Device to record electromagnetic radiation arising during damage of rocks by drilling, and method of its application
SUBSTANCE: device includes a loading device, comprising a metal body connected with a grounded base, a recording system comprising amplifiers, an analogue-to-digital transducer, a computer and screened cables. At the same time the loading device comprises a rock-breaking tool installed on a drilling machine, and a system of axial load supply comprising the following serially connected component: a pulley of axial load feed, a system of blocks and a system for suspension of weights installed on the frame. Also the device comprises a closed circulation system for bottomhole cleaning and cooling of the rock-breaking tool, a recording system comprising a pressure gauge, a phototach, a vibration sensor, a channel for registration of a permanent component of current and a channel for recording of an alternating component of current. The method includes installation of a sample in a clamp, deformation of a sample with the help of a loading device, registration of an arising electromagnet signal with a registration system. At the same time, setting experiment parameters, the initial and final positions of the axial load feed system are marked, accordingly at the start and end of the experiment, a boring pump motor is switched on, power is supplied to a three-phase transformer, from which power is then sent to a motor of a drilling machine, the rock-breaking tool is put in contact with the sample, and the required axial load is set, frequency of rock-breaking tool rotation is fixed by the phototach, pressure of the flushing liquid is recorded with the pressure gauge, plant oscillations are fixed by a vibration sensor, and along the channels for DC and AC the generated electromagnetic radiation is detected.
EFFECT: possibility to imitate loading of a sample with drilling, with variation of the experiment mode, under permanent registration of electromagnetic radiation parameters in process of sample damage, in the form of permanent and alternating components of current, and also the value applied to the load sample.
2 cl, 7 dwg
The invention relates to the field of mining and is designed to control the fracture of rock samples by the change in their stress-strain state.
The known device for reception of electromagnetic radiation produced by the deformation and fracturing of rocks - the patents of the Russian Federation NN 2006884, 2085736, 2155973, 2172005.
The disadvantages of these devices are low sensitivity and the impossibility of its variation depending on the experimental conditions, the impossibility of registration of the permanent component of current. In the device according to the patent of Russian Federation N 2085736 impossible to check the electric component of electromagnetic radiation. In the device according to the patent of Russian Federation N 2172005 loading of the sample is only possible compression.
Known stands for the study of electromagnetic radiation deformed to fracture of solids - RF patents NN 2190203, 2204128.
The disadvantages of these stands is the inability to assess the influence of the anisotropy of the properties of the sample by the value of the recorded electromagnetic radiation, the type of loading pattern on the principle differs from drilling.
The closest to the technical nature of the claimed solution is to stand for research of electromagnetic radiation deformed to fracture of a solid body, such as a sample of rock [RF patent N2253098, G01N3/08, G01N 27/00, publ. 27.05.2005,] including enclosed in an electromagnetic shield capacitor Converter of electromagnetic radiation, a load device, comprising a metal housing connected with a grounded base, and first and second rod, oppositely mounted in the axial cavity of the metal housing. The first metal rod is installed with the possibility of translational motion, force sensor, a registration system, including amplifiers, analog-to-digital Converter and computer, and shielded cables. Metal case load device made in the form of a hollow circular cylinder, which is the first plate of the capacitor of the Converter of electromagnetic radiation. The first and second metal terminals of the load device made in the form of bolts and mounted in the axial hole respectively, the first and second centering bushings load device having a threaded internal and external diameters and installed from the side with the threads on the inner diameter of the end sections of the metal housing of the load device. The first centering sleeve load device is made of metal, and the second of dielectric material, such as hard rubber, and has the form of a bolt, and between the y mounted in the hollow circular cylinder load device, the first and second metal cores sequentially placed force sensor in metal case, the intermediate plate and the deformable solid body. The first and second metal rods installed with the possibility of translational motion by turning their heads, and the end of the second of them, situated on the side of a deformable solid body has the shape of a conical indenter, while the second metal rod serves as a second plate of the capacitor of the Converter.
The disadvantages of this device are the possibility of registration of electromagnetic radiation only in laboratory conditions and the low level of automation experiment. In addition, structural features of the device can affect the sample only compressive loads.
Known methods of study and reception of electromagnetic radiation deformable solids - RF patents NN 2172005, 2253098, 2190203
The disadvantages of the above methods are the application of the method of loading the sample excellent on the principle of drilling, not a permanent component of the electric current, the use of equipment with high noise level.
