driven tower-collector (7) hydraulically connected to the module of water electroactivation, including a DC generator (8) or rectifier in all-mains operation and flowing electric activator (10), behind which through the connecting pipes the fertiliser injector (12) is mounted, and the distribution network (17) is connected by the irrigation pipelines (18), equipped with injectors-metering units-droppers (19). The flowing water electric activator (10) comprises a supply pipe (21) made of dielectric material which is resistant to galvanic corrosion, in the threaded part of the supply pipe (21) the slip ring (26) is mounted with the output for connection of the electric potential. The slip ring (26) is isolated from the outer electrode (22) of the electric activator (10) with the dielectric spacer (27), the outer cylindrical electrode (22) is formed of a stainless steel resistant to galvanic corrosion. Inside the outer electrode (22) the inner electrode (23) is mounted with the ability of mounting and dismounting, consisting of a central rod (31) with lobes fixed to it. The inner electrode (23) is separated from the outer electrode (22) by semipermeable shell (24) of microporous plastic, on the front side of the inner electrode (23) a guide device (25) is arranged having the blades of a left-hand direction, the inlet and outlet part of the central rod (31) are made conical, all parts of the inner electrode (23) are made of stainless steel resistant to galvanic corrosion. Supply of the electric potential to the outer electrode (22) is made through the terminal (29) disposed on the electrode housing, and to the inner (23) through the contact washer (26) having an input terminal (28). The injector-metering unit-dropper (19) mounted in the pan of trees, comprises mounting tip, inside of which a shim is fixed, designed for a given flow rate, the inner cavity of the injector-metering unit-dropper (19) has a water outlet openings on the horizontals of soaking, the outer edges of the water outlet openings are closed by dished deflectors.

EFFECT: improving the quality of planting material of fruit and forest plants.

1 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to agricultural irrigation, in particular to technology for drip irrigation, and can be used for irrigation of fruit and forest nurseries, grapes and garden plantings.

Known water treatment system and feeding the mixture into the soil under drip irrigation, containing the capacity to prepare the nutrient solution, filter, nutritious filler and a water inlet pipe, it is equipped with high-pressure hydrocyclones, diaphragm electrolyzers, a communication network, the locking elements in the form of valves and controls process in the form of sequentially mounted in the hydraulic network three-way valves, water filter made in the form of a horizontally installed capacity, filled with a neutral filter material in the form of layers stacked in the upper horizon of dolomite gravel with a grain size of 5-25 mm layer of 150-300 mm and in the lower horizon quartz sand with a grain size of 1-5 mm thick 300-600 mm, the volume of the vessel and the filtration material are related as 1:(0,3...0,6), and in the cavity of the vessel above and below the filtering material mounted slotted pipes for supplying and discharging water to the same surface of the lower slotted pipes coated with a permeable nonwoven is m material, mentioned upper slotted pipe filter hydraulically connected by pipeline with high-pressure hydraulic cyclone for water purification filed under the working pressure in the inlet pipe through a three-way valve from the pumping station into the cavity of the cyclone, named cyclone equipped with a sediment chamber for collecting food contamination, valve for drainage network for irrigation by flooding and in his oral mesh screen in the form of a hollow truncated cone, directed a broad base in the direction of the pipe connection of the hydrocyclone with the upper slot pipeline filter, part of this pipeline is connected between a valve and a parallel four-way valve associated sleeves with capacity to prepare the nutrient solution, and the above-described slotted pipes laid under the filtration material in the cavity of the filter, through a communication network and a three-way valve connected with the main pipeline to supply purified water to drip through the pipeline drip irrigation systems, also referred to a communication network by means of valves and pressure hydrocyclones are hydraulically connected in parallel with the diaphragm chambers of the electrolysis, the cathode cavity of the first of them is hydraulically connected through three-way valve with a trunk the pipeline drip irrigation systems, and the anode cavity - network for irrigation by flooding, the camera of the second cell with the main pipeline and network for irrigation by flooding are connected in reverse order to the same three-way valves high pressure cyclone, filter and cells on the input pipe and pipelines are connected to the sleeves of equal flow area (RU, patent for invention №2219761 C1 IPC7A01G 25/02).

The disadvantages of the system include the design complexity, low reliability, lack of water supply in the irrigation system with the specified electric potential and regulate its flow.

