Method and device for surface marking by controlled intermittent nanostructures

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for object or article marking for its identification, tracking and authentication. First step 500 of data encoding to the image including the magnitudes representing encoded data is performed. Second step 506-514 of point marking of a section of said surface is performed using polarised laser beam to form oriented nanostructures on said surface or therein. Polarisation of laser beam at every point of marking is modulated proceeding from the value of said image point. In compliance with some versions, marking step comprises using the pulse laser with pulse length smaller than 10×10-12 seconds and the means for polarisation of light emitted by said laser source to reach aforesaid surface along polarisation axis that can vary subject to signal received thereby.

EFFECT: marking of data apart of using line symbols, accelerated marking.

14 cl, 7 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for marking the surface of periodic controlled nanostructures and to a method and device for reading information on a similar surface. It applies, in particular, for marking an object or document with the purpose of its identification, tracking and authentication.

Numerous marking means, for example, by printing or change the state of the surface. Such marking means are well suited for mass marking, but do not provide high security when identifying or authenticating the marked object or document. In particular, the attacker usually easy to reproduce.

In addition, labeling, known in the prior art, are typically prominent, which facilitates their detection, analysis or destruction of the attacker.

Scientific studies have revealed the existence of periodic structures with a period of several hundreds of nanometers (see, e.g., MM. GUILLERMIN, F. GARRELIE, N. SANNER, E. AUDOUARD, H. SODER "Mono - and multi-pulse formation of surface structures under static femtosecond irradiation", accepted in Appl. Surf. Sc.253, 8075-879 - 2007).

In the publication WO 2007/01215 described receiving structure on the surface of the material or the forming tool in order to achieve the topographic effect on this surface. When used with loadoption patterns, supposing marking continuous strokes representing parallel structure throughout the length of the stroke. In addition, each point of the stroke when it is marking requires tens or even hundreds of laser pulses. Because of the two mentioned properties, this method of marking is very slow and does not allow you to put other information in addition to the characters, drawn strokes.

In the patent EP 1586405 described microprocessing with receiving structures by pulsed laser irradiation. Such machining is used, for example, to improve the mechanical interaction between the two parts. Therefore, it is in no way allows you to combat counterfeiting.

The present invention is intended to eliminate the above disadvantages.

In connection with the above first aspect of the present invention, a method for marking a surface, characterized in that it contains:

the step of encoding information in the form of an image containing values representing encoded information;

- stage point marking specified area of the surface with the use of polarized laser beam for the formation of oriented nanostructures on a given surface or in it, and the polarization of the laser beam at each point of the labeling change based on the value the of the points of the specified image.

Thus, in the present invention the discrete nanostructures are used for encoding information using the orientation of these nanostructures. It should be noted that the present invention is applicable for marking all types of materials, because it causes the structuring of the surface by the orientation of the nanostructures, which provides a point of recording information in the labeling, and the specified orientation affects the light and thereby provides the ability to read images. The implementation of the present invention, thus, provides the possibility of very fast marking along with a high density of information are marked on the surface.

The information presented in the specified image, preferably represents information that is used for identification, authentication and/or tracking display area.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the marking phase to produce a marking control plot representing the orientation used during the reading of the specified marking. Thanks to these funds during the read code can be accurate orientation lighting and increase the readability of the code.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the method of the Mar is irowiki, such briefly described above includes a step of determining a signature that represents the physical properties of the bulleted points in the image, and the step of adding the specified signature in memory.

Mentioned physical property represents, for example, the position of the irregularities in the structure, the focusing of the laser beam, the power of the laser beam, number of pulses, the angle of incidence or the angle of polarization. Thus, it appears possible further identification display area based on its signature. In addition, in the case of copying the authentic surface, at least for the first generation of copies is likely the determination of the actual surface, used for copying. In this way increases the efficiency of the anti-counterfeiting proposed in the present invention.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the step of marking at least half of the surface of the marked area is subjected to the action of only one laser pulse. Due to the mentioned means increases the speed of marking.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, at the stage of encoding information in the form of an image containing values representing encoded information, each point of the specified image may take measures at the three different values; at the stage of marking the polarization of the laser beam change in at least three directions, and each direction of polarization corresponds to one of the values of the corresponding pixels in the specified image. So get the bulleted section, which when illuminated by the light of the orientation is colored and has a high density of information.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the marking phase apply a pulse laser with a pulse duration of less than 10×10-12seconds.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, a method, such briefly described above includes a step of reading the specified labeled images on a given surface and the stage quality checks on the basis of the read image. This ensures the quality of marking.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the marking phase is applied laser beam size less than 25 microns.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the marking phase is applied points, separated from each other by less than about 10 microns.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the marking phase is applied laser beam radiating light, the wavelength of which is close to 800 nm.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the step of encoding the specified image change for each the of the ongoing stages of the marking. Thanks to these funds by simply reading the code marking, is the possible identification of the surface containing labels, and, respectively, containing its products.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the step of encoding said information is data related to an object or document that contains the specified surface. Due to the mentioned means of a direct reading of at least part of the code represented by the marking, allows the identification of the object, as in the case of the bar code.