The closest to the nature of the claimed is a method for the study of electromagnetic radiation, a deformable to destruction of solid bodies in the form of a rod [RF patent N 2204128, CL G01N 27/60, G01N 3/20, publ. 10.05.2003,], kiuchumi setting it on the stand, the use of a capacitive sensor, one of the plates which is made in the form of a plate mounted on the base of the stand and connected with the registration system, and the other is grounded. The deformation of the above-mentioned rod by application to the upper end of the external load through load device, comprising a movable support with a socket to accommodate the upper end of the deformable rod and mounted on the base stand stationary support with a socket to accommodate the lower end of this rod, the conversion using the specified capacitive sensor resulting signal is electromagnetic radiation of a deformable rod and registration system registration. As the other plates of the capacitive sensor use a different plate, and the plate installed on the base of the stand through an insulating strip. This deformable rod fitted between the plates of the capacitive sensor, and then to the upper end of the deformable rod installed in the socket, made from the end face of the movable support, serving as a lever linkage system load device, cyclically applied external bending load in opposite directions with this lever, which is moved in a vertical plane passing through the centerline of the lever and is of NESDA fixed bearing lever system load device.
The disadvantage of this method is that the deformation effect on the sample is different in principle from drilling, resulting in the recorded electromagnetic radiation has a small value and does not allow to control the process of destruction of the sample. Additionally, there is no possibility to register the magnitude of the applied load to the sample.
The objective of the proposed solutions is to enable reception of electromagnetic radiation in the destruction of rock samples by drilling.
The problem is solved by creating electromagnetic radiation destructible rock sample drilling when changing the mode settings, conversion and registration of electromagnetic radiation.
In the device for recording electromagnetic radiation arising from the destruction of rocks by drilling, comprising a load device comprising a metal casing connected to the grounded base, a registration system, including amplifiers, analog-to-digital Converter, a computer, and shielded cables. As the load device used rock cutting tool and the feed system of the axial load. The rock-breaking tool is installed on the drill press. Supply system axial load consists of sequentially connect the United pulley feed axial load, system blocks and hanging systems cargo mounted on the frame. Applied a closed circulation system for bottom hole cleaning and cooling of rock cutting tool. The system check includes the gauge, phototachometer, a vibration sensor, a channel for reception of the constant current component and a channel for reception of the variable component of the current.
The study of electromagnetic radiation arising in the process of destruction of a rock sample by drilling, by placing it in the clamp and drilling through rock cutting tool mounted on a drill press with a given axial load in the supply system of the axial load and the flow of washing fluid. Bottomhole cleaning and cooling of the rock cutting tool is carried out by circulating fluid moving in the circulation system of the closed type. In the result of the interaction of weapons rock cutting tool and a rock sample is generated electromagnetic radiation. The proposed device allows you to record electromagnetic radiation generated as a result of destruction of samples of rock by drilling with the specified settings.
In the method for detecting electromagnetic radiation arising from the destruction of the rock hole is m, a sample is installed in the clip, distort it using load device, the registration system will determine the electromagnetic signal. Setting the parameters of the experiment, note the start and end position of the feed system of the axial load, respectively at the beginning and end of the experiment. Include engine mud pump, apply power to the three-phase transformer, from which then the food served to the motor of the drilling machine. Rock cutting tool enter into contact with the sample and set the desired axial load. Record the frequency of rotation of the rock cutting tool phototachometer, mud fluid pressure registered by the pressure gauge and vibration fix the vibration sensor. The channels for the registration of a constant current component and the variable component of the current determines the generated electromagnetic radiation.
The destruction of the sample Torno rock drilling carry the rock cutting tool driven by a drilling shanka. load the sample by applying an axial load, register and change the setting drilling, to cool the rock cutting tool and a bottom hole cleaning using the circulation system of the closed type. In the result of the interaction of weapons rock cutting tool and the rock sample is generated electromagnetic radiation. The proposed method allows to register as a constant and a variable part of the electromagnetic radiation, to explore its features in the destruction of samples of rock drilling.
For explanations of the described object in figure 1-5 shows the flowchart of the proposed facility and its components.
Figure 1 is a General block diagram of the installation.
Figure 2 - block diagram of the drilling machine.
Figure 3 - block diagram of the circulation system.
4 is a block diagram of the feed system of the axial load.
5 is a block diagram of the system of registration.
6 and 7 are examples of a specific implementation method in the form of dialog boxes software when recording data during the experiment at different axial loads.