Known irrigation system activation module water, including the water source, pumping station, filter gauges, pool-sump, irrigation network, the system is equipped with a module activation irrigation water, consisting of a constant current generator, electroactuator and switch the potential of the electrodes, while elektroaktivator includes coaxially arranged electrodes, a semi-permeable diaphragm between them, and electrodes are mounted in the dielectric housing, the outer electrode is made in the form of a segment of pipe of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion at the ends of the tube is threaded for connection with the inlet and the driving pipeline, the inner electrode consists of a cylindrical rod with a screw guide with left-hand spiral winding, the input and output ends of the rod are made conical, and the input side of the internal electrode is made blade guide device with left-hand orientation of the blades, while the blades of the guide vanes has an electrical contact with the ring electrode mounted in the dielectric supply line, the supply potential is applied to the ring electrode is realized by means of bus mounted in the dielectric housing, irrigation network consists of trunk and irrigation pipelines, and irrigation pipelines are equipped with self-regulating outlets and injectors-activators consisting of a conical shell with the water outlet openings directed parallel to the surface of the earth, and in the inner cavity of the casing has a conical screw-activator mounted on a cylindrical rod which has a tapered entrance portion, a conical casing is connected with the inlet pipe with a diffuser (RU, patent for invention №2374832 C1 IPC A01G 25/02).

The disadvantages of the irrigation system are the complexity of the equipment, low reliability, lack of opportunities dosed supply of water for irrigation objects.

A well-known system to pelnego irrigation module activation irrigation water, including hydraulically connected water source, pumping station, filter, gauges, valves, pipelines, network distribution and irrigation pipes, drip, it is equipped with air-tank-tank with sediment chamber for collecting suspended particles, module electric activation of irrigation water, consisting of a constant current source and installation for electric activation of water, electrically connected with the constant current source and having a switch potentials, and the unit has a supply pipe with an internal screw guide surface having a left direction, and a pipeline to divert water from the positive and negative potential, having on the inner surface screw guide with left-hand direction and connected to the main pipeline, which is hydraulically connected in parallel to the network capacity for the preparation of the nutrient solution, while the installation for electric activation of water includes coaxially arranged electrodes with the possibility of changing the positive and negative potential, a semi-permeable shell between them, made of microporous plastics, one of the electrodes, functioning as a body, has the shape of a hollow cylinder and is made and the stainless steel or titanium, inside the hollow cylinder, separated from the surface of a semi-permeable cowling installed the electrode having the form of a screw auger with wound counterclockwise, made of stainless steel or titanium, for supplying positive and negative potential to the electrode provided by a conductive bus, the unit body of water has a mounting screw terminals, to which are connected the inlet and outlet pipes, made of dielectric corrosive-resistant polyethylene housing units for electric activation of water is closed outside the dielectric housing (RU, patent for invention №2410869 IPC A01G 25/00).

The disadvantages of the system include a low quality electric activation due to imperfections in the design of electroactuator, dosed supply of irrigation water in the root layer of soil directly from plants and its uniform distribution in the soil.

This drip irrigation system adopted by us as the nearest equivalent.

The problem to which the invention is directed, - improving the design of electroactuator, design of irrigation water dispenser that provides a uniform distribution in the root zone soil layer, developing the ability to fertilizing the place with irrigation water.

The technical result is the production of high quality planting material for fruit and forest crops.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the system of drip irrigation for fruit and forest nurseries, including hydraulically connected water source, pumping station, filter, gauges, valves, pipelines, network distribution and irrigation pipes, drip, according to the invention, the source water at the pumping station is equipped with avankamera-sump, equipped with trash bars and fish protection facility, the pumps of the pumping station is connected to a water tower-tank hydraulically connected to the module electric activation of water, comprising a direct current generator or rectifier when running on the network and running elektroaktivator, which through connecting pipelines installed hydropathic and distribution network connected with irrigation pipelines equipped with injectors-dosing-droppers, running elektroaktivator includes water supply line made of a dielectric material, which is resistant to electrochemical corrosion in the threaded part of the inlet pipeline installed contact ring output for connecting an electrical potential is, the contact ring is isolated from the outer electrode electroactuator dielectric strip, the outer cylindrical electrode made of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion, inside the external electrode is installed with the possibility of mounting and dismantling the internal electrode consisting of a Central rod with a fixed him petals, the inner electrode is separated from the outer electrode by a semi-permeable shell of microporous plastic, on the input side of the internal electrode is made the guide apparatus having blades or left direction, the input and output portion of the Central rod is made conical, all details of the internal electrode is made of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion, supply electric potential to the outer electrode made via terminal placed on the body of the electrode, and the internal - via the contact washer having input terminals, injector-hopper-dropper installed in the stalk circle of trees, includes mounting lug, inside of which was calibrated washer, calculated for a given flow rate, the inner cavity of the injector-dosing-dropper has a water outlet hole of the contours of wetting, the outer edge of the water outlet holes of perekryty disc deflectors.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows the diagram of the system of drip irrigation of fruit and forestry nurseries.