The second aspect of the present invention, an apparatus for marking a surface, characterized in that it contains:

means of encoding information in the form of an image;

- marking means specified surface of the polarized laser beam with getting oriented nanostructures on a given surface or in it, and the polarization of the laser beam change depending on each point of the specified image is received on a given surface.

The third aspect of the present invention, a method for reading image bearing surface, characterized in that it contains:

the step of capturing an electronic image of the specified image bearing on asanoi surface;

- stage color processing points specified captured image;

- stage decoding information based on the color of the specified points of the captured image.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, the step of capturing an electronic image of the light source oriented to highlight the labeled image according to a predetermined orientation. Due to the mentioned means of improving reading the code.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, a method of reading, which is the object of the present invention and the like are briefly described above includes a step of reading the marking printed on the given surface; the step of capturing an electronic image orientation of the light source relative to the specified marked image is determined on the basis of the specified read markings. Thanks to these funds is facilitated by the automatic adjustment of the position of the display area relative to the light source.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, a method of reading that is similar to the above, includes a step of determining the authenticity of a labeled image based on the decoded information. This information provides the ability to identify due to its content or due to errors appearing in zakodirovana the information during decoding.

According to the distinctive features of the invention, a method of reading that is similar to the above, includes a step of determining a signature representing the point labeled image, and the step of comparing the specified signature with the signatures stored in memory.

The fourth aspect of the present invention, an apparatus for reading the image bearing surface, characterized in that it contains:

- a means of capturing an electronic image of the specified image bearing on a given surface;

- means for processing the color points of the specified captured image;

means of decoding information according to the color specified points of the captured image.

Because of the advantages, aims and distinctive features this device for marking, this method read this reader are similar to those for the method of marking, like outlined above, they are not listed again here.

Other advantages, aims and distinctive features disclosed in the following description, made for explanatory purposes, in no way as a limitation, in accordance with the enclosed drawings, on which:

- figure 1 schematically represents a particular embodiment of the device for marking, which is what I object of the present invention, and conditions of work;

- figure 2 shows the orientation of the nanostructures depending on the orientation of polarization of light, and in figure 2, the orientation is given in degrees;

- figure 3 schematically shows a specific embodiment of the device for reading, which is the object of the present invention;

- figure 4 schematically shows the color read from the matrix plots, depending on the orientation of the light;

on figa and 5B in the form of a flowchart shows the steps used in a particular implementation of the method of marking and reading, which are the objects of the present invention;

- figure 6 shows two examples of the distribution of colors obtained on the same device for marking and device for reading at different parameters of the marking;

- figure 7 shows the change of the color tone obtained in the course of reading labels, depending on the orientation of the nanostructures.

Figure 1 shows the control means 100, the laser 101, the mirror 102, the diaphragm 103, a polarizer 104, dividing cube 105, the polarizer 106, the scanner 107 and marked surface 108.

The control means 100 laser 101 is configured to determine the image intended for marking on the surface 108, and the image is formed from the table of sections, each of which contains codiovan the th information. Sections can have the same or a different shape. Hereinafter in this description and in the drawings it is assumed that all parts of the table represent the squares of the same size. Thus the table presented intended for marking the image forms the matrix of plots.

The information contained in each of the sections may be binary or the other. As described hereinafter, at least one (in this case, each value of the information contained on the plot corresponds to a particular orientation of the polarization, and another value may correspond to the absence of labeling, the absence of polarization or polarization with a different orientation.

In embodiments of the control means 100 receives encrypted information from the computer system. In other embodiments of the control means 100 receives information intended for encoding the image, and calculates the image after encoding information.

For example, during encoding, encoded data is data related to an object or document that contains the marked surface. Encoded information represents, for example, the product name, batch number and/or party, the date of manufacture, manufacturer's name, copyright information rights intellectua Inoi ownership of the product, information about the purpose of the product.

In embodiments of the values of the information contained on the sites are information intended to ensure information security on the surface, for example, encrypted information.

Each point mentioned image preferably may take at least three different values, which in the course marking, in turn, correspond to at least three values of the angle of polarization of the laser beam.

In implementations for each marked surface or each marked object control means 100 changes the image so that each labeling corresponded to a unique image.

The control means 100 is controlled by the orientation of polarization of the polarizer 106 in accordance with the scan image, for example, in rows and in each row, column by column.

In embodiments of the control means 100 also control the focusing of the laser beam, laser beam power, the number of pulses and/or the angle of incidence at each point, and the above parameters are subject to change from one point to another on the basis of an encoded image.

In embodiments of the laser 101 is a laser source emitting pulses with a duration of the order of hundreds femtosec the d (100×10 -15seconds), preferably less than the specified value.

The mirror 102 in this case acts as a normal angular gear. It serves to increase the compactness of the device which is the object of the present invention.

Aperture 103 is located in the image plane of the optical system and thereby determines the size of each plot dealt by one pulse.

The polarizer 104 and dividing cube 105 together form a power divider that is used to match the power of the laser beam marked with the surface 108. It should be noted that to implement the functions of the attenuator elements 104 and 105 can be replaced by other means of dividing the capacity of known types.