The device for recording elektromagnitnogo radiation arising from the destruction of rocks by drilling (Fig 1)consists of the drilling machine 1 (SS), circulation system 2 (CA), the supply system of the axial load 3 (SPSS) and registration system 4 (WED). The intersection between elements on the block diagram indicates the presence of functional relationships between data elements.
Drilling machine 1 (SS) (figure 2), consists of a basic part of the drilling machine (frame, pulleys, spindle-rotator) 5, a synchronous motor 6 (D), pan-settler 7 (LO) for washing liquid, pulley feed axial load 8, in which reluga 9 (B), rock cutting tool 10 and clip a rock sample 11 (ZSE), attached by bolts to the base of the machine 5.
Circulation system 2 (CA) closed (figure 3) consists of a swivel 9 (B), the tray tank 7 (LO), watering hose 12, the capacity of the tank 13 (SW), plastic flow 14, tanks for flushing fluids 15 (EPG), corrugated hose 16, trekhosmievogo mud pump 17 (bn) and tractor reinforced hose 18. The circulation system is assembled according to the following scheme: 9-7-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-9. In addition, the collector mud pump 25 (CIB) combines watering by hose 19 with capacity for drilling fluid 15 (EPG).
Supply system axial loads 3 (SPSS) (figure 4) consists of a pulley feed axial load 8 structurally located on the drill press 1 (SS) and frame 21 (R), with the attached blocks 22 (SAT) and hanging systems cargo 23 (CIS). All elements of the supply system of the axial load 3 (SPSS) will be connected by a metal wire 20.
The registration system 4 (CF) (figure 5) consists of devices regulation and control of the hydraulic canal, located in the circulation system 2 (CA), device registration drilling on the rock-breaking tool, located in the supply system of the axial load 3 (SPSS), digital phototachometer "EM" 26 (FT) device for registering lektromagnitnogo radiation and device for supplying power to the working elements of the drilling machine 1 (SS) and mud pump 17 (bn). Control device and the hydraulic control channel is represented by a pressure gauge 24 and a collector trekhosmievogo mud pump 25 (CBN). Device registration drilling on the rock-breaking tool is represented by a frame 21 (P). As a device for reception of electromagnetic radiation are used: the registration channel constant current component consisting of a circuit that includes a swivel 9 (B), the rock-breaking tool 10, the clip rocks 11 (ZSE), the resistance value of 75 Ohms 27 (S) and the amplifier 29 (N1); channel register variable current component consisting of a ferrite ring cores 28 (FC) and amplifier 30 (U2). Both channels are then connected to a personal computer 32 (PC) via oscilloscope prefix "PCLab2000" 31 (OP). For registering vibrations of the elements of the unit using the vibration sensor 33 (VD), which is installed on the drilling machine 1 (SS) or trehosnovnoy mud pump 17 (bn). The vibration sensor 33 (VD) is connected via oscilloscope prefix "PCLab2000" 31 (OD) to a personal computer 32 (PC). As the device supply power to the working elements of the drilling machine 1 (SS) use the engine 6 (D), connected through a diode to the three-phase transformer 34 (Lattre) and through the magnetic starter drill rods 35 (IRCC) to a three-phase network. At the trojstva supply power to the work items trekhosmievogo mud pump 17 (bn) is represented by the engine trekhosmievogo mud pump 36 (DBN) and magnetic starter trekhosmievogo mud pump 37 (MBN), connected to the three phase network.
