Drip irrigation system for fruit and berry and forest nurseries
SUBSTANCE: drip irrigation system for fruit and berry and forest nurseries comprises a hydraulically connected water source (1), a pumping station (6), a filter, a pressure gauge (15), a shut-off valve, the main pipeline, a network of distribution (17) and irrigation pipelines (18), and droppers. The water source (1) of the pumping station (6) is provided with a diversion chamber-collector (5) equipped with a trash screen (3) and a fish protection structure (4). Pumps of the pumping station (6) are connected to a water-driven tower-collector (7) hydraulically connected to the module of water electroactivation, including a DC generator (8) or rectifier in all-mains operation and flowing electric activator (10), behind which through the connecting pipes the fertiliser injector (12) is mounted, and the distribution network (17) is connected by the irrigation pipelines (18), equipped with injectors-metering units-droppers (19). The flowing water electric activator (10) comprises a supply pipe (21) made of dielectric material which is resistant to galvanic corrosion, in the threaded part of the supply pipe (21) the slip ring (26) is mounted with the output for connection of the electric potential. The slip ring (26) is isolated from the outer electrode (22) of the electric activator (10) with the dielectric spacer (27), the outer cylindrical electrode (22) is formed of a stainless steel resistant to galvanic corrosion. Inside the outer electrode (22) the inner electrode (23) is mounted with the ability of mounting and dismounting, consisting of a central rod (31) with lobes fixed to it. The inner electrode (23) is separated from the outer electrode (22) by semipermeable shell (24) of microporous plastic, on the front side of the inner electrode (23) a guide device (25) is arranged having the blades of a left-hand direction, the inlet and outlet part of the central rod (31) are made conical, all parts of the inner electrode (23) are made of stainless steel resistant to galvanic corrosion. Supply of the electric potential to the outer electrode (22) is made through the terminal (29) disposed on the electrode housing, and to the inner (23) through the contact washer (26) having an input terminal (28). The injector-metering unit-dropper (19) mounted in the pan of trees, comprises mounting tip, inside of which a shim is fixed, designed for a given flow rate, the inner cavity of the injector-metering unit-dropper (19) has a water outlet openings on the horizontals of soaking, the outer edges of the water outlet openings are closed by dished deflectors.
EFFECT: improving the quality of planting material of fruit and forest plants.
1 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to agricultural irrigation, in particular to technology for drip irrigation, and can be used for irrigation of fruit and forest nurseries, grapes and garden plantings.
Known water treatment system and feeding the mixture into the soil under drip irrigation, containing the capacity to prepare the nutrient solution, filter, nutritious filler and a water inlet pipe, it is equipped with high-pressure hydrocyclones, diaphragm electrolyzers, a communication network, the locking elements in the form of valves and controls process in the form of sequentially mounted in the hydraulic network three-way valves, water filter made in the form of a horizontally installed capacity, filled with a neutral filter material in the form of layers stacked in the upper horizon of dolomite gravel with a grain size of 5-25 mm layer of 150-300 mm and in the lower horizon quartz sand with a grain size of 1-5 mm thick 300-600 mm, the volume of the vessel and the filtration material are related as 1:(0,3...0,6), and in the cavity of the vessel above and below the filtering material mounted slotted pipes for supplying and discharging water to the same surface of the lower slotted pipes coated with a permeable nonwoven is m material, mentioned upper slotted pipe filter hydraulically connected by pipeline with high-pressure hydraulic cyclone for water purification filed under the working pressure in the inlet pipe through a three-way valve from the pumping station into the cavity of the cyclone, named cyclone equipped with a sediment chamber for collecting food contamination, valve for drainage network for irrigation by flooding and in his oral mesh screen in the form of a hollow truncated cone, directed a broad base in the direction of the pipe connection of the hydrocyclone with the upper slot pipeline filter, part of this pipeline is connected between a valve and a parallel four-way valve associated sleeves with capacity to prepare the nutrient solution, and the above-described slotted pipes laid under the filtration material in the cavity of the filter, through a communication network and a three-way valve connected with the main pipeline to supply purified water to drip through the pipeline drip irrigation systems, also referred to a communication network by means of valves and pressure hydrocyclones are hydraulically connected in parallel with the diaphragm chambers of the electrolysis, the cathode cavity of the first of them is hydraulically connected through three-way valve with a trunk the pipeline drip irrigation systems, and the anode cavity - network for irrigation by flooding, the camera of the second cell with the main pipeline and network for irrigation by flooding are connected in reverse order to the same three-way valves high pressure cyclone, filter and cells on the input pipe and pipelines are connected to the sleeves of equal flow area (RU, patent for invention №2219761 C1 IPC7A01G 25/02).