The polarizer 106 is designed to polarize the light reaching the surface are marked 108 by the polarization of the light transmitted through the splitter cube 105, and the angle of polarization depends on the value of the signal representing the image, encodes the information received from the control means 100. The polarizer 106 is, for example, a polarizer based on a ferroelectric liquid crystal or PLZT ceramics or static polarizer, driven in rotation by a motor (not shown).

The scanner 107 is designed to scan the surface 108 synchronously with the scan image is supply, coming from the control means 100. This is performed by synchronous scan, on the one hand, each row of the image coming from the control means 100, and, in turn, parallel lines are marked on the surface 108. The scanner 107 is supplied, for example, mirrors mounted on piezoelectric ceramics.

Subject to the marking surface 108 is, for example, from metal, silicon, paper, plastic or cardboard. It should be noted that in the General case, this way you can mark any material, but used the power should be different. For example, the power at the marking of metallic materials more than when marking dielectric materials.

Figure 1 also visible means 109 capture images, the means 110 of the image processing and storage means 111.

Means 109 capture images contain a source of focused light, described later, and the device image capture, for example, photomultiplier camera or photomultiplier device.

Means 110 of the image processing are used to determine, firstly, the quality of marking, secondly, the physical properties of the image printed on the surface 108, based on the electronic image obtained by means 109 capture images. Mentioned physical properties, preferred is entrusted are irregular, unexpected or accidental phenomena, such, for example, the provisions of branching lines.

Means 110 of the image processing based on the mentioned physical properties determine the signature image. The means 110 of the image processing shown in detail in accordance with Figo and 5B.

In fact, the shape of the nanostructures produced by an ultrashort laser radiation, characterized not only by the frequency of the order of several hundreds of nanometers. With appropriate algorithms, image analysis is also possible analysis and obtaining quantitative characteristics of smaller features, or irregularities, including the number of branching lines pseudoperiodicity nanostructures, the average length of the lines between the two branches, forms, shapes branching. From the form nanostructures in this case can be obtained unique digital signature of the single interaction of the laser with the material (like the fingerprint of a person). This property is recorded in the memory for use in the procedures of identification, authentication and tracking.

In other embodiments of the signature represents the physical properties of the bulleted points in the image, corresponding to a single pulse or a sequence of dot pulses. This physical property is the Oh, for example, the focus of the laser beam power of the laser beam, number of pulses, the angle of incidence or the angle of polarization. To specify this property, and, as a consequence, the signature of the labeled images are used, for example, the data received from the color calibration, described below (see, in particular, 6). For example, the color distribution obtained in the course of consideration of the image indicates the number of pulses of the laser beam applied to the respective pixels.

Storage means 111 are designed to keep signature images and related information, i.e. for example, the content of the information that is represented by this image coming from the control means 100.

In the first variant of realization of the present invention the device is used for marking of plastic injection moulds, with all parts molded using this molds reproduce nanostructure caused by the device on the mould. It should be noted that such mass production at the same time provides the ability to identify individual molded parts. To do this, perform image capture nanostructures and define the position of the random errors encountered during the molding, and then the distribution of the mentioned random errors. This distribution then put the memory for example, in a database with remote access, e.g. via the Internet, together with the part ID (for example, date of manufacture, lot number or individual serial number). In the course of further recognition items, the identification of which requires, again carry out image capture nanostructures, determine the position and error distribution molding and compare the mentioned distribution with distributions recorded in the memory, to identify details on other data recorded in the memory together with the signature (e.g., serial number, date and place of manufacture, batch number, recipient, order on the manufacturer). It should be noted that this identification function is combined with the function of copy protection, and any copying molded parts or molds produces additional errors caused by copying that identify the same way that the identity details, for example, based on the total number of errors in labeling.

In the second embodiment, the use of the device, which is the object of the present invention, each object or document is subject to the separate operation of the marking device, and the image and the marking will vary from one object to another, or from the one party to another, regardless of coding errors.

Figure 2 shows that depending on the angle of polarization of the laser beam, shown by arrows, pointing to images of nanostructures, the orientation of the nanostructures is modified. For example, the long line of nanostructures 120, performed at the angle of polarization of 40° relative to the horizontal plane, oriented at an angle of about 40°; the long line of nanostructures 121, performed at the angle of polarization of 70° relative to the horizontal plane, oriented at an angle of about 70°. However, these angles are measured relative to two perpendicular lines. In fact, lines nanostructures 121 are perpendicular to the plane of polarisation of light emitted by the laser.

Figure 3 shows the device 305 for reading information containing means 309 capture images, means 310 of the image processing and storage means 311.

Means 309 capture images contains oriented light source 312 and the device 313 capture, for example, photomultiplier camera or photomultiplier device.

Means 310 of the image processing capable of definition:

firstly, the colors corresponding to each marked point observed bulleted section 302 (see figure 4), with the application of known technologies for detecting the labeled part and color recognition,

- secondly, the physical its the STV image, marked on the surface 301 on the basis of an electronic image provided by 309 capture images. Based on the aforementioned physical properties, means 310 of the image processing determines the signature image, similar to the signature used in the marking of the surface under study, which are described in detail in the description figa and 5B.