Figure 2 - elektroaktivator irrigation water.

Figure 3 - cross section a-a in figure 2.

Figure 4 is a view In figure 2.

Figure 5 - injector-hopper-dropper.

Information confirming the possibility of implementing the claimed invention are as follows.

Drip irrigation for fruit and forest nurseries includes the source 1, whose water source water intake structure 2, which is provided trash grating 3 and fish protection structure 4. Water intake structure 2 is associated with avankamera-sump 5. For water extraction from avancuara 5 used pump station 6, hydraulically connected to the water tower-tank 7. In drip irrigation system to increase the biological activity of irrigation water is mounted the electric activation module consisting of a generator 8 DC (or rectifier using a stationary grid), to the generator 8 is connected to the switch 9 potentials and elektroaktivator 10. To the pressure line electroactuator 10 through the gate 11 is connected hydropathic 12, which has an output pipeline with a valve 13. To adjust the flow and pressure in the system capeling the irrigation is provided a shutter 14, the control pressure in the system is performed by the pressure gauge 15.

Discharge pipe 16 of the backbone network is hydraulically connected to a distribution pipe 17 and irrigation piping 18. In the stalk circles of trees installed injectors-dosing-droppers 19. Pressure pipelines 20 made of plastic material, which is resistant to electrochemical corrosion.

Running elektroaktivator 10 includes a supply pipe 21 made of a dielectric material, which is resistant to electrochemical corrosion. The supply line 21 is connected by a thread with an outer cylindrical electrode 22 made of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion. In the inner cavity of the outer electrode is installed with the possibility of mounting and dismantling of the internal electrode 23, separated from the outer electrode by a semi-permeable shell 24 of microporous plastic. On the input side of the internal electrode has a guiding apparatus 25, the blades of which are located on helices are left-handed orientation. In the threaded part of the inlet pipeline 21 fixed contact washer 26, which provides electrical contact with the internal electrode 23 through the guide device 25. The outer electrode 22 is insulated from the contact washer 26 of the dielectric spacer 27. Dive torches etc the electric potential to the internal electrode 23 is made via terminal 28, and to the outer electrode terminal 29. The output portion of the external electrode 22 are connected by a thread with the discharge conduit 30.

The internal electrode 23 is composed of a Central rod 31 attached thereto blades 32.

Injector-hopper-dropper 19 includes a mounting lug 33, inside of which was calibrated washer 34, calculated for a given flow.

The inner cavity of the injector-dosing-dropper has a water outlet hole 35 on the horizons of wetting. The outer edge of the water outlet holes blocked disc baffles 36.

Drip irrigation for fruit and forest nurseries works as follows.

Irrigation water from the water source 1 by gravity through the water intake structure 2 enters the avankamera 5, with trash grate 3 separates from water impurities and fish protection structure 4 - fry and small fish.

In the avankamera 5 the water settles on the bottom of the small impurities are precipitated. The pumps of the pumping station 6 through the pressure pipe 20 serves water in the water tower sump 7. The height of the water tower tank 7 should provide the necessary pressure in the delivery pipe 16, which provides irrigation water with a specified flow rate to the injectors-dosing-droppers 19. The water in the water BA is not 7 settles and is cleansed of all impurities. From the water tower 7 water enters elektroaktivator 10, which receives the necessary charge provided by the generator (or rectifier) 8. Electroactivated water pressure pipe 16, the distribution pipe 17 and irrigation pipelines 18 is supplied to the injectors-dosing-droppers 19. If necessary, supply to irrigated crops fertilizers with irrigation water in the irrigation network is activated hydropathic 12. The setting of the required quantity of fertilizer is provided by the dispensers 11, 13. The amounts of water supplied to irrigation pipes 18, is performed by the shutter 14, and the necessary pressure is monitored by pressure gauge 15.