The disadvantages of the system include the design complexity, low reliability, lack of water supply in the irrigation system with the specified electric potential and regulate its flow.
Known irrigation system activation module water, including the water source, pumping station, filter gauges, pool-sump, irrigation network, the system is equipped with a module activation irrigation water, consisting of a constant current generator, electroactuator and switch the potential of the electrodes, while elektroaktivator includes coaxially arranged electrodes, a semi-permeable diaphragm between them, and electrodes are mounted in the dielectric housing, the outer electrode is made in the form of a segment of pipe of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion at the ends of the tube is threaded for connection with the inlet and the driving pipeline, the inner electrode consists of a cylindrical rod with a screw guide with left-hand spiral winding, the input and output ends of the rod are made conical, and the input side of the internal electrode is made blade guide device with left-hand orientation of the blades, while the blades of the guide vanes has an electrical contact with the ring electrode mounted in the dielectric supply line, the supply potential is applied to the ring electrode is realized by means of bus mounted in the dielectric housing, irrigation network consists of trunk and irrigation pipelines, and irrigation pipelines are equipped with self-regulating outlets and injectors-activators consisting of a conical shell with the water outlet openings directed parallel to the surface of the earth, and in the inner cavity of the casing has a conical screw-activator mounted on a cylindrical rod which has a tapered entrance portion, a conical casing is connected with the inlet pipe with a diffuser (RU, patent for invention №2374832 C1 IPC A01G 25/02).
The disadvantages of the irrigation system are the complexity of the equipment, low reliability, lack of opportunities dosed supply of water for irrigation objects.
A well-known system to pelnego irrigation module activation irrigation water, including hydraulically connected water source, pumping station, filter, gauges, valves, pipelines, network distribution and irrigation pipes, drip, it is equipped with air-tank-tank with sediment chamber for collecting suspended particles, module electric activation of irrigation water, consisting of a constant current source and installation for electric activation of water, electrically connected with the constant current source and having a switch potentials, and the unit has a supply pipe with an internal screw guide surface having a left direction, and a pipeline to divert water from the positive and negative potential, having on the inner surface screw guide with left-hand direction and connected to the main pipeline, which is hydraulically connected in parallel to the network capacity for the preparation of the nutrient solution, while the installation for electric activation of water includes coaxially arranged electrodes with the possibility of changing the positive and negative potential, a semi-permeable shell between them, made of microporous plastics, one of the electrodes, functioning as a body, has the shape of a hollow cylinder and is made and the stainless steel or titanium, inside the hollow cylinder, separated from the surface of a semi-permeable cowling installed the electrode having the form of a screw auger with wound counterclockwise, made of stainless steel or titanium, for supplying positive and negative potential to the electrode provided by a conductive bus, the unit body of water has a mounting screw terminals, to which are connected the inlet and outlet pipes, made of dielectric corrosive-resistant polyethylene housing units for electric activation of water is closed outside the dielectric housing (RU, patent for invention №2410869 IPC A01G 25/00).
The disadvantages of the system include a low quality electric activation due to imperfections in the design of electroactuator, dosed supply of irrigation water in the root layer of soil directly from plants and its uniform distribution in the soil.
This drip irrigation system adopted by us as the nearest equivalent.
The problem to which the invention is directed, - improving the design of electroactuator, design of irrigation water dispenser that provides a uniform distribution in the root zone soil layer, developing the ability to fertilizing the place with irrigation water.