Then means 310 of the image processing transmit the said signature to a remote server 315 through a network interface 314, and a telecommunication network 316, for example, a telephone network or the Internet. The remote server 315 compares this signature with the contents of the database of signatures. The remote server 315 returns the object ID (for example, date of manufacture, batch number or individual serial number).

At the same time, the means 310 of the image processing with regard to the error rate marking to determine whether the object is the original or a copy, and the copy has an error rate that exceeds a limit value (the latter can be stored in memory in combination with the signature marking or reproduced by coded information contained in the deposited marking).

It should be noted that the term "errors" can be applied to any of the physical properties used to determine the signature is or when reading encoded information from a few marks. In the first case, measure the discrepancy between the read signature and the signature stored in the memory during marking. In the second case, use the redundancy of the coded information and for restoring encrypted information to measure the amount of redundant information or the ratio of the redundancy information. For example, one type of redundant information known as the "CRC" (check redundancy code, redundant code). In both cases, to distinguish between the markings, which are considered as authentic and contains fewer errors, and markings, considered as copies, use the limit or threshold value.

As can be seen from figure 4, when the correct orientation lighting nanostructures reflect blue and green. If you set, for example, blue color binary "1"value, a green color - binary value "0", then the image shown in figure 4, corresponds to byte 10010101. The observed color depends on the viewing angle and illumination angle. Therefore, the study observed colors requires the use of colorimetric analysis. You can use two different approaches:

- on the labelling or in the immediate vicinity of the applied fixed reference point 405, providing the possibility of orientation of the reader and, in particular, the angle of the light illuminating the mark is roku;

- provide accurate and invariant colorimetric determination of the distance between two markings.

As can be seen from tiga and 5B, in one embodiment, the implementation of the implementation of the present invention, the use of the invention by means of the devices shown in figures 1 to 3, includes a first step 500, the definition of a matrix of plots for each subject marking object or document, each section of the matrix corresponds to a value of, for example, binary, representing encoded and possibly encrypted information. Encoded information represented by the values corresponding to the areas of the matrix represents, for example, the object identifier, date of manufacture, lot number, or an individual serial number.

In some embodiments of the step 500 when encoding information in the form of an image containing values representing encoded information, each point mentioned image may take at least three different values.

Then at step 502 control, possibly automatic, the degree of opening of the diaphragm 103, located in the image plane of the optical system, to determine the size of the plot, marked during the pulse. These dimensions indicate, for example, in the specification stored in the memory to which each party objects or documents be labeled.

Then at step 504 ask the weakening of the power of the light flux by setting the angle of polarization of the polarizer 104, located in front of the dividing cube 105 along the length of the stream. Such attenuation can be set automatically, for example, with regard to specifications, stored in memory and corresponding party documents or objects, or according to sensors (not shown) color and material documents or objects to be labeled.

At step 506 to produce the positioning of the scanner 107 so that the first section of the image formed on the object or document to be markings were on the optical path of the laser beam.

At step 508 carry out the determination of the numerical values represented on this site, by reading the value from memory. At step 509, the angle of polarization of the polarizer 106 is turned so that the angle was subject to presentation of a numerical value.

At step 510 provide at least one pulse by emission of a laser beam with a duration of the order of femtosecond, while the area of the object or document to be marking, formed nanostructures.

Preferably for each marked point provide one pulse. Preferably, despite lane is crysania points, at least half of the surface of the marked area is subjected to the action of only one laser pulse.

When each point is marked image can take at least three different values, at step 510 marking implement the change in the polarization of the laser beam in at least three directions, and each direction of polarization corresponds to one of the pixel values of the said image.

At step 512 examine, whether processed the last part of the formed image. If the test result is negative, at step 514 skip to the next marked area, and the site returns to step 506.

Thus, carry out the scan surface 108 synchronously with the scan of the image is effected by means of 100.

If the check result at step 512 is positive, at step 515 carry out the application orientation marking 405 on the surface intended for marking. This orientation marking represents the orientation of the light source, providing the ability to read encrypted information.

Then at step 516 marked object or document is moved to its positioning on the contrary means 109 of the engagement and the views of and light source, oriented so that due to diffraction on different areas of the image was visible different colors. At step 518 produce the capture of the labeled portion of the object or document and recording it in the memory. At step 520 to determine whether the quality of marking is satisfactory by comparing the colors with normalized colors and surfaces areas of the image with the model surfaces.

If the quality is below a predetermined level at step 521 object or document is removed from the chain or printed lines.

Otherwise, at step 522 carry out the determination of the physical properties of the image bearing surface 108, with electronic image provided by 109 capture images. For example, determine the position of the intersection or the branching lines nanostructures, as a rule, are parallel.

At step 524 on the basis of the above-mentioned physical properties determine the signature image.

At step 526 carry out recording in a memory, for example, in a remote memory, first, image caption, secondly, related information, i.e. for example, the content of the information presented by the image provided by the control means 100. The information stored in the memory together with the signature image is Azania, represents, for example, the object identifier, date of manufacture, lot number, or an individual serial number.