The increased biological activity of irrigation water is provided by Catolica, water with negative potential.

To obtain Catolica negative potential from the generator (or rectifier) 8 is supplied to the terminal 28, and a positive potential to the terminal 29. When the flow of water through the interior cavity electroactuator 10 on the input side of the stream from the impact of the guide vanes 25 acquires a left-hand rotational movement, the water acquires a negative charge, and passing between the blades 32, the flow of the charge increases. As a result of interaction of the flow with a negative charged electron is born 23 is formed in the catholyte (negatively charged water flow). The magnitude of the charge Catolica can reach values of redox potential (ORP) to -960 mV, and the magnitude of the hydrogen ion exponent pH of 11.0.

If necessary, destruction of pathogens and pests into the irrigation system served the anolyte (water with a positive ORP). For supplying anolyte to the terminal 28 is supplied with positive potential from the generator (rectifier) 8, and to the terminal 29 to the negative potential.

The stream of water, receiving rotational motion from the guide vanes 25 and passed between the blades 32, acquires a positive redox potential, the value of which can reach up to +1100 mV, and pH=2,7.

Electroactivated water with a given redox potential is supplied to the injectors-dosing-droppers, in which calibrated washer 34 having apertures, designed to permit a preset flow rate, provide the pass activated water into the internal cavity, where the water through the holes 35 in layers in multiple levels enters the soil. However, in order to avoid erosion of soil in front of the outlets provided by the disc baffles 36.

Designed drip irrigation system for fruit and forest nurseries has redesigned electroactuator, the water supply system and developed the design of the injector-dosing-dropper, allowing ravnomernoe layer-by-layer soil moisture.

Drip irrigation for fruit and forest nurseries, including hydraulically connected water source, pumping station, filter, gauges, valves, pipelines, network distribution and irrigation pipes, drip, characterized in that the source water at the pumping station is equipped with avankamera-sump, equipped with trash bars and fish protection facility, the pumps of the pumping station is connected to a water tower-tank hydraulically connected to the module electric activation of water, comprising a direct current generator or rectifier when running on the network and running elektroaktivator, which through connecting pipelines installed hydropathic and distribution network is connected with irrigation pipelines equipped with injectors-dosing-droppers, running elektroaktivator includes water supply line made of a dielectric material, which is resistant to electrochemical corrosion in the threaded part of the inlet pipeline installed contact ring output for connection of electric potential, the contact ring is isolated from the outer electrode electroactuator dielectric strip, the outer cylindrical electrode made of stainless steel which, resistant to electrochemical corrosion, inside the external electrode is installed with the possibility of mounting and dismantling the internal electrode consisting of a Central rod with a fixed him petals, the inner electrode is separated from the outer electrode by a semi-permeable shell of microporous plastic, on the input side of the internal electrode is made the guide apparatus having blades or left direction, the input and output portion of the Central rod is made conical, all details of the internal electrode is made of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion, supply electric potential to the outer electrode is made via terminal placed on the body of the electrode, and the internal - via the contact washer having input terminals, injector-hopper-dropper installed in the stalk circle of trees, includes mounting lug, inside of which was calibrated washer, calculated for a given flow rate, the inner cavity of the injector-dosing-dropper has a water outlet hole of the contours of wetting, the outer edge of the water outlet holes covered dish-shaped baffles.



 

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3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of crops on salinated soil.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting Jerusalem artichoke roots in autumn into soil with salination extent of 0.2-0.65%; providing care for young crops; applying fertilizer; irrigating with water mineralized to the extent of 1.5-2.0 g/l, with preirrigation soil moisture content of 70-75% in comparison to normal moisture content being maintained at the initial growing period; upon reaching by plants of phase at which 12-20 pairs of leaves appear, maintaining preirrigation soil moisture content of 60-65% as compared to normal moisture content, with absorption by plants of underground water constituting 18-20% by total water consumption; harvesting green mass and roots in September-October. Method may be used in development of soils brought out of agricultural utilization owing to secondary salination of soil and high level of underground water.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in employment of abandoned over-salinated lands in arid zones.

3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture and forestry, in particular, methods for improving plant water supply and methods for cultivation of stable and productive trees, brushes and grasses.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming trenches on plot of sandy soil with deep ground water to humus layer depth; providing vertical slot-shaped trenches on bottom part of previously formed trenches, with depth of vertical slot-shaped trenches being below low ground water level; providing inclined slot-shaped trenches between adjacent vertical trenches and filling said trenches with clay mortar of 1.2-1.3 g/cm3 density and covering with humus layer. In arid zones with low annual precipitation, on brown or chestnut soils with heavy covering loamy soils, vertical 2-3-m deep trenches are provided on selected plots immediately from surfaces of terraces and filled with large-sized sand particles of 0.5-2 mm size.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing conditions for continuous absorption by plant roots of moisture which had been previously inaccessible for them.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, viniculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves taking samples for refraction metering of cellular sap of indicating organs of vines from different parts of vineyard; determining cellular sap concentration by means of field refractometer; working out regression analysis diagram of dependence between content of soil moisture accessible for plants and refractometric factor value of cellular sap concentration of indicator organ for obtaining of "soil-sort" combination, said diagram being provided with additional irrigation norm scales for different vine growing periods. Indicator organs are 2-3 apex top internodes of green sprouts selected on the basis of refractometric factor value of cellular sap concentration and allowing moisture content of plants to be determined. According to diagram, irrigation time for vineyard is designated without allowing cellular sap concentration of indicator organ to be increased to critical level.

EFFECT: increased precision in diagnosing under field conditions of grape moisture content and designating of vineyard irrigation time.

4 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: large-scale agricultural engineering, in particular, method and apparatus for producing of activated water used in plat growing and animal feeding.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing hydromechanical processing of basic water including feeding thereof to inlet of rotor-type hydrodynamic activator and discharging processed water therefrom into conical circulation tank; returning portion of water for additional hydromechanical processing and discharging remaining portion of water for utilization. Apparatus for preparing of hydromechanically activated water comprises circulation pump, rotor-type hydrodynamic activator, conical circulation tank, feeding pump and toroid-shaped circulation collector. Rotor-type hydrodynamic activator has two opposed working wheels defining single cavity, each of said wheels being made in the form of disk with annular wall. Disks are equipped with inlet apertures and annular walls are equipped with outlet apertures. Plant growing method involves periodically watering plants with activated water produced by hydromechanical processing of basic water by means of rotor-type hydrodynamic activator; when needed, applying liquid fertilizer or nutritive substances, including application thereof in conjunction with irrigation water, activated water for irrigation being prepared by said method with the use of said apparatus. Animal feeding method involves watering of animals with activated water produced by hydromechanical processing of basic water with the use of rotor-type hydrodynamic activator; feeding animals, including feeding with liquid feed mixture prepared on the basis of activated water primarily used for animal watering, said activated water being produced by said method with the use of said apparatus.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in hydromechanical processing of liquid, improved quality of activated water, wider range of utilization of activated water, increased irrigated areas allowing farms to be brought to large-scale agricultural production.

22 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, artificial changing of atmospheric conditions, more particular, providing precipitations above predetermined regions which are under negative effect of draught.

SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has gas stream forming device for forming stream of gas discharged in upward direction, with reaction engine serving as gas stream forming device. Steam superheater is located in combustion chamber of reaction engine, and wave activator is located above steam superheater. According to another version, sprinkler unit is provided with bubbler, and reaction engine serves as gas stream forming device, with wave activator being located within combustion chamber of said device. In each version, diffusion nozzles are positioned at discharge end of reaction engine and adapted for swirling of gas flow discharged in upward direction. Sprinkler unit is equipped with metal rods positioned at the level of wave activator.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and intensified condensation of moisture from upper layers of atmosphere.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, process for irrigating of farm crops.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing mellowing of soil before crop sowing or in autumn on plot to be irrigated with mineralized water, with mellowing depth exceeding plowing depth; creating water distributing parts made in the form of depressions separated by hills; making furrows in upper parts of hills and filling furrows with absorbing material such as peat; after termination of irrigation season and harvesting of yield, performing plowing with turning of soil layer by means of plow equipped with colter. Also, after harvesting of cereals and before plowing, plant remains are ground and uniformly distributed over plot surface.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by restricting accumulation of salts in plow layer of soil and increased duration of highly effective irrigation of plot with mineralized water.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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