The technical result is the production of high quality planting material for fruit and forest crops.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that the system of drip irrigation for fruit and forest nurseries, including hydraulically connected water source, pumping station, filter, gauges, valves, pipelines, network distribution and irrigation pipes, drip, according to the invention, the source water at the pumping station is equipped with avankamera-sump, equipped with trash bars and fish protection facility, the pumps of the pumping station is connected to a water tower-tank hydraulically connected to the module electric activation of water, comprising a direct current generator or rectifier when running on the network and running elektroaktivator, which through connecting pipelines installed hydropathic and distribution network connected with irrigation pipelines equipped with injectors-dosing-droppers, running elektroaktivator includes water supply line made of a dielectric material, which is resistant to electrochemical corrosion in the threaded part of the inlet pipeline installed contact ring output for connecting an electrical potential is, the contact ring is isolated from the outer electrode electroactuator dielectric strip, the outer cylindrical electrode made of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion, inside the external electrode is installed with the possibility of mounting and dismantling the internal electrode consisting of a Central rod with a fixed him petals, the inner electrode is separated from the outer electrode by a semi-permeable shell of microporous plastic, on the input side of the internal electrode is made the guide apparatus having blades or left direction, the input and output portion of the Central rod is made conical, all details of the internal electrode is made of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion, supply electric potential to the outer electrode made via terminal placed on the body of the electrode, and the internal - via the contact washer having input terminals, injector-hopper-dropper installed in the stalk circle of trees, includes mounting lug, inside of which was calibrated washer, calculated for a given flow rate, the inner cavity of the injector-dosing-dropper has a water outlet hole of the contours of wetting, the outer edge of the water outlet holes of perekryty disc deflectors.
The invention is illustrated by drawings.
Figure 1 shows the diagram of the system of drip irrigation of fruit and forestry nurseries.
Figure 2 - elektroaktivator irrigation water.
Figure 3 - cross section a-a in figure 2.
Figure 4 is a view In figure 2.
Figure 5 - injector-hopper-dropper.
Information confirming the possibility of implementing the claimed invention are as follows.
Drip irrigation for fruit and forest nurseries includes the source 1, whose water source water intake structure 2, which is provided trash grating 3 and fish protection structure 4. Water intake structure 2 is associated with avankamera-sump 5. For water extraction from avancuara 5 used pump station 6, hydraulically connected to the water tower-tank 7. In drip irrigation system to increase the biological activity of irrigation water is mounted the electric activation module consisting of a generator 8 DC (or rectifier using a stationary grid), to the generator 8 is connected to the switch 9 potentials and elektroaktivator 10. To the pressure line electroactuator 10 through the gate 11 is connected hydropathic 12, which has an output pipeline with a valve 13. To adjust the flow and pressure in the system capeling the irrigation is provided a shutter 14, the control pressure in the system is performed by the pressure gauge 15.
Discharge pipe 16 of the backbone network is hydraulically connected to a distribution pipe 17 and irrigation piping 18. In the stalk circles of trees installed injectors-dosing-droppers 19. Pressure pipelines 20 made of plastic material, which is resistant to electrochemical corrosion.
Running elektroaktivator 10 includes a supply pipe 21 made of a dielectric material, which is resistant to electrochemical corrosion. The supply line 21 is connected by a thread with an outer cylindrical electrode 22 made of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion. In the inner cavity of the outer electrode is installed with the possibility of mounting and dismantling of the internal electrode 23, separated from the outer electrode by a semi-permeable shell 24 of microporous plastic. On the input side of the internal electrode has a guiding apparatus 25, the blades of which are located on helices are left-handed orientation. In the threaded part of the inlet pipeline 21 fixed contact washer 26, which provides electrical contact with the internal electrode 23 through the guide device 25. The outer electrode 22 is insulated from the contact washer 26 of the dielectric spacer 27. Dive torches etc the electric potential to the internal electrode 23 is made via terminal 28, and to the outer electrode terminal 29. The output portion of the external electrode 22 are connected by a thread with the discharge conduit 30.
The internal electrode 23 is composed of a Central rod 31 attached thereto blades 32.
Injector-hopper-dropper 19 includes a mounting lug 33, inside of which was calibrated washer 34, calculated for a given flow.
The inner cavity of the injector-dosing-dropper has a water outlet hole 35 on the horizons of wetting. The outer edge of the water outlet holes blocked disc baffles 36.
Drip irrigation for fruit and forest nurseries works as follows.
Irrigation water from the water source 1 by gravity through the water intake structure 2 enters the avankamera 5, with trash grate 3 separates from water impurities and fish protection structure 4 - fry and small fish.