It should be noted that memory, in which are entered signature and related information, can be a database with remote access, e.g. via the Internet.

It should also be noted that in a variant of realization, in which the marking of plastic injection moulds, the signature is determined and recorded in the memory for plastic injection moulds, and for each object, molded using the injection form.

In further recognition of the object or document, authentication you want to perform on stage 544 carry out the first image capture. Then at step 546 identify the orientation marking 405. At step 548 carry out the orientation of the light source with the aim of bringing its orientation to match the orientation identified by the marking 405. It should be noted that at step 548 the possible movement of the marked surface, moving the light source or the selection of the light source corresponding to the desired orientation, among the set of fixed light sources.

Then at step 550 implement the capture and recording in the memory image of the nanostructure by means 109 of the image capture light source, the reference point is bathing so, to different parts of the image due to diffraction manifested itself in different colors.

At step 552 they identify different colors labeled parts of an image and associate it with the numerical values of the message. In this case, the message show remotely transmit and/or transmit the computer program. At step 554 determines the number of errors in the message, for example, by determining the number of redundancies spent to fix the above error, or by comparison with the restored original image. Then at step 556 to determine whether the object is the original or a copy, by comparing the number of errors with a predetermined limit value.

To identify the object or document at step 558 determine the random physical properties of the image bearing surface 108 on the basis of an electronic image provided by 109 capture images. This determines, for example, the position of intersection of the nanostructure, as a rule, are parallel, or the position and error distribution. At step 560 on the basis of the above-mentioned physical properties determine the signature image.

At step 562, the above signature provide remote memory, which returns, first, information on the acceptance of this CCT is si, moreover, the lack of recognition may mean that the object or document is a copy or a forgery, and, secondly, in the case of identification information associated with the signature in the remote memory. For example, the position and distribution of characteristic elements or errors molding compared with these values, stored in the memory, to identify the object or document other stored data. It should be noted that this identification function is performed together with the function of copy protection, and every copy of the formed part or molds produces additional errors caused by copying, which are controlled in the same way that the identity details, for example, based on the total number of errors in labeling.

Related information is displayed and/or transmitted to the program used for statistical processing and/or tracking.

It should be noted that in one embodiment, the implementation of the re-reading of labeled data using the orientation of the nanostructures. Microstructure suitable for direct microscopic detection method using the corresponding optical device. In this case, the determination of the average orientation of each of the nanostructures associated with one of the participants of the s image, use the algorithm of image analysis.

Thus, in accordance with one aspect of the present invention provide ultrashort radiation metal surface for the purpose of obtaining different types of nanostructures, or "waves", the orientation of which is used for encoding information. To control the orientation of the nanostructures manage polarizing plate associated with the laser.

To recover encrypted information using a colorimetric change caused by the difference in the orientation of the nanostructures when exposed to light, the orientation of which are pre-defined.

Hereinafter in the description of the considered system to retrieve images based on the flatbed. You can use the flatbed as an indirect means of visualization of nanostructures in the macroscopic scale. This system of obtaining images has a distinctive feature, namely that it allows you to set a specific color with the orientation of the nanostructures. The light emitted by the scanner, is a white, containing all wavelengths. White light illuminates the nanostructures with a certain orientation, or a certain angle of incidence, with respect to the axis of illumination. If you integrate data orientation is relevant to the AI with the classical formula of diffraction gratings, get the following formula:

m.λ=d.(sinα×cosθ+sinβ),

where λ is the wavelength,

α is the angle of incidence of the light,

θ is the angle between the nanostructures and the direction of the light, and

β is the angle of reflection of a light beam to the device capture images.

Assume that the scanner has the following configuration: fixed angle of incidence of the light scanner α=10° and a fixed reflection angle of the beam to the CCD capture device scanner β=56°. Then you can calculate the value of the wavelength received by the capture device, depending on the orientation of the nanostructures in the scanner.

These values are taken wavelength range from 450 nm (blue) and 570 nm (orange) and match the colors present in the image obtained by this system of data collection.

Colorimetric effect observed during the acquisition of images is the result of light diffraction data collection system on nanostructures marking. Diffraction of light by such gratings is changed taking into account their characteristics and morphology and depends on various parameters that were used for laser marking.

So, changing various parameters of the laser provides the possibility of obtaining different types of nanostructures with different configuration (size, spacing, geometry, regularity and others). Such different types of nanostructures form the same to icesto different gratings, in turn, generate different diffraction phenomena. Therefore, using the same laser and the same conditions obtain images may receive different color spectra. To enable the application of the results requires accurate calibration of the system reading/marking. Figure 6 shows two different examples of calibration obtained on the same device for calibration/read at various laser parameters.

Left on a pie chart 602 shown hues from a light beam ("spot") with a diameter of 45 μm, 25 mW, when the overlap of 15 μm and three aisles. Right on the pie chart 604 shown hues from a light beam with a diameter of 20 μm, 5 mW, without overlapping and with 25 passes. You can see that the color distribution is more even in the second case, shown on the right than in the first.

