Method of growing tomato seedlings in protected ground

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to crop production. The method includes maintaining a continuous light and daily exposure on tomato seedlings of variable temperatures of +26°C and +10°C. At that the tomato seedlings, starting from the phase of the first true leaf, are subjected to daily exposure of temperature of +26°C for 21-22 hours and a temperature of +10°C for 2-3 hours during 16 days.

EFFECT: method enables to enhance the quality of tomato seedlings due to increasing biomass, the utilisation efficiency of light energy and acceleration of development of plants, and to reduce the energy consumption for cooling the facilities for growing seedlings.

1 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, namely crop production, and can be used for growing tomato seedlings.

Growing tomato seedlings in conditions-lighting is one of the potential ways to improve the quality of plants, especially in winter, when low level of natural light. However, continuous lighting in combination with a constant temperature leads to light damage, manifested as chlorosis of the leaves, which affects the growth and development of plants. Among agricultural crops tomato is one of the most sensitive to round-the-clock coverage.

There is a method of cultivation of vegetable crops by cultivating crops such as cucumber or tomato, the composition in the following ratio, wt.%: ferric chloride or iron sulfate or iron sulfate (III) - 2-25, citric acid 2-32, monoethanolamine - 3-30, water - the rest. Used the composition protects plants from chlorosis and stimulates their growth (Patent RF №2211564, IPC A01N 59/00, publ. 10.09.2003,).

However, the known method is applicable to combat iron chlorosis and not able to prevent or resolve chlorosis occurring in tomato plants when grown in conditions-lighting.

As a prototype the way exp is farming tomato seedlings in greenhouses with round-the-clock coverage and daily impact on seedlings of tomato variables temperature +26°C and +10°C, where every day, starting with phase 4-5 leaves and up to 36 days on tomato plants affected by temperature +26°C for 16 hours and the temperature is +10°C within 8 hours (Hillman W.S. Injury of tomato plants by continuous light and unfavorable photoperiodic cycles. Amer. J. Bot. 1956. Vol. 43. P.89-96.). This method allows you to avoid the development of chlorosis on the leaves of tomato plants.

The disadvantages of this method is the slow process of growth and development of plants, in particular, the decrease in the accumulation of dry biomass, reduction of leaf surface and the rate of appearance of leaves, which does not allow to obtain seedlings of high quality. In addition, the known method is energy-consuming.

The present invention is the development of energy-saving method of growing tomato seedlings in greenhouses, allowing to obtain seedlings of tomato high quality.

The technical result is to increase the quality of tomato seedlings by increasing biomass and accelerate the development of plants and saves energy costs by improving the efficiency of use of light energy and reduce energy consumption for cooling for growing seedlings.

The claimed technical result is achieved in that in the method of growing tomato seedlings in greenhouses, including maintenance-lighting and the daily impact of the seedlings of tomato variables temperature +26°C and +10°C, according to the invention seedlings of tomato, starting with a phase of the first true leaf is subjected to daily exposure temperature of +26°C for 21-22 hours and a temperature of +10°C for 2-3 h with a duration of 16 days.

The proposed method improves the quality of seedlings by increasing biomass and acceleration of plant development, as evidenced by:

the increase in dry biomass of plants on 57-64% compared with the prototype;

- increase the area of leaf surface at 66-70% compared with the prototype;

- accelerate the development, manifested in the increase in the rate of appearance of leaves on 25-29% in comparison with the prototype;

- healthy, with no signs of chlorosis of leaves, seedlings.

The proposed method can improve on 57-63% efficiency of utilization of light energy, and 50-60% reduction in energy consumption for cooling and maintaining the required temperature in the premises for growing seedlings.

Validation of the method was carried out over 2 years (2010-2011) on the tomato plants of the variety Warlike.

The method was implemented as follows:

Seeds of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) variety Warlike were germinated in Petri dishes for 3 days at a temperature of 28°C, then planted one in containers with sand size 7×7 cm and grown in climatic chambers at tempera is ur 26±1°C and a photoperiod of 12/12 h When the 1st true leaf has reached a size of 10 mm, the photoperiod was changed to 24/0 h (- lighting). Since that time, plants were divided into 3 groups with different temperature regime growing: 1) control - 26°C for 24 h, 2) prototype - 26°C for 16 h and +10°C for 8 h, 3) daily short-term lowering of the temperature - 26°C for 23, 22, 21 or 20 h and +10°C for 1, 2, 3 or 4 h, respectively. Each version of the experiment performed in 10 replicates.

At the end of the experiment was determined by the dry plant biomass, leaf surface, the rate of appearance of leaves and noted signs of chlorosis of the leaves. Aggregated data presented in table 1, from which it follows that compared to the prototype in plants treated with the proposed method, the dry biomass of plants increased by 57-64%, the area of leaf surface - to 66-70%, and the rate of appearance of leaves on 25-29%. Compared with the control plants treated with the proposed method, the dry biomass of plants increased by 29-35%, the area of leaf surface for 16-19, and the plants were healthy, with no signs of chlorosis, leaves, whereas leaves of control plants were chlorotic to a great extent (Fig.). The figure presents the leaves of control plants (left), plants treated with the proposed method (center) and treated pic is BOM, described in the prototype (right). In the bottom row presents the fifth real, in the top row, sixth leaves of plants.

Table 2 presents data on the efficiency of the method. Compared with the prototype in plants treated with the proposed method, the use efficiency of light energy above 57-64%. Saving energy consumption for cooling and maintaining the required temperature is 50-60%.

To prove that the proposed modes of treatment of tomato plants with round-the-clock coverage are best for achieving the stated technical result, in tables 1-2 variants of experiments (3 and 6) with the transcendent values of the processing modes.

Thus, the proposed method allows to obtain seedlings of tomato with high productivity and speed development and reduce energy costs. The proposed method is easy to use, environmentally friendly and available for widespread use in the practice of agriculture, in particular for growing seedlings of eggplant.

Table 1.
№ p/pVersion of experienceModes of daily treatments the key Signs of chlorosisMorphometric characteristics of plants
Temperature, °CProcessing time, hThe dry biomass of the plant, gLeaf surface of plants, cm2The rate of appearance of leaves, leaf/day
1Control26240,34±0,0493±70,36±0,03
2The placeholder2616No0,28±0,0365±60,28±0,03
108
3The proposed method26230,38±0,0597±6 0,36±0,03
101
42622No0,46±0,04111±70,36±0,03
102
52621No0,44±0,04108±60,35±0,02
103
62620No0,32±0,0590±60,33±0,02
104

Table 2.
№ p/pVarian is experience Modes of daily processingThe efficiency of utilization of light energy, mg dry. biomass/hThe energy consumption of cooling air, % from prototype
Temperature, °CProcessing time, h
1Control26240,76±0,020
2The placeholder26160,63±0,03100
108
3The proposed method26230,85±0,0331
101
426221,03±0,03
102
526210,99±0,0250
103
626200,72±0,0360
104

The method of growing seedlings of tomato plants in greenhouses, including maintenance-lighting and daily impact on seedlings of tomato variables temperature +26°C and +10°C, characterized in that the seedlings of tomato, starting with a phase of the first true leaf is subjected to daily exposure temperature of +26°C during 21-22 h and a temperature of +10°C for 2-3 h with a duration of 16 days.



 

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