In the avankamera 5 the water settles on the bottom of the small impurities are precipitated. The pumps of the pumping station 6 through the pressure pipe 20 serves water in the water tower sump 7. The height of the water tower tank 7 should provide the necessary pressure in the delivery pipe 16, which provides irrigation water with a specified flow rate to the injectors-dosing-droppers 19. The water in the water BA is not 7 settles and is cleansed of all impurities. From the water tower 7 water enters elektroaktivator 10, which receives the necessary charge provided by the generator (or rectifier) 8. Electroactivated water pressure pipe 16, the distribution pipe 17 and irrigation pipelines 18 is supplied to the injectors-dosing-droppers 19. If necessary, supply to irrigated crops fertilizers with irrigation water in the irrigation network is activated hydropathic 12. The setting of the required quantity of fertilizer is provided by the dispensers 11, 13. The amounts of water supplied to irrigation pipes 18, is performed by the shutter 14, and the necessary pressure is monitored by pressure gauge 15.
The increased biological activity of irrigation water is provided by Catolica, water with negative potential.
To obtain Catolica negative potential from the generator (or rectifier) 8 is supplied to the terminal 28, and a positive potential to the terminal 29. When the flow of water through the interior cavity electroactuator 10 on the input side of the stream from the impact of the guide vanes 25 acquires a left-hand rotational movement, the water acquires a negative charge, and passing between the blades 32, the flow of the charge increases. As a result of interaction of the flow with a negative charged electron is born 23 is formed in the catholyte (negatively charged water flow). The magnitude of the charge Catolica can reach values of redox potential (ORP) to -960 mV, and the magnitude of the hydrogen ion exponent pH of 11.0.
If necessary, destruction of pathogens and pests into the irrigation system served the anolyte (water with a positive ORP). For supplying anolyte to the terminal 28 is supplied with positive potential from the generator (rectifier) 8, and to the terminal 29 to the negative potential.
The stream of water, receiving rotational motion from the guide vanes 25 and passed between the blades 32, acquires a positive redox potential, the value of which can reach up to +1100 mV, and pH=2,7.
Electroactivated water with a given redox potential is supplied to the injectors-dosing-droppers, in which calibrated washer 34 having apertures, designed to permit a preset flow rate, provide the pass activated water into the internal cavity, where the water through the holes 35 in layers in multiple levels enters the soil. However, in order to avoid erosion of soil in front of the outlets provided by the disc baffles 36.
Designed drip irrigation system for fruit and forest nurseries has redesigned electroactuator, the water supply system and developed the design of the injector-dosing-dropper, allowing ravnomernoe layer-by-layer soil moisture.
Drip irrigation for fruit and forest nurseries, including hydraulically connected water source, pumping station, filter, gauges, valves, pipelines, network distribution and irrigation pipes, drip, characterized in that the source water at the pumping station is equipped with avankamera-sump, equipped with trash bars and fish protection facility, the pumps of the pumping station is connected to a water tower-tank hydraulically connected to the module electric activation of water, comprising a direct current generator or rectifier when running on the network and running elektroaktivator, which through connecting pipelines installed hydropathic and distribution network is connected with irrigation pipelines equipped with injectors-dosing-droppers, running elektroaktivator includes water supply line made of a dielectric material, which is resistant to electrochemical corrosion in the threaded part of the inlet pipeline installed contact ring output for connection of electric potential, the contact ring is isolated from the outer electrode electroactuator dielectric strip, the outer cylindrical electrode made of stainless steel which, resistant to electrochemical corrosion, inside the external electrode is installed with the possibility of mounting and dismantling the internal electrode consisting of a Central rod with a fixed him petals, the inner electrode is separated from the outer electrode by a semi-permeable shell of microporous plastic, on the input side of the internal electrode is made the guide apparatus having blades or left direction, the input and output portion of the Central rod is made conical, all details of the internal electrode is made of stainless steel, resistant to electrochemical corrosion, supply electric potential to the outer electrode is made via terminal placed on the body of the electrode, and the internal - via the contact washer having input terminals, injector-hopper-dropper installed in the stalk circle of trees, includes mounting lug, inside of which was calibrated washer, calculated for a given flow rate, the inner cavity of the injector-dosing-dropper has a water outlet hole of the contours of wetting, the outer edge of the water outlet holes covered dish-shaped baffles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for automatic watering of plants. The device for automatic watering comprises an air chamber (1) and the water storage unit (2) with the inlet end of the drain pipe (5) inserted in it and the outlet end of the suction pipe (4), a drain end of the drain pipe is installed above the level of free surface of the water source (12), the suction end of the suction pipe is lowered into the water source. The air chamber and the water storage unit are spaced, the air chamber is connected with the upper part of the water storage unit through the pipe, in the water storage unit the opening (6) of the inlet end of the drain pipe is located below the opening (7) of the outlet end of the suction pipe, the outer part of the suction pipe is provided with water-air lock, which is a steep section (8), the outer part of the drain pipe is provided with a water-air lock which is a U-shaped bending (9). The air chamber can be made in the form of a decorative element; it can also comprise a thin-walled shell. The lower part of the steep section of the suction pipe can be located below the lower part of the U-shaped bending of the drain pipe.
EFFECT: improvement of reliability of operation and reduction of material consumption of the device.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation and can be used for irrigation of greenhouse and other agricultural crops. The method of irrigation is carried out by automatic periodic flooding. Water is formed by condensation of vapour in the pressure tank. Part of the time the tank is filled to the desired level, and then opens and actuates. The perforated tube with openings is used as the humidifier. The tube is mounted vertically in the area of root habitable plant mass, and the water is fed to it from droppers. The droppers are attached to the distribution pipe. The pressure tank is attached to the cooling radiator for heating greenhouse premises with simultaneous cooling and condensing vapour.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of irrigation with simultaneous removal of salts from water and heating the greenhouse premises is provided.
4 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method comprises supplying water to irrigated land of the irrigation rate, providing moistening of the estimated soil layer without the flow of irrigation water into the groundwater. At that, between moistened layer and groundwater a layer is formed of granular hydrophobic material with grains of not less than 5 mm. The upper layer of soil in the irrigated area during the inter-irrigation period is maintained in moistened condition by finely sprinkling irrigation.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the risk of soil salinisation with close level of occurrence of mineralised groundwater in the absence of the ability of making drainage by breaking the capillary pores and stopping the movement of groundwater to the root-zone soil layer, and to prevent desiccation of the upper layer of soil in the inter-irrigation period.
SUBSTANCE: method includes intermittent flooding of rice checks, water supply to rice crops is carried out in the form of asymmetrical triangular impulses regulated in space and time, reducing the bare soil moisture between the impulses is not allowed below 85% of the total water capacity (TWC), the program distribution of water in the irrigation network between the consumers is carried out on schedule by assigning time intervals of water supply to each of them on the parameters of the regulated impulse, which are determined by the following formulas: - The height of the impulse (water layer), hL;hL=σ+Δh, mm, where: σ is mean-square deviation of the roughness on the surface of checks, mm; Δh is a layer of water, ensuring flooding of high areas on the check and creating a favourable thermal regime of the soil, mm, it is assigned equal: in a phase of the "shoots-tillering" - 60 mm, in the phase of formation of the embryonic panicle - 100 mm; - The duration of the water supply to create a given impulse height, t1: t1=(hL/q)·α, day, where: q is a hydromodule of flooding equal to 100 mm/day; α is coefficient taking into account evaporation losses equal to about 1.05; - Duration of drawdown of the water layer in a natural way through evapotranspiration (E) and filtration (F) t2: t2=hL/(E+F), day; - Duration of bare soil between impulses t3:
EFFECT: increased efficiency of use of water resources.
1 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to reclamation. The method includes planting seeds or seedlings of vegetable crops and their vegetative irrigation with electroactivated aqueous solutions - anolyte and catholyte. The first irrigation after planting is carried out with the activated aqueous solution of anolyte and catholyte at their ratio (70:30)-(80:20). The subsequent irrigations are carried out with the activated aqueous solution of with the ratio of anolyte and catholyte (30:70)-(20:80). At that after the first irrigation with the activated solution one irrigation with light water is carried out, and the subsequent irrigations with the said solutions are alternated with irrigations with light water so that one irrigation with the activated aqueous solution is accounted for two irrigations with light water with the predetermined irrigation norm. Prior to mixing the components of the activated water the anolyte pH is 3.2-4.7, and the catholyte pH is 10.5-12.0.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of vegetable produce and increase productivity, reduce energy consumption and improve the environmental friendliness of the process, and also reduce the consumption of activated aqueous solutions during irrigation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes division of sloping areas to at least two levels, performing the preparatory works associated with digging and displacement the soil to create the limited amounts on the areas of different levels. And on the sloping and divided to sections areas the diking is made with the creation of the reservoir for moisture collection located upward the irrigated areas. Then in spring period of thawing of soil to the depth of 0.5-0.8 height of topsoil the water is released from the reservoir into the lower irrigated diked areas with its uniform distribution on the irrigated areas. The moisture collection in the reservoirs located at a higher level is carried out throughout the year with use of underwater channels and trays made in the soil.