Below is the calculation of colorimetric resolution. This permission is useful for determining the number of colors that can be observed with the help of this device, and accuracy of distinguishing two colors, i.e. distinguishing between them. To enable accurate analysis introduces the definition of distances between colors. The authors of the present invention found that the distance vychislenii corresponding colorimetric space, for example, HSV (hue, saturation, value, hue, saturation, value), allows us to conclude that the brightness and saturation of colors obtained with this method of obtaining images change very little, in contrast to shade.

Preferably during the read information output from the scanner is a colorimetric transform representation of a point image expressed in units of RGB (red, green, blue red, green, blue)representation in units of HSV.

Figure 7 shows the range of colors observed for each orientation of the nanostructures of the sample upon receipt image flatbed scanner colorimetric reference system HSV. This curve 700, formed by a set of discrete points, which shows the change of the color tone obtained during image acquisition scanner, depending on the orientation of the nanostructures relative to said scanner.

After calculation of the hue observed for each orientation of the nanostructures, marked on the sample to determine the number of observable and distinguishable colors and their level of permission is based ascending hierarchical classification.

To build ascending hierarchical classification is the classification of objects with similar behavior on the entire set of variables. The principle is the reating split ("dendrogram") by twinning of nearby objects or nearby groups of objects. The algorithm leads to a hierarchical decomposition, containing the history of the classification.

At the same time, such an approach requires the use of metrics, adapted for use for classified objects (Euclidean distance, standard deviation, and others). In the example described in the table below, was chosen as the Euclidean distance. The difficulty of such a classification is to select the method of conversion of distances after the merger (a simple link together two groups with the smallest distance between the nearest neighbors, the full link together two groups with the smallest distance between the most distant neighbors, the average group communication - the merger of the two groups with the lowest average distance between neighbors, the distance between the centroids: the merger of the two groups with the smallest distance between their barycentre).

Taking into account the specifics of the studied objects (the orientation of the nanostructures corresponding to the hue that cannot be averaged) was used for communication between the centroids computed from the 25 shades obtained with 25 different orientations of nanostructures, the changing pitch of 4° in the range from 0° to 100°.

In the last row of this table shows the number of distinguishable classes the La of each column.

Consideration of this dendrogram allows to state that the maximum number of classes of different orientation of the nanostructures, selected by their respective shade obtained using a system for obtaining images used to build the dendrogram is twenty. With increasing distance of the merger, the number of recognized classes decreases.

In accordance with the number of classes that you want to apply enough to re-use the above dendrogram and select the appropriate orientation of the nanostructures.

This system provides the possibility of determining the aggregate classes that make the maximum difference of colors in relation to each other.

An example application of the present invention is the reproduction of graphic objects on a metal surface using set forth the principle of matching the orientation of the nanostructures color. It should be noted that in each point of the image can be superimposed on each other several nanostructures.

To accomplish this, characterize the number of colors that are prevalent in the reproduced object. Then, in accordance with this number to match all colors of the object nearest the proposed class colors using the above de is programme.

After determining the required number of classes each pixel of the original image is distributed in one of the proposed classes of shades. This operation is carried out, for example, colorimetric RGB. Calculate the distance between each pixel of the input image and each available class colors and put the color of the pixel table in accordance nearest color class shades. Thus, automatically reducing the number of colors of the image to the number of classes of colors available for labeling and imaging scanner.

After performing this operation creates color plane corresponding to the orientation of the nanostructures to be labeled. Data plane correspond to what needs to be laser marked on each sample of the metal in order to obtain each of the orientation of the nanostructures corresponding to the expected color.

At the macroscopic level reading information determines the orientation of the nanostructures due to correctly managed diffraction. Therefore, through the use of the present invention uses a colorimetric change to add information on the new direction of reading the given code. For example, Datamatrix (registered trademark) size 4 mm add nanostructures with Tr is different orientations, and reading is performed with the use of three different colors, the device provides image capture, for example, a flatbed scanner.

1. The method of marking the surface of the containing
- step (500) encode information in the form of an image containing values representing encoded information;
stage (506-514) dot marking area specified surface of the polarized laser beam for the formation of oriented nanostructures on the surface or by modulating the polarization of the laser beam for each point marking in accordance with the specified point in the image and marking the control plot, representing the orientation used during the reading of the specified marking.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes a step (524) determine the signature representing the physical properties of the bulleted points in the image, and step (526) save the specified caption.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in stage (506-514) marking at least half of the surface of the marked area is subjected to the action of only one laser pulse.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in step (500) encode information in the form of an image containing values representing encoded information, each point is specified and what the considerations applying may take at least three different values, and at the stage of marking the polarization of the laser beam according to modulate at least three directions, each direction of polarization corresponds to one of the point values of the specified image.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in stage (506-514) marking apply a pulse laser (101) for less than 10·10-12C.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes a step (518) read the specified labeled images on a given surface and step (520) quality assurance in accordance with the read image.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in stage (506-514) marking applied laser beam size less than 25 microns.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in stage (506-514) marking comply with point (302), separated from each other by less than about 10 microns.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in stage (506-514) marking applied laser beam radiating light, the wavelength of which is close to 800 nm.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in step (500) encoding specified image change for each of the ongoing stages of the marking.

11. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 11, characterized in that in step (500) encoding said information represents data related to the object or document (108)containing the specified surface (301).