Work is carried out as follows. The test sample is installed in the clip rocks 11 (ZSE), the personal computer 32 (PC) set the parameters of the experiment with the use of special software oscilloscope "PCLab2000" (set the time base mesh experiment - 1 (100 measurements per second), the sensitivity of the channels to register a constant component and a variable component of the current). Rock cutting tool 10 is removed from contact with the sample and fixed in a static position. Apply power to the engine mud pump 36 (DBN) by incorporating magnetic starter mud pump 36 (MPBN), thereby doing its work trehosnovnoy mud pump 17 (bn) and circulate drilling fluid through the circulation system 2 (CA). Apply power to the three-phase transformer 34 (Lattre) by incorporating magnetic starter drill rods 35 (IRCC). Three-phase transformer 34 (Lattre) set the desired value of the voltage supplied to the motor of the drilling machine 6 (D), resulting in the engine spins the rock-breaking tool 10 to the desired speed. Rock cutting tool 10 is introduced into contact with the sample and the system hanging cargo 23 (CIS) is installed it is possible to axial load by attaching commodity goods. Through 5-15, when will breaking rocks razrushayuschego tool 10 (IF) is a measure of its speed digital phototachometer "EM" 26 (CFT). On the frame 21 (B) make the mark with chalk level hanging systems cargo 23 (CIS) at the beginning of the experiment. Include a record of the results of the experiment on a personal computer 32 (PC). During the experiment, produce a definition of feed pressure of washing fluid on the pressure gauge "TM" 24. If necessary, change the quantity of washing fluid through the cork valve located on the manifold trekhosmievogo mud pump 25 (CBN). In this case, the excess liquid is returned to the tank for washing fluid 15 (EPG) watering the hose 19. The main flow of drilling fluid circulates through the scheme: 17-9-11-7-12-13-14-15-16-17. Emerging electromagnetic radiation registered by the following components: a constant component current (sample-10-9-27-11 sample)-29-31-32;
the variable component of the current - 28-30-31-32. Registering oscillations of the system elements are produced using contour - 1 (17)-33-31-32. The experiment is carried out for 5 minutes. At the end of the experiment produce stop recording data on a personal computer 31 (PC), mark with chalk on the frame 21 (R) system-level sample of goods 23 (CIS), produce the discharge, the output of paradores is the decisive tool 10 from contact with the sample, off the three-phase transformer 34 (Lattre), magnetic starter drill rods 35 (IRCC), and a magnetic starter mud pump 37 (MPBN). The amount of the sinking, shot with the frame 21 (P) is multiplied by a coefficient equal to the ratio of stroke mounting system cargo 23 (CIS) to the sinking of the sample, to obtain the true value of penetration to the rock-breaking tool 10. The data transferred to the personal computer 32 (PC) during the experiment, write to the *.txt file for further processing. Figure 6 and 7 shows examples of a specific implementation method in the form of dialog boxes software when recording data during the experiment on drilling Sandstone sample with an axial load, respectively, 2 and 12 kg and a speed of 500 Rev/min Sensitivity data readout channel AC / DC - 0.5 V, the number of dimensions - 100 in 1 C.
Thus, the proposed device allows you to record electromagnetic radiation arising from the destruction of samples of rock drilling, as a channel for reception of the permanent component of current and the channel to register the variable component of the current, and to change the mode of the experiment, the variation of the axial load and rotational speed rock cutting tool, the supply of washing fluid. Therefore, the proposed device which allows to solve the problem.
1. The device for recording electromagnetic radiation arising from the destruction of rocks by drilling, comprising a load device comprising a metal casing connected to the grounded base, a registration system, including amplifiers, analog-to-digital Converter, a computer, and shielded cables, wherein the load device comprises a rock cutting tool mounted on the drill press, and the delivery system axial load consisting of a series connected pulley feed axial load, system blocks and hanging systems cargo mounted on the frame, includes a closed circulating system for bottom hole cleaning and cooling of the rock cutting tool, a registration system, including the pressure gauge phototachometer, a vibration sensor, a channel for reception of the constant current component and a channel for reception of the variable component of the current.
2. The method of registration of electromagnetic radiation arising from the destruction of rocks by drilling, including the installation of a sample in the clip, the deformation of the sample by using a load device, the registration resulting electromagnetic signal registration system, characterized in that, setting the parameters of the experiment, note the start and end position of the system under the Chi axial load, respectively at the beginning and end of the experiment, turn on the engine mud pump, apply power to the three-phase transformer, from which then the food served to the motor of the drilling machine, rock cutting tool enter into contact with the sample and set the desired axial load, fixed speed rock cutting tool phototachometer, mud fluid pressure registered by the pressure gauge, vibration fix a vibration sensor, and the channels for registration of fixed and variable components of the current determines the generated electromagnetic radiation.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: tested samples are assembled with a high-strength profiled holder, to which increasing axial load is applied with rest of samples against the support. At the same time previously gripping jaws, which are a support, where tested half-couplings are installed with internal thread or a comb assembled with the profiled holder, are exposed to independent axial force, moving them downwards to provision of radial force that presses the half-couplings, being equivalent to operation load. The axial force applied to the profiled holder is increased to cutting of all or several teeth of the thread or comb on half-couplings. The cut force is fixed and compared with the value, which has been in advance experimentally justified and meets the requirements of quality to the manufactured half-couplings.