EFFECT: method provides long-term conservation of water and physical soil properties when used effectively.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil reclamation. The method includes conducting of primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrows of cuttings from licorice rootstocks, narrow-row sowing of wheatgrass and harvesting wheatgrass-licorice hay and licorice rootstocks. Formation of agrophytocenosis is carried out in I-II decade of October by alternating the bands of common licorice - 3 rows and wheat grass - 5 rows. And the distance between the furrows of licorice is 0.3 m, and between the rows of wheatgrass is 0.15 m. In the first year of formation of the plantation the two-fold mowing for hay of wheatgrass tops is carried out to a height of 0.12-0.15 m. On the 2-5th year, up to 2-3 mowing of wheatgrass-licorice hay is carried out. And during five years after each mowing of tops of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis the mineral feeding is carried out, irrigation with water with the salinity of less than 1.8-3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold of preirrigation soil moisture not lower than 65-70% minimum water capacity. The rootstocks of licorice are harvested at the end of the growing season of the 5th year of life of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the phytomeliorative effect contributing to reduction of content of water-soluble salts in the arable soil layer, to reduce the level of ground water, and increase the yield of high-protein cereal-legume hay and medicinal licorice raw material.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a source of irrigation, water intake facilities connected to self-pumped pipeline, irrigation sites with compacted irrigation furrows. The self-pumped pipeline is connected through valves with diaphragm actuators to a pair of distribution pipelines. The irrigation pipelines are laid on the maximum slope of the terrain. The upper part of the irrigation sites with compacted irrigation furrows is laid at an angle to the terrain contour lines, and the lower part - parallel to horizontal lines. On the irrigation pipelines the hydraulic step motors are mounted. The hydraulic motors are connected to the spherical distribution valve. The spherical distribution valve outlets are connected by tubes to the water-distributing furrows. Through the water-distributing furrows the water is supplied to pairs of compacted irrigation furrows located at the edges of the beds. The upper part of the irrigation furrows is laid at a mild slope along the terrain contour lines. The lower part of the irrigation furrows is made in the form of deep irrigation furrows laid without slope. In the middle of the beds the trenches of up to one metre depth are laid, which are filled with peat and manure. The center of the beds is covered with trash mulch. The screens of ameliorative film are laid below the irrigation furrows. Above the screens of ameliorative film in the soil active layer of the beds a 5-10 cm layer of sand or gravel is laid. The irrigation control unit is connected to the valves diaphragm actuators.
EFFECT: construction enables to improve the uniformity of soil moisture, moisture capacity of the soil active layer, to prevent the water loss for depth filtration.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a source of irrigation, a dam, water overshot wheel, a water intake device in the form of a mesh scouring cylinder, a liquid-gas ejector and a water pump, generators of air ions and ozone, a reservoir with manure, a subsoil system of moistening and aeration of soil in the greenhouse, a unit of soil humidity control. A mesh scouring cylinder is installed inside the water overshot wheel. Inside the scouring cylinder a waste chute is located with a perforated pipeline. The perforated pipeline is connected through the gate to the inlet of the circulating-water intake. The outlet of the circulating-water intake is connected through the gate to the input of the water pump. The water wheel shaft is connected through the reducer to the water overshot wheel. The outlet of the water pump is connected to a water pipe of the liquid-gas ejector. The ejector air nozzle is connected through the gates to the generators of air ions and ozone, the atmosphere, the reservoir with manure. The reservoir with manure is connected through the gates with the generators of air ions and ozone. The output of the liquid-gas ejector is connected to the conductive pipeline. The conductive pipeline is connected to the perforated irrigation pipelines. The perforated irrigation pipelines are mounted under the trenches filled with manure. The trenches are located in the middle of the beds covered with film tunnels. Above the beds the greenhouse is placed. In the active layer of the soil of the greenhouse a capacitance sensor of integrated humidity of soil horizon is placed. The sensor is made in the form of two parallel metal strips. Between the parallel metal strips a layer of porous ceramic is laid, connected to the unit of soil humidity control.
EFFECT: design enables to improve the quality of moistening, aeration and heating the active layer of soil in the greenhouse.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas-drop jet generation and may be used in fire fighting, agriculture, etc. Fluid feed comprises forcing fluid axially via feed branch pipe, confuser and cylindrical nozzle aligned and communicated with said branch pipe. Fluid tangential feed is executed via conical cartridge aligned with cylindrical nozzle with vortex annular chamber secured atop cylindrical part of said cartridge and provided with fluid feed pipe. Two lines of fluid feed tangential channels are made along edges of said annular chamber. At least three tangential channels are arranged in every said line to communicate annular chamber with housing cylindrical chamber.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of fire fighting.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: forestry, particularly for fighting fires in high-capacity and medium-capacity peat beds.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes a number of water drainage channels with control-and-shutoff valves, manifold with drain lines connected thereto and intercepting channel located above drained peat bed and communicated with water inlet. Intercepting channel is provided with control-and-shutoff means to accumulate surface water flow and to create water reserve. Intercepting channel is connected with manifold head part by means of pipeline having valve gate. Manifold is provided with movable partition. Intercepting channel has antifiltering shield.
EFFECT: possibility of fire localization without operation stoppage and without underflooding surrounding territories and, as result, reduced economic losses.
FIELD: amelioration and water supply system.
SUBSTANCE: ameliorative system has irrigation, water supplying systems and discharge systems, water intake and detachable backwater regulating constructions. Ameliorative system is equipped with flexible collecting tanks-enclosures connected with drainage systems-sedimentation tanks equipped with membranes-type filters and moistener-type filters. Cassette filters are arranged along perimeter of massif to be irrigated to provide for delivery of clean water into water intake. Water supplying systems are furnished with closure system for preventing water evaporation and with metrological analyzers adapted for determining quality of inflow water delivered into water intake and of discharge water.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by avoiding violation to ecological balance of basic agricultural landscape.
FIELD: agricultural amelioration.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting furrows by means of tillage tool; supplying water or liquid fertilizer into furrow and covering furrow with soil; before plowing, providing deep plowing of field to be irrigated to 1.1-1.4 m depth, with space between adjacent plowing zones being within the range of 1.1-1.4 m; providing direction of tillage during plowing within the range of 15-45 deg with respect to following plowing directions during forming of furrows by means of tillage tool. Water or liquid fertilizer is supplied by flooding or during advancement of mobile unit equipped with vessel for transportation and distribution of said liquids.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of fertilizers applied, reduced power consumption, simplified labor management and increased ecological safety of animal sewage water and solved organic fertilizers applied into soil.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, fertilizer irrigation of farm crops with sewage water or liquid fertilizer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting furrow by means of soil cutting tool; feeding water or liquid fertilizer into furrow and covering furrow. Uniform distribution of fertilizer applied to compound intersected relief is provided by forming web of height smaller than plowing depth by 0.4-0.7 time before supplying of water or liquid fertilizer into open furrow. Apparatus has frame with plow bodies equipped with tine having share and moldboard and fixed on frame. Web forming device mounted on frame behind outer plow body is made in the form of rotor with vertical shaft of rotation and blades for moving soil from ridges of adjacent plowed strips. Apparatus has drive. Rotor drive is kinematically connected and aligned with frame carrier wheel.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of liquid fertilizer applied into soil and equalized plant mass over the entire area of irrigated soil, increased soil fertility and improved ecology control by preventing environment from contamination.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of crops on salinated soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves planting Jerusalem artichoke roots in autumn into soil with salination extent of 0.2-0.65%; providing care for young crops; applying fertilizer; irrigating with water mineralized to the extent of 1.5-2.0 g/l, with preirrigation soil moisture content of 70-75% in comparison to normal moisture content being maintained at the initial growing period; upon reaching by plants of phase at which 12-20 pairs of leaves appear, maintaining preirrigation soil moisture content of 60-65% as compared to normal moisture content, with absorption by plants of underground water constituting 18-20% by total water consumption; harvesting green mass and roots in September-October. Method may be used in development of soils brought out of agricultural utilization owing to secondary salination of soil and high level of underground water.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in employment of abandoned over-salinated lands in arid zones.
3 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture and forestry, in particular, methods for improving plant water supply and methods for cultivation of stable and productive trees, brushes and grasses.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming trenches on plot of sandy soil with deep ground water to humus layer depth; providing vertical slot-shaped trenches on bottom part of previously formed trenches, with depth of vertical slot-shaped trenches being below low ground water level; providing inclined slot-shaped trenches between adjacent vertical trenches and filling said trenches with clay mortar of 1.2-1.3 g/cm3 density and covering with humus layer. In arid zones with low annual precipitation, on brown or chestnut soils with heavy covering loamy soils, vertical 2-3-m deep trenches are provided on selected plots immediately from surfaces of terraces and filled with large-sized sand particles of 0.5-2 mm size.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing conditions for continuous absorption by plant roots of moisture which had been previously inaccessible for them.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, viniculture.
SUBSTANCE: method involves taking samples for refraction metering of cellular sap of indicating organs of vines from different parts of vineyard; determining cellular sap concentration by means of field refractometer; working out regression analysis diagram of dependence between content of soil moisture accessible for plants and refractometric factor value of cellular sap concentration of indicator organ for obtaining of "soil-sort" combination, said diagram being provided with additional irrigation norm scales for different vine growing periods. Indicator organs are 2-3 apex top internodes of green sprouts selected on the basis of refractometric factor value of cellular sap concentration and allowing moisture content of plants to be determined. According to diagram, irrigation time for vineyard is designated without allowing cellular sap concentration of indicator organ to be increased to critical level.
EFFECT: increased precision in diagnosing under field conditions of grape moisture content and designating of vineyard irrigation time.
4 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: large-scale agricultural engineering, in particular, method and apparatus for producing of activated water used in plat growing and animal feeding.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing hydromechanical processing of basic water including feeding thereof to inlet of rotor-type hydrodynamic activator and discharging processed water therefrom into conical circulation tank; returning portion of water for additional hydromechanical processing and discharging remaining portion of water for utilization. Apparatus for preparing of hydromechanically activated water comprises circulation pump, rotor-type hydrodynamic activator, conical circulation tank, feeding pump and toroid-shaped circulation collector. Rotor-type hydrodynamic activator has two opposed working wheels defining single cavity, each of said wheels being made in the form of disk with annular wall. Disks are equipped with inlet apertures and annular walls are equipped with outlet apertures. Plant growing method involves periodically watering plants with activated water produced by hydromechanical processing of basic water by means of rotor-type hydrodynamic activator; when needed, applying liquid fertilizer or nutritive substances, including application thereof in conjunction with irrigation water, activated water for irrigation being prepared by said method with the use of said apparatus. Animal feeding method involves watering of animals with activated water produced by hydromechanical processing of basic water with the use of rotor-type hydrodynamic activator; feeding animals, including feeding with liquid feed mixture prepared on the basis of activated water primarily used for animal watering, said activated water being produced by said method with the use of said apparatus.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in hydromechanical processing of liquid, improved quality of activated water, wider range of utilization of activated water, increased irrigated areas allowing farms to be brought to large-scale agricultural production.
22 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, artificial changing of atmospheric conditions, more particular, providing precipitations above predetermined regions which are under negative effect of draught.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has gas stream forming device for forming stream of gas discharged in upward direction, with reaction engine serving as gas stream forming device. Steam superheater is located in combustion chamber of reaction engine, and wave activator is located above steam superheater. According to another version, sprinkler unit is provided with bubbler, and reaction engine serves as gas stream forming device, with wave activator being located within combustion chamber of said device. In each version, diffusion nozzles are positioned at discharge end of reaction engine and adapted for swirling of gas flow discharged in upward direction. Sprinkler unit is equipped with metal rods positioned at the level of wave activator.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and intensified condensation of moisture from upper layers of atmosphere.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, process for irrigating of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing mellowing of soil before crop sowing or in autumn on plot to be irrigated with mineralized water, with mellowing depth exceeding plowing depth; creating water distributing parts made in the form of depressions separated by hills; making furrows in upper parts of hills and filling furrows with absorbing material such as peat; after termination of irrigation season and harvesting of yield, performing plowing with turning of soil layer by means of plow equipped with colter. Also, after harvesting of cereals and before plowing, plant remains are ground and uniformly distributed over plot surface.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by restricting accumulation of salts in plow layer of soil and increased duration of highly effective irrigation of plot with mineralized water.
2 cl, 3 dwg