12. Device (10-107) for marking the surface, containing means (100) for encoding information in the form of images and tools (101-107) marks the specified surface of the polarized laser beam for the formation of oriented nanostructures on a given surface or by modulating the polarization of the laser beam in accordance with each point of the specified image intended for the formation on this surface and marking the control plot, representing the orientation used during the reading of the specified marking.

13. The device according to item 12, characterized in that it comprises means of determining a signature that represents the physical properties of the points labeled image and a means of retaining the specified caption.

14. The device according to item 12, wherein the means for encoding information in the form of an image containing values representing encoded information, is configured to encode information in the form of three different values, and marking means is arranged to modulate the polarization of the laser beam according to at least three directions, each of which corresponds to one of the point values of the specified image.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fine structures including gate metal or gate metal sub oxides to be used as, for example, materials for catalysts, membranes, filters, capacitor anodes. Lamellar nanostructures comprise gate metal or gate metal sub oxides and exist in powders or surface areas of metallic or ceramic substrates in the form of strips or layers with crosswise size of 5-100 nm. Proposed method comprises oxidation of gate metal oxides and, after reduction, immediate cooling to temperature whereat lamellar structures are still stable.

EFFECT: fine structures with high specific surface.

16 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in the method of detecting quantum dots located on a diagnosed sample, the sample is scanned in steps on XY coordinates using an electroconductive nano-sized needle with picosecond resolution and performing analysis of electrodynamic characteristics. Analysis is performed as follows: a semiconductor quantum dot is electrically exposed to a stimulating rectangular pulse; an analogue response signal is received and converted to a discrete signal; the information part of the response is picked up and identified with respect to a given class of dispersion of dynamic characteristics; coordinates XY are stored in memory and the topologies of the detected quantum dots with parameters included in given pre-start zones are displayed.

EFFECT: high reliability of detecting quantum dots.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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EFFECT: improved resistance to operational loads.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

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5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technologies of producing nano-size powders. Method of obtaining nano-size powders of γ-Al2O3, which includes supply of initial material into reactor of gas-discharge plasma by transporting gas, which is plasma-forming gas, burning of initial material at temperature 3000-4000K for 10-5-10-3 sec, cooling of obtained powder of aluminium oxide by cooling inert and its condensation in water-cooled reception chamber, in which initial material consists of mixture of aluminium hydroxide and oil coke powders. Aluminium hydroxide is obtained by carbonisation of aluminate solution at temperature 20-60°C and has bayerite structure with grain size 1000-5000 nm.

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7 cl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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5 cl, 5 tbl

FIELD: nanotechnology.

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5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming, particularly, metal plastic structure formation by die forging at superhigh pressures to cause intensive shear stresses and can be used for making materials with futuristic level of properties. Die forging is executed in assy composed of female die and two male dies. One hollow male die makes a clearance with female die. Another male die is arranged inside said hollow male die. First, deforming force is applied to said another male die for back extrusion of workpiece from female die and angular extrusion in said clearance between female die and hollow male die. Then, deforming force is applied to both male dies for back extrusion, angular extrusion and upsetting. Female die and hollow male die may have the ledges to decrease said clearance in making larger diameter of upset workpiece.

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3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

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FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts of obtaining aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon oxide and hydrogen and their application. Catalyst for obtaining aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon oxide and hydrogen, which contains nano-size catalytically active particles of metal cobalt or iron, is described, and it is obtained by pyrolysis of macromolecules of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in presence of iron and cobalt salts in inert atmosphere under influence of IR-irradiation at temperature 300-700°C after preliminary annealing in air. Method of obtaining aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon oxide and hydrogen at increased temperature and pressure in presence of upper described catalyst is described.

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5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and device for laser making of separate objects (versions) and may be used for making the eggs in sorting them and packing. There exists a definite tine interval during which marking can be applied on every egg as eggs are transferred in, at least, one path at preset speed. Proposed device comprises, at least, one first and second lasers located nearby one or several egg transfer paths to direct laser beam to eggs for making as said eggs pass through marking station. Said first and second lasers mark eggs next but one on their feed through marking station.

EFFECT: higher rate of making application.

41 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal or alloy laser engraving and may be used in various branches of machine building, medicine, etc. First, laser radiation power sufficient for structural alteration of metal or alloy surface sections. Plotted is calibration curve of metal or alloy fraction sprayed by laser radiation at definite power level trapped by fluid, in fact, translucent for laser beam and dependent upon depth of engraved metal or alloy surface in fluid. Then metal to be cut is dipped in fluid to depth defined by said calibration curve. Laser beam is spatially swept over metal or alloy surface in, at least, one coordinate. Said laser beam is translated and, at a tone, rotated with radius R. Said radius and angular rotation speed ω are defined from relationship: R=d/2-r, mcm and 2πR·ω>V, m/s, where: D is width of laser beam cutting width, mcm; r is laser beam radius, mcm; V is translation speed, m/s.

EFFECT: higher quality, no harmful effects to environments.