EFFECT: improved quality of control.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for frozen soil testing with a ball stamp comprises a ball stamp, a support board, stands, a soil sample. The device is made of three mechanically and electrically interconnected parts: a mechanism of vertical loading, a mechanism of soil sample rotation, a unit to control ball motors and to convert signals from force sensors and to transfer into a digital form for communication with a computer via an interface. The mechanism of vertical loading has a step motor, a reducer and a force sensor for load measurement. The sample rotation mechanism comprises a rotary platform, a step motor, a geared wheel, a toothed belt and a geared disc. There are limit switches to limit motion of the ball stamp. Tests are performed automatically under computer control.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of load control and measurement of deformation in time, expanded range of examination and increased efficiency of testing.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: specific surface energy is determined as per a diagram of specimen deformation at forward and backward travel. A start cross fracture is made on the specimen; distributed force is applied to the opposite side plane; the above side planes are fixed by compression between parallel stiff elastic bases, and longitudinal compressive force is applied to the specimen end faces above the area of the middle surface above the fracture.
EFFECT: high accuracy of experimental determination of specific surface energy of destruction of solid bodies on specimens in laboratory conditions.
2 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: flattening of a pipe specimen is performed between two smooth stiff parallel planes at constant speed. The test is conducted till the specimen is destructed; during the test, there recorded is a diagram of dependence of the load applied to the specimen on deformation of the specimen, as per which the following specimen characteristics are determined: elasticity modulus at flattening, proportionality limit at flattening, yield limit at flattening, ultimate destruction strength at flattening, maximum deformation at formation of the first crack, as well as destruction kinetics characterising destruction viscosity degree.
EFFECT: possibility of enlarging the number of evaluated mechanical characteristics determined during flattening testing at maintaining low resource intensity, labour intensity and cost of the test.
SUBSTANCE: power and corrosive action is created in vertical position of a tested sample. Sample deformations are measured along all four sides by instruments arranged outside a liquid aggressive medium. The experimental sample is aligned with aligning ball supports, hinged-rack guides of movable cross beam plates and stop fixators of face position, and the experimental sample is loaded with double control of the force. The device comprises a frame of a powered package, a spring, a ring dynamometer, a prism, a ball hinge, a journal for load transfer and a distribution cross beam. Bands of the distributing cross beam are arranged in a set with a spring of ring type and boards of the ball hinge and hinged-rack guides. Journals for load transfer are equipped with fixators of prism position. The spring is equipped with indicators of a clock type. The powered package to the depth of the upper surface of the test prism is submerged into a reservoir with a solution of an aggressive liquid. Indicators to measure prism deformations are installed above the aggressive liquid surface on external rods.
EFFECT: invention provides for high accuracy of measurement with double control of a loading force.
SUBSTANCE: solid is secured on bench provided with press, between plates of electromagnetic radiation capacitive pickup. Solid surface layer is strained by reciprocating power element to generate electromagnetic radiation signals in the process of crack formation. Said signal are converted by aforesaid transducer and registered. Said signal represents a sum of signal of EMR generated by heat electrons outgoing from surfaces of cuts, fractures and micro cracks and from surface for incised particles and signal generated by vibrations of solid surface strained sections with positive charges formed aforesaid surfaces after heat electrons escape and on surfaces of torn-off particles the vibration of which is caused by recoil pulses at the moment of their tear-off and electron escape. File made from material harder than that of solid is used as aforesaid power element.
EFFECT: generation of wide beam of electromagnetic radiation from large surface area.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: bench comprises an electromagnetic screen, a capacitor converter of electromagnet radiation, a loading device comprising a metal body, a system of registration. The loading device is arranged in the form of a bushing with an inner thread, where a screw is screwed in, and onto which a metal sleeve is placed and fixed on it. In the specified bushing at the side opposite to the screw there is a bushing inserted from dielectric material, where a metal tube is inserted with longitudinal slots electrically connected with a system of registration. The bushing with inner thread and metal tube are filled with a plastic substance.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of a bench due to formation of electromagnetic field by creation of a solid single crack inside a solid body with specified dimensions, orientation and speed of growth, and also lower cost and higher reliability of bench operation as a result of its design simplification.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction and is designed to define mechanical properties of construction and road materials, including reinforced soils, under complicated stressed-deformed condition. The device comprises a frame, a body with a base, a cover and side walls, a working chamber with an elastic shell and pressure chambers arranged in it and joined with loading and metering accessories. One of side walls of the body is arranged as rigid and movable with inbuilt force sensors, besides, displacement of the wall is monitored with a step motor, and the material sample is lifted using a movable platform with a hydraulic drive.