9 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to engraving of images by output laser signal applied to material. Output laser signal is displaced relative to material at high speed exceeding 10 m/s to engrave at constant power of output laser signal exceeding 500 W. Proposed engraving system comprises laser, system of mirrors for displacement laser output signal that allows control over laser signal power and speed. Control device allows computation capacity making 10000 pixels a second.

EFFECT: engraving on construction components.

39 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of manufacturing a protection property for the protective element, counterfeit-proof paper or data medium. The method of manufacturing a protection property for the protective element comprising a substrate which has at least one through hole and at least one marking in accurate register with this hole. The substrate, at least in the area of the manufactured marking is equipped with a marking substance modifiable by laser. During the same technological operation by exposure of laser radiation at high laser power at least one through hole is made in the substrate. By exposure of laser radiation at lower laser power at the marking area the marking substance is modified and thus at least one marking is created in accurate register with the through hole.

EFFECT: proposed protection property enhances the counterfeit protection level of the protective element.

23 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: preliminary construction of calibration curve of dependence of etching depth of specimen surface of the specified metal or its alloy on parameters of incident laser radiation to surface is performed at monotonic increase in specific power of laser radiation from value of 0.1 J/cm2·s to the value at which molten drops are formed on etched surface. Then, spatial control of laser beam scanning on surface of metal or its alloy is performed at least as per one coordinate. Simultaneously with translational movement of laser beam there performed is its rotation with radius R. Radius R and angular rotation speed of laser beam is chosen considering the cut width and radius of laser beam.

EFFECT: improvement of the method.

5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method may be used for making inscriptions and symbols on various materials, for examples, on light guides, light boards operated at high levels of illumination. Prior to applying coat of background material, contrast coat is applied that features minimum light reflection factor. Processed surface is divided along two coordinates into elementary sites to displace laser beam over said sites. All area of said sites is divided into area of sign outline and sign body area. On evaporating coats by laser radiation, the number of elementary sites is reduced to zero to form multistage sign profile comprising, at least, one step produced in contrast coat. Body sign area is kept unchanged.

EFFECT: higher readability and accuracy of signs, preservation of initial colours of materials.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: device for transferring an image onto a wooden base has apparatus for receiving and/or creating an image. At least one source of a laser beam. Apparatus for moving the laser beam with rotation and/or translational movement of the laser beam relative the said wooden base or vice versa - for moving the wooden base relative the laser beam, as well as for focusing the laser beam onto the said base. At least one module for regulating radiation power of the laser beam. At least one module for controlling the said movement and focusing apparatus. Apparatus for converting information of the said image into an instruction for the said at least one regulation module and the said at least one control module. The said at least one regulation module regulates radiation power of the laser beam by directly changing pumping of the active substance and/or changing operation of the modulator located in the resonator of the source of the laser beam.

EFFECT: solution enables reproduction of images on a wooden base with an irregular shape with high accuracy and speed of processing, as well as high depth of transfer within the base.

22 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of laser labelling surface of metal or its alloy and can be implemented in machine building, jewellery industry and medicine. The method consists in preliminary plotting a calibration curve of dependence of depth of marking surface of a sample of specified metal or its alloy by means of effect of specific power of radiation incoming on surface. By means of a computer there is generated a protective digital code, where specific depth of marking and specific power of laser radiation correspond to each digit. A mark visible by a naked eye is applied on the marked surface of metal or its alloy by means of laser radiation transferred along marked surface; this mark corresponds to alpha-numeric or graphical information. A protective digital code in form of sequence of recesses invisible to a naked eye is applied on the produced surface visible to a naked eye; this code is marked by laser radiation of specific power chosen from the said calibrating curve.

EFFECT: high level of protection and simplified process.

8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to security paper, in particular to banknote, having individual mark, which is applied at least once on face and reverse side of security paper. At least one of individual identifiers applied on face and reverse side of security paper is applied onto security paper by contactless method. Besides application of individual identifiers on face and reverse side of security paper is carried out by means of single-sided treatment of security paper.

EFFECT: high degree of security paper protection, with minimum production costs.

32 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in systems of laser marking and engraving in industry, for artistic applications, for authentication and personification of items and documents. Method for application of raster image consists in the fact that image of original is introduced into computer, image is transformed into raster array of numbers, working element coordinates are changed, working element is put in action, and dots are applied with its help onto surface of item. Working element used is represented by laser radiation. At the same time test image is previously downloaded into computer, and this image is applied onto surface of test sample, produced result is assessed, and laser radiation properties are accordingly adjusted in compliance with it. Multistage filtration of raster array of numbers is carried out, afterwards image of original is marked onto item.

EFFECT: high quality of applied image, increased resource of equipment, higher speed of image application, and also expansion of field of materials suitable for application of images.

6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and device for laser making of separate objects (versions) and may be used for making the eggs in sorting them and packing. There exists a definite tine interval during which marking can be applied on every egg as eggs are transferred in, at least, one path at preset speed. Proposed device comprises, at least, one first and second lasers located nearby one or several egg transfer paths to direct laser beam to eggs for making as said eggs pass through marking station. Said first and second lasers mark eggs next but one on their feed through marking station.

EFFECT: higher rate of making application.

41 cl, 15 dwg

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