EFFECT: expansion of instrument functionality and increased accuracy of research by measurement of contact stresses and local deformations.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: tensile loads are applied to the coupler and the subsequent non-destructive testing casing coupler is performed. The force of not less than 100 ton but not exceeding the boundaries of deformation values is applied. In the process of applying force the automatic registration of load speed, load time, its value is performed.
EFFECT: creation of a method that allows to identify with higher reliability the defects by ultrasonic method and thereby to extend possibilities of this control.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in forcing spherical oppositely directed loading elements (spherical indenters) into a sample until it breaks along a plane passing through a loading axis, and measurement of the area of broken surfaces and damaged rock zones in areas of contact with both spherical indenters. A formula is proposed to calculate the Poisson ratio, taking into account the areas of the broken surface and a larger zone of damaged rock. The method realisation considerably reduces labour intensiveness of tests and simplifies identification of the Poisson ratio of rocks.
EFFECT: using samples of irregular shape with unfinished surfaces.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electrostatic charged particle energy analyser has coaxially arranged inner and outer cylindrical electrodes; a screening electrode that is electrically connected to the inner cylindrical electrode; inner and outer correcting rings that are electrically insulated from each other and from the cylindrical electrodes, made on the lateral surface of the cylindrical electrode and entrance and exit annular recesses (windows) for flight of secondary electrons that are tightened by a small-structure metal grid; an analysed sample; a built-in electron gun for generating a focused stream of primary electrons; an exit hole diaphragm; an electron receiver; a potential sweep unit of the outer cylindrical electrode; a sweep voltage divider connected to correcting rings, wherein correcting rings located nearer to the entrance window have are cone-shaped, and correcting rings located near to the exit window are discs with openings, wherein the system for compensating for edge effects consists of two pairs of correcting rings which form an electrostatic field in the operating space of the analyser, which provides fourth-order angular focusing of near the angle of 40°.
EFFECT: high energy resolution.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flaw inspection and nondestructive checks. Invention consists in using pulses of surface electromagnetic waves radiated forward and/or backward relative to train direction, registering reflection of said pulses from irregularities of the track and defining type of track and/or rolling stock defects from character of said irregularities.
EFFECT: detection of dangerous macroscopic defects at distance exceed stopping distance and registration of derailment.
SUBSTANCE: between electrodes with fixed distance between them voltage is supplied, the arising current melts and evaporates a thin wire, which is located between electrodes, the distance from the cathode to the anode is selected such that the discharge without the wire will not occur spontaneously, and between electrodes conditions are created for avalanche breakdown of a discharge gap arising in case there are vapours of the evaporating wire in air. At the same time the section around the wire and cathode surface is surrounded with a dielectric, and as voltage is supplied to a discharge gap in the section of the cathode surface limited with the dielectric, the energy is concentrated, which locally heats this section of the cathode surface.
EFFECT: local heating of a cathode section in scientific research.
SUBSTANCE: alkali vapour signalling device (analyser), which uses a pH metric, having a housing, a reaction vessel filled with the analysed solution, an electrode platform-holder; a measuring and a temperature electrode placed in the analysed solution; devices for controlling, processing and displaying measurement result information; an electrical connection of the output of the measuring electrode, thermoelectrode with the device for controlling, processing information and displaying the measurement result; there is a special device for controlling, processing and displaying information on concentration of alkali vapour; there is a device for sampling alkali vapour sucked from the space over the production bath through a hose, a second normally open valve, a compressor, an ejector; there is a pump, a T-branch, a first normally closed valve, an additional vessel with clean deionised water, pipes; the analysed alkali vapour is periodically passed through the solution of deionised water in the reaction vessel; a combined measuring electrode measures pH of the solution; the deionised water is replaced with clean deionised water for each next cycle of measuring concentration of alkali vapour.
EFFECT: invention enables signallisation of content and amount of alkali vapour in the atmosphere of etching assemblies of a processing line for processing metal in hot baths.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to monitoring of water areas and cleaning it of various contaminations. Proposed marine complex comprises platform, windmill, photocell station, gas holder unit, electrolysis unit, surface water cleaning unit, water composition control lab and weather station, complex components control unit, gantry, set of propeller shafts, navigation bridge, stem with structural connection angles, brushes for collecting surface water, anchor unit, power unit composed of motor-generator set, battery room, and super capacitor station. Platform perimetre is equipped with external hollow bars to carry paddle wheels for ice breaking. Said hollows bars house fluid washing system assembly units and parts fluid inlet of said system is communicated with helical duct. Turbine coupled via reduction gearbox with generator rotor is mounted at duct outlet. Generator output is connected to power unit battery station. Helical duct inlet is communicated with surface water cleaning unit fluid outlet. Additionally, added are hydrological parameter measurement unit and geophysical parameters unit connected via interface with weather station processor unit. Besides, proposed complex incorporates ice fathometer.
EFFECT: expended operating performances, pollution-free power generation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of extinguishing a thermionic arc with metal electrodes during electric explosion of wire and preventing melting and evaporation of the metal electrodes involves putting the electrodes in polymer covers. When the temperature in the discharge increases, the polymer melts and covers bare areas of the electrodes with a non-conducting film, which breaks the discharge electric circuit, thereby stopping discharge.
EFFECT: extinguishing a thermionic arc with metal electrodes during electric explosion of wire, preventing melting and evaporation of electrodes.
SUBSTANCE: union joint which is not accessible for direct inspection is placed in an alternating magnetic field with fixed frequency of the first parametric inductive transducer connected into a series LC oscillatory circuit, and an accessible union joint known to be operating well is placed in an alternating magnetic field with fixed frequency of the second parametric inductive transducer connected into a series LC oscillatory circuit and connected on a differential circuit to the first parametric inductive transducer of the LC oscillatory circuit, wherein capacitance of the capacitor of the second series LC oscillatory circuit is such that the reactance of the capacitor is equal to twice the reactance of the inductive transducer, i.e., XC=2XL, and the capacitance of the capacitor of the second LC oscillatory circuit is such that the reactance of the capacitor is equal to the reactance of the inductive transducer, i.e., XC=XL and the operating condition of the union joint is determined by deviation of voltage difference from the zero value at the first and second LC oscillatory circuits.
EFFECT: broader capabilities of using the method.
SUBSTANCE: magnetic field parameters are measured in at least three independently lying points in the interpolar space. At the first point, the magnetic field parameter value serves to obtain information on the cross-sectional area on the metal and local defects, and at the other two points, the magnetic field parameter value serves to obtain information on the strand pitch and the coordinate along the axis of the inspected rope.
EFFECT: high sensitivity of the measuring unit, the signal-to-noise ratio and high reliability of detecting local defects.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises diagnosing kind and degree of fuel deterioration and activating engine transmission protection system proceeding from the results of diagnosing. Diagnosing is performed by measuring interaction between electromagnetic radiation and fuel molecules. Note here that said measurement is carried out by special analyser system incorporating micro analyser to measure aforesaid interaction. Note here that said measurement exploits spectral analysis in near infrared region of fuel hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: preventive protection.
14 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention describes voltammetric method of determining total activity of antioxidants, which includes process of substance reduction on electrode in electrolyte solution, where as model reaction used is process of electric reduction of oxygen, which is carried out on glassy-carbon electrode at the background phosphate buffer pH 6.86 in water medium, 0.1M NaCIO4 in aprotonic medium or 0.9% NaCl in blood serum, registration of cathode waves of one-electron reduction of oxygen is carried out in mode of differentiation at rate of potential sweep 50 mV/s, total antioxidant activity is determined by relative change of current of oxygen electric reduction within potential range from 0 to 1.0 V from the time of interaction of total content of antioxidants in sample with oxygen and its active radicals (t) with application of kinetic criterion.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase sensitivity, accuracy, rapidity of determination, requires small sample preparation with use of dissolved in background solution oxygen, method makes it possible to estimate optimal doses of one or another preparation which possess the greatest antioxidant activity, determine stability of tested samples in time.
1 ex, 3 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: thermal and nuclear power stations; meter calibration in extremely pure water of condensate type and power unit feedwater.
SUBSTANCE: for pH-meter calibration ammonia whose concentration varies by 1.5 - 2 times is dosed in working medium. Electric conductivity and temperature of working-medium H-cationized sample are measured. Measurement results are processed in computer with aid of set of equations characterizing ionic equilibrium in source sample and H-cationized samples. Calculated pH value is compared with measurement results.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of meter calibration in extremely pure waters.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl