Method of developing ability of visual analyser to perceive depth and volume of planar picture
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to psychology, psychophysiology, optics, human ecology and can be used in education system at all its levels in studying brain activity; neuroscience, in creating new principles of neural network activity; can be applied in elaboration of computers of parallel principle of activity; in business and any other field, connected with application of creative artistic abilities. Visual system is used, impact with pictures, built by stereoscopic principle, is performed on it. It is taught to observe stereoscopic depth on it, to built pictures. Six stages are realised: at the first it is taught to observe depth in modes of superposition for generalised stereoscopic projections, or identically similar structures in two conditions of glance concentration - before picture or at remote subjects, for which purpose stereoscopic projection is used as identically similar picture "I" with building stereoscopic depth with k-elements. It is demonstrated to visual system, mode of superposition of structures is obtained; a number of elements q on picture "I" is fixed. If q is larger than k, the second stage of perception of pictures of primary condition of their observation as a whole and by separate details is started. At the second stage it is taught to independently build identically-similar pictures, starting from the simplest single images, with constant realisation of mode of superposition of structures in the process of their building, and teaching is continued to the level, when visual perception of single image separation from the background in mode of superposition begins, and after that, without superposition. Determination of number of elements of depth on picture "I" in conditions of superposition is repeated. At the third stage it is taught principles of creating and building and identically similar pictures with continuous overlap of images with d elements of stereoscopic depth, teaching is continued to the level, when visual perception of depth is observed for p larger than d number of images in mode of superposition and is finished, when analogical effects of depth remain and without condition of superposition. Number of elements of depth on picture "I" is checked in mode of superposition and without it. At the fourth stage identically similar pictures and conditions of their building are made more complex, for which purpose pictures with monocular spatial perspective of pictures with W elements of stereoscopic depth are used. Level of teaching is continued to the state, when perception of depth for number H, larger than number W, is fixed, and perspective of spatial perception of images remains without mode of superposition. At the fifth level pictures with effect of picture relief are selected, identically similar pictures are made on its basis, and levels of teaching are continued to volumetric perception of intensity of images of entire picture, conditions of appearance of depth of flat images are classified. At the sixth level abilities for any pictures to regulate perception of depth of flat images on flat pictures between each other both in mode of superposition of identically similar pictures and without it, where k, d, q, p, W, H are integers, informing about the number of images on pictures, for which stereoscopic displacement has been performed and number of images, for which effects of depth are observed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to develop abilities of regulating perception of depth of flat images on flat pictures.
The invention relates to psychology, psychophysiology, physiology, optics, human ecology and can be used in the education system at all levels, in the study of brain activity; the neuroscience, the construction of new principles of neural networks; be used in the development of parallel computers of principle; in business and any other area related to the use of creative abilities.
It is known that in modern society demand the development of creative abilities and intuition. The problem of the formation of intuitive abilities, and similarly the very notion of "intuition" today is very important. Development of creative abilities, especially at an early age contributes to the emancipation of the child and thereby creates good preconditions for a high level of subconscious . Industrial giants, ooding America and Europe, don't spare the funds for the development of intuitive abilities of their employees. An example is the management of the company "Microsoft" .
It is known that the intuition from birth everyone possesses  and it is inherent not only man, but also the higher animals. There is a definition of intuition as anticipate or anticipatory reflection (i.e., the prediction of future events). Believe that it is inherent in any kind of activity iopidine time of its manifestation to the implementation of events have different values . Some researchers attributed the intuition to the elements of the structure, genetic structure, other results accumulated life experience and involvement in some type of activity . In the philosophical understanding of intuition consists of sensory and intellectual component .
I.e. intuition involved thinking (or intellectual intuition) is the result of joint action of the biological nature of man (or genetic structure) and its conscious activity, i.e. consciousness. The development of intuition involved actions (or thinking) can be based on long-term accumulated life experience, in-depth knowledge and expertise in some areas, the need to acquire professional skills .
Here are some of the known characteristics of intuitive thinking : 1. Intuition should be considered as a deep consciousness of the person, as an alternative way of thinking its the stereotypical side. Or is dissent. In order to apply intuition should like to step back from the problem and look at all the different view; 2. Intuition, i.e. the ability to foresee the future and predict the result depends primarily on how one wants to be careful. Elements of the "sixth sense" - the observation, care, collection and consideration of all information relevant to the issue. An often overlooked detail total mosaic of existing problems; 3. Intuition is transformative thinking. Intuitive insights come as time in the field, which spent all the forces balance. When this work is done with one single idea until, until you see a way to solve it differently within such period of time that is necessary for this purpose; 4. Before any intuitive modeling requires a pre-processing information with analytical step. Do not try to model all at once. First first steps as outline sketches. But it is possible and in detail, then the whole picture in General. Or Vice versa - the whole picture first, and then details; 5. The most frequent varieties of intuition, which are interrelated and are one and the same person include: Epiphany (it Happens that the person suddenly realizes that he has found the desired solution or phenomenon); Visualization (Sometimes absolutely suddenly before the eyes of a person goes through a succession of images; the Action (the person Suddenly understands that you need to perform some action, as if the moment comes second breath. The action comes on the right path); Selectivity (for some reason out of the mass variations of the preferred one, completely the opposite option, correct from the point of view of the log is key); Premonition (Person receives a warning from some vague sense of what to come, choosing in the end one or the other position); Inspiration (comes To a person a kind of enlightenment, and he feels the patronage and favor higher powers); 6. Location intuition should find there, where two cognitive processes: 1) the moment of transition from sensory perception to the conclusion of certain concepts; 2) the time when the user switches views from sense perception. Using these methods add up sensual images and representations. They merged with the transition from the field of sensory-visual processes in the area of abstract and conceptual, and Vice versa. In the course of their development may cause beliefs that were not derived by logical reasoning from known and proven, as well as images that appeared by themselves, and were not the result of patterns of sensory associations; 7. Intuitive thinking forces you to interact with images and ideas that are, as it seems at first, it doesn't resemble each other subject areas; 8. Appearing suddenly on the subconscious level intuitive idea can be called the result obtained during several cognitive operations; 9. If the intuition, then there are the patterns on which it rests and 10. In order to use an alternative consciousness, you must listen to their own intuition and exercised.
It is known that the visual system and high-level, abstract thinking using the General principles of information processing . The ability of the visual system to determine the distance evolved millions of years ago, yet the first species, and it refers to the level of the structure of the genetic structure. In accordance with the principles of the evolutionary development of biological visual system cannot get a full depth effects, if the images are flat and are on flat media or objects in the surrounding space located at distances more than 200-300 meters, However, it is known that with the use of special teaching methods (i.e. use of consciousness in the modern information-computerized environment, there is an opportunity to develop the ability to form a proper spatial visual perception of a flat image to 2D media. This perception of a flat image becomes figuratively-structured and the effects of volume and depth occur for the new formation of images on the basis of separation by color, intensity, location in the field of view and so on [6, 7]. The training method IP is resultsa image, for which there is displacement of the individual images relative to each other, in terms of blending creates the effect of stereoscopic depth for them. The principle methods of training images, called identically-like structures (or generalized stereoscopic projection - BSA) and monitoring them stereoscopic depth is given in [6-11]. The result of the training methods is that the first effect of depth in terms of blending occurs at the images for which you have not been stereoscopic displacement. In the following, OSB depth of the images remains and without conditions overlay and transferred to all other two-dimensional images.
Comparing the principles of activity of the visual system and higher-level thinking can be seen that they use as the subconscious and consciousness. For abstract thinking is the intuition of the genetic structure and intuition involved steps. The visual system is the depth of objects in the surrounding space and the ability to perceive depth and volume of the images on the flat media. In one of the definitions of intuition argues that it is the ability to get the result (answer) some problems (or tasks), without settlement. This response contradicts the logical formulation of the original goals and can be initially misunderstood the h man (or even ignored), received a response. In training the visual system is the ability to perceive depth and volume of the images on the flat media. They have no logical prerequisites of teaching methods and build identical-like structures. It arose and developed with the direct participation of two types of intuition . Justified assumption (until a single example)that surround the perception of planar images is not only the intuition of the visual system, but it can affect the intuition of abstract thinking . In other words, if abstract thinking and visual system in the neural networks of the brain use the General principles of information processing, the use of the teaching methods of the visual system [6-7], the development of the ability of depth perception of images on flat media may cause the system intuitive planning  and the possibility of determining the elements of intuition involved thinking .
Note that the known methods for the development of intuitive abilities are mainly based on psychological training , long-life experiences, the need for the application involved thinking and involved steps. As a rule, in order to the logical construction of the problem solution has joined the subconscious, formed conditions intuitive treatment tip can ASCI, get the answer should be extremely important for a person. For the emergence of intuitive "hints" requires concentration and a full "load" thinking in solving the problem.
It is known that the study of the General principles of the biological systems showed: "...collective effects in the presence of a powerful positive feedback mechanisms cause of the phenomena characteristic of one level of organization of matter, can manifest itself in another" . Therefore, if at the macro level actions neural networks of the human brain will be constantly applied intuition involved thinking, its principles can have an impact on the micro level of genetic structure.
The formation of the modern system of vocational education is aimed at training specialists of a new type, capable of creative thinking, the decisive role which belongs to intuition . The orientation of education in the formation of personality causes and qualitatively new approach to professional education organization - project-target, where knowledge of the main tasks of education into a means of developing the student's personality . One of the components of the project-oriented approach is the goal, as a basic element of human activity, which h is foreshadowed in the thinking of the action and its implementation with the help of certain tools. In fact, this definition of purpose is one of the elements of the manifestations of intuition. Therefore, the modern system of education in Russia is focused on the development of intuitive abilities of graduates of professional education.
Object of the invention is the development of the ability to control depth perception in flat images on a flat image.
This object is achieved by the sequential implementation of the six stages: the first, which is education observation depth blending modes for generalized stereoscopic projections or identical-similar structures in the two conditions, the concentration of the look - up image or on distant objects, the use of stereoscopic projection as identical-like image "I" with the construction of k-elements stereoscopic depth demonstration of his visual system, obtaining the blending mode structures, fixing the number of elements in the depth q of the image "I", if q is larger than k, then move to the second stage of the perception of images of the primary conditions of observation in General and individual parts and training of a person to build identical-like image, starting with the simplest single images, with constant exercise regime imposing structures in the process of their construction and Dov is based teaching to a level when there is a visual perception of the separation of single images from the background blend mode, and then without overlay, re-defining the number of elements of depth in the image "I" in the blend;
in the third stage of learning the principles of manufacturing and construction identical-like images with continuous overlapping images with d elements stereoscopic depth, bringing learning to the level where the visual perception of depth is observed for p larger than d number of images in overlay mode, and completing it, when a similar depth effects remain and without conditions overlay, checking the number of elements of depth in the image "I" in the blend mode and without it;
in the fourth stage complication of identically-like images and conditions of their construction, using images from a monocular spatial perspective images with W elements stereoscopic depth, bringing the level of education to the state when in overlay mode produces depth perception for the number N, greater than W, and the spatial perspective of the perception of images and remains without blending mode;
in the fifth stage of the selection effect image embossed images, building on its basis is identical-similar image and raising the level of learning to the bulk of seeing the party in the intensity images of the entire image, the classification conditions of the depth of flat images.
at the sixth stage of the development of the ability for any of the images to adjust the depth perception of flat images on flat images with each other as the blending mode, and without it, where k, d, q, p, W, H are integers giving the number of images in the images, which held stereoscopic offset, and the number of images for which we observed the eects of depth.
The proposed method relates to the physical impact of material objects as images, built on the principle of stereoscopic projections in the visual system, as a material object, consisting of a physiological component of the structure of the eye by forming light flux from the environment, neurons display layer of the retina, photoreceptors that convert light rays into electrical potentials, Central ocular nerve and neuron network of the cerebral cortex. In essence, the method can be attributed to the physical method of development of intuition, which will help to identify areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for intuitive abilities. And although it is known the application of similar exposure images built on the stereoscopic principle on the development of the visual system, cognitive abilities to identify standartnogo thinking, but the development of intuition should be attributed to the more significant factors and the impact of the used teaching methods.
Figure 1 shows an example of an image taken in one of the TV transmission channel, National Geographic, when one side there was a movement image of the letter Y small size. For formulas of the invention is the designation of the image "I". The monotonous movement of the letters Y - small size on one side allowed to build generalized stereoscopic row of four images. In the image two horizontal rows of structures, but the top row has no bias images. Digits "06" is used as a control when receiving imposing structures. The principle of construction of the image are allocated only two layers is the letter Y a lesser magnitude in grey (original red-yellow) color and numbers "06". The rest of the images are background accompaniment. In this case, k claims is 2. All layers must be perceived as flat. The distance between the letters Y, of various sizes and background differ by 0.5%, and the numbers "06" have distance more background on 3%.
The image is constructed so that it is necessary to carry out the blending mode structures at concentrations of opinion on the subject, located between the eyes and the plane of the drawing. While the number of structures in the row with the letter Y large increases to five. On srednem the plan is perceived by the number "06", in the background the background of the image before him is the letter Y small size. Figure 2 presents a set of individual letters, words, consisting of seven layers of depth. The formation of the layers obtained by the selection of the distances of various sizes across, but for a single layer, they are the same for each element of its horizontal structure. The difference of the distances between the label has a value of about 15%. However, these labels are separated by the vertical size of the sheet. This figure does not matter, as there is concentration of mind, it is enough to perform the conditions of the overlay when the number of letters in a row will increase by one. Then each row will be perceived at a constant depth relative to the others. Figure 2 refers to the second step of the way, which ends with the ability to build similar layers and observe the Department of letters, words, figures from the General background. Figure 3 shows the complex image, when the images are formed as a continuous intensity distribution of the cloud cover and forming its background, and the individual elements are the eyes, gulls and private clouds. Since developing figuratively-structured visual perception, any way separated from the other by color or shade of gray can be purchased depth perception. Figure 3 refers to the third stage, to the th letter d corresponds to the number 13, and the letter "R"as an integer that must be greater than 13. Figure 4 shows a picture of the artist Holbein "Jesus" with a spatial perspective elements. In the foreground the bed, on it a man's body and then dark emptiness. All this is placed in the doorway of the tomb. Figure 5 illustrates the generalized stereoscopic projection (as identical-like structure), on which all perceive the elements are real spatial construction. But his perception should better look at the object between the eyes and the image, to get in superimposed mode observations four horizontal projection of the picture. For five images held stereoscopic offset and only they blend mode should be interpreted with elements of depth. Therefore, the letter W is equal to the number 5, the letter N denotes a whole number greater than 5. Figure 4 and figure 5 refer to step four. Figure 6 relating to the fifth stage, shows the Physical map of the world, where many images with depth perception for advanced visual system. To see this effect for the visual system, which has not been learning the first stages, 7 built biased projection for Antarctica (concentration opinion on the subject between the eyes and Fig.7). Note that the offset is only performed for the entire continent, and he only in terms of the overlay from Elaida from dark wash his sea from the Northern part of the continent. Some horizontal rows are not offset the mainland, for other its value is changed. On the basis of conditions of building 7 should have no other effects of depth or volume. Fig illustrates the sixth step. Find here a selection of images of flight of the aircraft "Concorde"with multiple layers of visual depth perception. In overlay mode (concentration opinion on the subject between the eyes and Fig) upper and lower rows of acquiring the three-dimensional spatial location of the images. This fine structure forming a vertical word "KSU" and each element of the structure has a spatial structure. For the visual system, have successfully mastered the five stages in terms of blending, you can move the depth of the words "KSU" relatively small image elements. In terms of blending, you can see four levels of depth images.
In the given example images the principle of the method the following. The first stage. Select the video any TV shows, movie, which is monotonic offset some k-images relative to the other, and the image formed by the image areas of continuous color distribution, its intensity. From the plot we capture individual frames, in which each moving image change their location relative activities is fixed but not more than 25%. In figure 1 this image Y small size. All other images remain unchanged. For ease of observation bias can grow on structures horizontal row. The frames are arranged in a horizontal row and form a structure called generalized stereoscopic projection - "I" (or another name - identical-like structure or image). The word "generalized" is used because usually stereoscopic projection formed two images, and in this case more of them, but how they get basically the same. In figure 1 are mounted two rows of images, the top row has no offset images and figures "About" are used as reference symbols. If looking at the generalized projection to make the blending mode of horizontal structures, i.e. first to concentrate the view outside the image plane (on the principle of building the image, you need to concentrate opinion on the subject between the eyes and figure 1) and get the vision of each horizontal element, and then to achieve the merger of the two adjacent images, there are some elements of depth. Digits "06" are seen in the foreground. For bio-physical principle of the visual system the depth of the images may occur only for k-images (in this embodiment, k is equal to 2), i.e. the letter Y small size of the check digits "06". The images and their number, for which the observed effects, the depth is fixed. Those who have depth occurs for more than two images, or occurs three-dimensional intensity distribution of the letters Y, background, surrounding them (hence, the number q must be greater than k or larger than 2), already have a new primary elements of the developing visual system, i.e. the intuition of the visual system, as adaptation to the effects of two-dimensional images. Given the interrelationship of the principles of the visual system and higher-level thinking, and the primary elements of intuition involved steps. Those who perceive a depth of only 2 images at the beginning of training the visual system does not have the primary skills of intuition involved steps. Comparison of the number of images on the image "I", which arises depth, allows to carry out the procedure in method, which is called the "detection" of intuition involved steps. For those who have observed the mechanism of "identification"has no value as to make the concentration sight. The depth and dimensions of those structures have not been offset observed in any variants of their application, and even for a single copy. The main condition for this procedure is the training observation depth blending modes for generalized stereoscopic projections is whether identical-similar structures in the two conditions, concentration of mind, i.e. before the image or on distant objects. Such work may be assigned to perform the first steps as outline sketches of the movement to develop an intuitive visual system.
The second step consists in the development of the principles of self-build is identical-like images on a single image. It can be done in batch WORD or Adobe Photoshop. each horizontal row are recruited identical symbols, and adjacent rows are located at distances that differ by no more than 25%. Moreover, between the symbols of each horizontal row is advisable to choose the range of distances not exceeding those same values. For example, the words "2008-04-IRS form one level between the elements, which distance 215 PC, between the layer of the word "dispute" length 161 PC, because the distances differ by the maximum allowable. Note that the visual system effortlessly carries single images with such a large scatter, but they must be separated from each other. The build process runs continuously only in overlay mode, and he's next. For example, used Adobe Photoshop landscape location of an A4 sheet. Using "tool" - the Text starting from the left border, are installed separately any two of the same symbol. The distance between them is chosen such that at the horizon the flax size is 4-5 characters. This will be the first and second layers, with the distance between the symbols "J". Then the second symbol is copied and put as the third symbol on the top layer compared to the second. By blending mode character, the third character should be moved by removing from the first and second characters. The third character in the beginning of the movement still has no depth perception. As it moves to the selected interval "J" does it capture the overall structure, and the character gains depth. Similarly, the farther the distance from the value "J" first sensation of the depth of his perception, and then it disappears. Therefore, there is a spacing distance ΔJ, within which the blending mode symbol has the effect of depth. The next character and other horizontal rows are constructed similarly. The choice of the distances between the symbols of each horizontal row is in overlay mode and within those intervals ΔJqthat without much effort you can make the blending mode and the observation of the effects of depth between the characters. For figure 2 the number q is equal to 7. In other words, in the blending mode in figure 2 there are seven layers of depth relative to the white background of the sheet. It is advisable to change the scaling of the individual characters of the same horizontal row, but not beyond the limits of ±10% of initial size. Riginality is carried out at a concentration of opinion on the subject between the image and the eyes or when the orientation of the view of distant objects. At this stage you must learn to do both concentrations of view and to apply them directly in the process of building a single horizontally-like structures. The stage ends when built single structure (including any text on the screen of the PC monitor) without the condition blending mode effect separation from the background sheet. Developing phenomenon, which is not the primary task of building techniques images. Depth occurs only between characters and blending mode. So you can take it to the primary depth perception, as the intuition of the visual system or to call the result of another cognitive operations. Upon completion of the phase control is performed on the image "I" in the blend mode, the determination of occurrence of the effects of volume of the letters Y and the background around them. I.e. control is carried out on the ability to perceive the image as a whole and individual parts. If formed, the effects of volume perception letters Y and grey background, then reached condition detection.
Once the third stage of development, or cognitive action is carried out when building more complex images, the type presented in figure 3. First select the background layer is a layer of cloud cover. The horizontal and vertical components it should have the distribution of the bookmark image intensity from light, to dark shades. Forth from it is mounted vertical set of patterns. Then copied and installed the second and the next vertical layers (figure three). Since this will be the background layer, the vertical layers are mounted at equal distances L. the principles of this build background level for normal visual system and in the blending mode, it should not be the effects of depth of fields of different intensity. Further to this background layer is applied to single images with changing distances within ±0,1L. Figure 3 single images 13 (that is, the number denoted by the letter d, is equal to 13). This four rows of white gulls, 2 rows of eyes, 3 rows of clouds, 3 rows of black holes and one row of light sector. When the blending mode, these single images on the principle of building have visual depth perception relative to each other and the background layer. All the stages of building the images were accompanied by conditions of the overlay in its two modes. The duration of the cycle is completed when the average background, first, in the blending mode, there is a visual perception of depth and volume, and, then, a similar effect remains and without conditions overlay images. When this work is done with one single task and within such period of time, which for this need is. Upon completion of the phase control is performed on the image "I" in the blend mode, determining the number of images with effects of depth perception. In that case, if the number of effects the depth exceeds the value of k equal to 2, and there are visual depth perception for surround letters Y and background around them, not in the terms "identify"these effects checked and without blending mode. These effects cannot be depicted in terms of the construction of generalized stereoscopic projections. They demonstrate the emergence of a fundamentally new phenomena that are absent, as in the principles of projection, teaching methods, and principles of visual perception. In fact, this is the result of visual perception, which logically has no explanation. And it can be seen only if there is a desire to be attentive and observant.
Following the fourth stage of cognitive actions starts with the selection of images with monocular signs spatial perspective, as in figure 4. On its basis are constructed identically-like structure with stereoscopic offset - 5. The optimal number of images in the same row three. Then the average remains the same, and at is the shift of the images. The magnitude and direction of displacement of the selected t is to, so in the mode of superimposed images to provide a visual perception of the real spatial construction. For some series 5 held stereoscopic offset to five images. In other words transformed monocular spatial structure of images in stereoscopic spatial perception. Figure 5 for not yet developed the visual system to focus the eyes on an object located between the eyes and the image. In this figure the "06" are in the foreground. As an exercise, mounted in several horizontal rows with the change in the absolute value of the offset images. This allows you to adjust the stereoscopic depth of the individual images relative to each other. The stage ends when built the perspective of space images of the stereoscopic perception remains and without blending mode structures. Or there is a method to solve it with the perception of spatial perspective images differently, i.e. without conditions overlap, and only one projection, as in figure 4. Control is performed on the image "I" in the blend mode, determination of the structures of the image with the effects of the visual sense of depth images and their total number. In that case, if the number of effects the depth exceeds the value of k is equal to two, and there are visual is SUWANEE depth for images, missing in terms of "identifying", then these feelings are validated and without blending mode.
Before the beginning of the fifth stage of the visual system should have the ability of depth perception at all used in the application figures and many other two-dimensional images. The concentration of gaze and attention allow us to classify some of the conditions for the occurrence of the depth images and the effects of intuition thinking on a subconscious level trigger attention on the image with the most visual sense of depth. There is the possibility of regulating the vector direction of depth of the images relative to each other and its inverted state. That means that the terms of insight and action. For many images the perception of the prominence of some of the images increases. Therefore selects images, anticipation, which means its construction reinforced the effect of the prominence of some images. As, for example, for an image of the physical map of the world presented on Fig.6. Some of the images on the map already have the effects of a relief. The greatest effect can be observed for Antarctica. To secure the conditions of perception of depth on its basis for generalized stereoscopic projection. At the first stage of copies of the continent are located in a horizontal row to equal R is staniak - L. Selection of distances is in overlay mode. Then cut the outline of Antarctica and placed at distances of not more than L±0,1 L, with the selection of the distance to the mainland were separated on the same level relative to the background. For efficiency, mounted a few horizontal collections with different offset distances ΔL location of the continent relative to the overall frame. The build process and the duration of this stage is complete when no blending mode there is a sense of relief Antarctica at maximum deviation ΔL=0,1 L in its stereoscopic perception. At this stage, for the image "I" is already present volumetric perception of the intensity distributions for which the standard visual system may not have any depth effects. I.e. arises as to dissent and obtain problems other than the usual biological-evolutionary view. Or the removal from that on flat images all images are flat, and are considered under a different opinion, already three-dimensional perception.
The task of the final sixth of the cognitive stage is the visual perception of space, recording control of the depth of the images at different harmonics of the distribution of distances in the image and to the ranks of the conditions for obtaining depth. To do this, select the plot offset some of the images. They are distributed in the image with the distance L. Then, they decrease in size and form with the distribution of distances L/n. Generally, if the number of projections that are installed on the distance L is N, the number of smaller projections is increased to (n×N). Small harmonics form the background in which the blending mode has stereoscopic offset, i.e. depth perception. Above it is a larger projection, also with stereoscopic offset. The distances L and L/n are selected so that in the blending mode, larger structures were separated from the small ones. Then there will be a flat and smooth background of smaller structures. Both have effects stereoscopic depth. Forth from the small background highlights the letter or word is copied N times and placed horizontally offset L+ΔL where ΔL ±0,1 L). Thus, there is four levels of perception of stereoscopic depth, as shown in Fig. This small and large patterns, their inner depth and vertical inscription "KSU". The main objective of the stage is obtaining and monitoring of all layers and adjustment possibilities depth on small structures are relatively large. The adjustment can take place in the local area and around the image. The stage concludes with the development of mechanics is the mA switching the depth of the harmonic minor structures in the blend mode of fixing the depth of the other and receiving on two structures depth effect without stereoscopic displacement. Implemented the process of dissent received the whole picture of the visual system as a whole and in detail all steps are completed cognitive operations, level of insight, action, hunches and insights on the images of any two-dimensional images in the environment there is the perception of space, depth and volume. New sensual images and ideas that were not previously present in the sensations. We developed the visual system (i.e. cognitive), for a variety of generalized stereoscopic images for the two blend modes arise almost the same effects of depth and spatial perspective images, and this despite the fact that the principles are focused only on one of them.
The development of the intuition of the visual system and intellectual intuition consists of a series of cognitive operations, but they can occur simultaneously and in parallel. If intellectual intuition, as previously thought, is the consequence of accumulated life experience and requires special knowledge and time (i.e. the time for the acquisition of education and its application in professional activity) in a specific region, its development using the visual system greatly simplifies the process of achieving the result. The development of intuition with the use of visual systems is based only on the minimum of skills to work with computers. Though will be spent quite a long time on the learning process itself, but it becomes accessible to a wide range of consumers from different walks of life and professional activity. Given the availability and simplicity of the proposed methodology for the development of intuitive abilities, the first steps can be mastered by students for elementary schools. If you agree with the opinion of some researchers that the first use of intuition is the new "trail" in the interactions of neural networks and the construction requires considerable time for its subsequent use (or convert tracks already beaten "the road") is much faster. If the first path is to "pave" using the visual system, then in all subsequent periods, intuition will occur in any conditions and areas, of course, if you want to get a custom result set and solve human problems. Take into account that modern professional education in the Russian Federation focused on the use of project-oriented approach with the development of creative thinking. By "root" objective fact and intuition have many common features.
So, in order to realize that the visual system can create the perception of space on the flat and is the views, to develop a methodology for learning the first author of the order took more than five years. Note that after the occurrence of the initial effects of the depth of flat images, all subsequent manifestations of perception volume of any planar images was similar to the first and subsequent application of intuition involved thinking. So the application of the methodology of teaching visual perception using generalized stereoscopic projections in the education system showed that two hours per week for two semesters cycles (i.e. 64 hours) developed intuition and visual system, 10% of students until the middle of the steps above. Moreover, the manifestation of the result occurred after graduation. All the above process occurred due to the interaction of sensory, intellectual intuition and the intuition of the visual system. And this integrated intuition develops, using "hint" intuition thinking two levels, creating this way the interaction of intuition various kinds. I.e. intuition high-level, abstract thinking, using the subconscious and intuition of the visual system. It can be assumed that such cooperation will contribute to the development of mental abilities of a person. Then in the statistical version of its development and in the process learning the Oia can be determined how is it and in what areas the brain is processing information, the availability of cognitive depth. If we assume that consciousness is metagenome brain, the interaction of intuition, the subconscious and consciousness, as abstract thinking, and intuition of the visual system can become part of the formation of the next structural organization of metaconule. In fact, it can be regularities, which relies on the intuition. And the one who will listen to their own intuition and exercised, will be able to develop new structural formations of the principles of the neural networks of the brain and to construct new genetic software of human activity. From the perspective holonomy paradigm, assuming holographic device of the brain, the integrated use of sensual and intellectual intuition can become an instrument for the relationship of memory to various stages of human life. Perhaps the development of intuitive abilities with the use of the visual system and physical factors impact it will allow the General population to find the "path" to the formation of the elements of the new altered state of consciousness.
The invention relates to psychology, psychophysiology, physiology, optics, human ecology and can be used in the system is IU education at all levels, when studying the brain, neuroscience, when building new principles of neural networks; be used in the development of parallel computers of principle; in business and any other area related to the use of creative abilities.
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Method development of the ability of the visual analyzer to the perception of the depth and volume of plane image by affecting the visual system planar images, built on the principle of stereoscopic projections and the perception of stereoscopic depth in terms of overlay, self build stereoscopic projections, characterized in that sequentially carried out in six stages: on the first train to observe in depth blending modes for generalized stereoscopic projections, or identical-similar structures in the two conditions, the concentration of the look - up image or on distant objects, which use stereoscopic projection as identical-like image "I" with the construction of k-elements of stereoscopic depth, demonstrate his visual system, get the blending mode structures, fix the number of elements in the depth q of the image "I", if q is larger than k, then move to the second stage of the perception of images of the primary conditions of their observations in General and specific details and teach the person to build identical-like image, starting with the simplest single images, with constant exercise regime imposing structures in the process of building and bring the training to the Ural branch of the nya, when there is a visual perception of the separation of single images from the background blend mode, and then without overlap, repeat the determination of the number of elements of depth in the image "I" in the blend; in the third stage are taught the principles of manufacturing and construction identical-like images with continuous overlapping images with d elements stereoscopic depth, bring the training to the level where the visual perception of depth observed for p larger than d number of images in overlay mode, and complete it when a similar depth effects remain and without conditions overlay, check the number of elements of depth in the image "I" in overlay mode and without it; at the fourth stage complicate identical-similar image and conditions of their construction, which uses images from monocular spatial perspective images with W elements stereoscopic depth, bring the level of education to the state when the blend mode is fixed depth perception for the number N greater than the number of W, and the spatial perspective of the perception of images and remains without blending mode; on the fifth step, select the image with the effect of relief images, build on the basis of identical-similar image and bring the levels up to surround the perception of intensity images of the whole of the images, classify the conditions for the occurrence depth of flat images; at the sixth stage develop the capacity for any of the images to adjust the depth perception of flat images on flat images with each other as the blending mode is identical-like images, and without it, where k, d, q, p, W, N are integers giving the number of images in the images, which held stereoscopic offset, and the number of images for which we observed the eects of depth.
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: device includes groups of input registers, input registers, groups of delay elements, switches, groups of cumulative adders, cumulative adders, groups of divider units, divider units, groups of output registers, output registers, registers, display units, groups of modulo subtractor units, groups of display units, a group of comparator units, groups of switches, OR elements, counters, a group of squarers, a group of digital inverters, multiplier units, subtractor units, square-root extractor units, NOT a clock pulse generator and a pulse distributor.
EFFECT: high objectiveness, reliability and speed of testing.
5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: present invention refers to medicine, namely neurology, and may be used for the quantitative assessment of the cognitive function disorders. The patients suffering dyscirculatory encephalopathy are examined for praxis, gnosis, memory status, speech, attention and mentality by image brick test representing four small bricks sides of which shows parts of those characters to be further collected. The tasks are performs as follows: to name six objects on the pictures; to collect six topics on the picture; all the topics shall be collected in a sequence on the picture; to count the collected characters and bricks used to collect each picture. The patient shall name the collect objects 20 minutes later and assess the correctness of each task within the range of 0 to 6 points. Each task occurred to be correct makes 1 point; total score is calculated taking into account the time for tasks 1-4 that normally makes 35-40 seconds; if longer, 2 points is deducted from total score. If total score falling within the range of 32 to 34 point enables stating the cognitive disorders to be absent completely; total score being 29 to 31 shows the presence of the mild cognitive disorders, while total score 28 to 24 testifies to the moderate disorders, and the values less than 23 require stating the evident disorders.
EFFECT: technique enables providing higher diagnostic cognitive disorders in the patients with dyscirculatory encephalopathy and judging the presence or absence of the same.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to neurology, psychiatry and pediatrics. Factors of perinatal pathology risk are determined: extragenital diseases of mother during pregnancy and labour, complications of pregnancy and labour, low gestational age, estimation by Apgar scale and compromised obstetric history. Also determined is presence of neurological malfunctions during 1-st year of life: syndromes of motor malfunctions, increased neuroreflex excitability, vegetative-visceral disorders, depression, retardation of physhomotor and speech development; and in older age - cerebrosthenic syndrome and syndrome of child dysphasia in structure of symptom complex of MBD, epileptiform activity by EEG. Results of questionnaire for MBD detection are evaluated in points. Prognostic coefficients F1 and F2 are calculated in discriminating equations. If F1 is higher than F2, favorable courseof MBD is predicted, if F1 is less than F2, unfavorable course of MBD is predicted.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase reliability of MBD course prediction.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to methods of determining state of human operator in system of "human-machine". Tested person in rested and tired state is shown signals of variable frequency, formed in form of tests that require solution, the number of which is set equal for rested and tired states; parameters of tested person's response to shown signals are measured. Time of correct solution of one test in rested state is determined in accordance with the formula Tsr=(Tavr1+Tavr2+Tavr3+…+Tavrn)/n, where Tsr is standard time of correct solution of one test in rested state, Tavr is average time of correct solution of one test in rested state, 1, 2, 3, … n are ordinal numbers of performed experiments, n is the number of performed experiments Estimation of state of human operator further is carried out by relative change of average time of correct solution of one test in tired state according to the formula (Tavt-T'sr) 100%/Tavt, where Tavt is the average time of correct solution of one test in tired state under condition of preservation of admissible accuracy.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to estimate state of human operator more accurately and reliably by degree of its tiredness and predict change of professional indices of operators
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and can be used for treatment of negative emotional experiences in short term. At first, patient verbalises in word or phrase a negative emotional experience. After that, they concentrate on their body sensations, detect theirs(head, chest, abdomen). Then, doctor determines presence of macrosaccades in smooth circular movement of eyes when they follow a moving object (for instance, a pencil) within motor vision field of eye. After that, patient closes eyes, covers them with hands and peers into darkness. First, there will be black background before eyes. Then, some points, strips, colours, etc. start to appear against it. Patient concentrates on the image they see. After that, doctor touches with a hand the place of patient's body sensation. At the same time patient is suggested to make chaotic movements by eye balls under eyelids for 15-40 seconds and repeat aloud or to themselves a word or phrase, which characterises negative emotional experience. Movements of eyeballs are stopped in the quadrant of detected macrosaccade. After that, patient's closed eyes are lit by pocket torch from the distance of 10-20 cm for 10-15 sec. Course of treatment constitutes 1-3 procedures.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to activate and stimulate process of information processing due to focusing patient's attention simultaneously on five stimuli.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to psychiatry, and can be used in complex treatment of computer addiction. By clinical method symptoms of disorder are determined: pathological drive to computer activity, loss of quantity control, symptom of psychic comfort/discomfort connected with computer activity, symptom of physical comfort/discomfort connected with computer activity, change of forms of realisation of pathological drive to computer activity, growth of tolerance, disappearance of protecting signs, accentuation of personality, deformation of personality, degradation of personality. Their manifestation is assessed by 4-point scale, where 1 is minimal symptom manifestation, detected only in active interview, 2 corresponds to mild manifestation of symptom, described by patients themselves and moderately influencing their behaviour, 3 corresponds to considerable manifestation of symptom, described by patients and people who surround them, noticeably influencing their behaviour, 4 is maximal manifestation of symptom, determining patient's behavior and life activity; after that, coefficient of progression is determined as ratio of the sum of points of symptom assessment to duration of disorder in years. If coefficient is lower than 12, complex help, combining psycopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, is rendered in out-patient clinic, if coefficient equals or is higher than 12, hospital treatment is administered.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase individualised complex therapy of addiction, increase efficiency of therapeutic and preventive measures, prevent disorder recurrences.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to methods of determining state of human operator. Tested person, who is in rested and tired states, is shown signals of alternating frequency, formed in form of solutionrequiring tests, the number of which is set equal for rested and tired states, indices of tested person's response to shown signals are measured. After carrying out n tests, representative time of correct solution of one test in rested state is determined in correspondence with the formula Trr=(Tav.r1+Tav.r2+Tav.r3++…+Tav.rn)/n, where Trr is representative time of correct solution of one test in rested state, Tav.r is the average time of correct solution of one test in rested state, 1, 2, 3,. …n are sequence numbers of carried out tests, n is the quantity of carried out tests. Assessment of state of human operator further is carried out by relative change of average time of correct solution of one test in tired state in accordance with the formula (Tav.t-Trr)100%/Tav.t, where Tav.t is the average time of correct solution of one test in tired state.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to assess state of human operator by degree of their mental fatigue in accurate and reliable way and predict change of professional indices of operators.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to psychophysiology, and is intended for diagnostics of psychophysiological state of people. Tested person is shown semantic stimuli both in masked unconscious and conscious form. Carried out are: registration of physiological response with determination of time of response to stimulus, grouping of measurement results in accordance with belonging to one semantic group, their statistic processing and determination of importance for subject of particular group of semantic stimuli. Presentation of significant and neutral unconscious stimuli is adapted to heart rate, when each following stimulus is shown talking into account preceding response. Registration of physiological reaction is performed in remote way by registration of heart rate changes on the basis of analysis of a series of cardiac intervals, obtained with application of pulse ultrawideband sensor of remote monitoring of respiration and heartbeat.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase accuracy of determining professional reliability of specialist of extreme activity profile and ensure obtaining precise complex information about specialist state in the process of monitoring.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device refers to medical equipment, namely exercise and game machines. The device comprises a personal computer a system unit of which is connected to an optical mouse, a pulse detector with a photo sensor and a motion sensor; it also comprises a load assembly in the form of a stationary bike pedals, two discrete height adjustable telescopic footrest, and a handle bar with a position regulator; the handle bar comprises an attached first button connected via a branch piece to a left button of the optical mouse. The load assembly for the lower extremity muscles is made separately for the left and right legs and consists of two rope-block systems each of which includes an adjusted element, a support slug, a rope, three main slugs one of which spatially rotates, a rubber spring and a 'screw-nut' force pair of a pedal chain gear - common to both legs. The system rotates one of the main slugs, and its pedals are equipped with locks. A cone-shaped spring of a clamp assembly encloses a rod; it is set between a first movable plate and a summing plate. Two handles are attached to the seat of the stationary bike for the left and right hands, and a second button is located on one of them; a third button is provided on a grip in the middle horizontal portion of the handle bar. The buttons are connected in parallel to the first button, to the left button of the optical mouse.
EFFECT: use of the invention enhances the device.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns medicine, specifically psychophysiology and psychology. A biological control session is preceded by diagnosing the character properties. The character findings are used to predict the biological control effectiveness of the heart rate parameters. The individuals with high ergicity, plasticity, rate and moderate emotionality exercise stable gain of total power distribution of heart rate variability accompanying the biological feedback training.
EFFECT: method enables correcting the functional state of various groups of populations, ensuring the effective biological control of the heart rate parameters over a short period of time.
3 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming signals as tests requiring solution. The tests are shown with frequency changed proportionally to the frequency they are solved. The number of tests is set to be the same in the cases of recovered and tired state. General amount of time spent for finding solution for given number of tests and the number of tests having right solutions are determined in each state. Mental fatigue degree is evaluated from relative change of mean time needed for finding the right test solution using a relationship like (Tm.r- Tm.t)100%/Tm.t, where Tm.t = Tsum.t/Kr.t, Tm.r = Tsum.r/Kr.r, Tm.t is the time spent for finding the right answer in tired state, Tm.r is the time spent for finding the right answer in recovery state, Tsum.t is the total time spent to solve given number of tests in tired state, Tsum.r is the total time spent to solve given number of tests in recovered state, Kr.t is the number of right answers to the tests in tired state, Kr.r is the number of right answers to the tests in recovered state.
EFFECT: reliable estimation of fatigue degree.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining prognostic parameter values like those of lung ventilation function after spoken rational and irrational test texts. Three values are calculated from the obtained data using linear classification functions. They are compared and functional cerebral asymmetry pattern is to be predicted from their values.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of prognosis.
FIELD: medicine, neurology.
SUBSTANCE: by the table of quantitative evaluation of affected praxysis and gnosis as the value of cerebral corical disorders and degree of dementia manifestation level one should calculate in points these disorders. Moreover, if total value is above 24 points one should diagnose no disorders, if 20-23 points - light disorders, if 10-19 points - moderate disorders, and if below 9 points - pronounced functional disorders are stated upon.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of diagnostics.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, pediatrics.
SUBSTANCE: the present method deals with predicting deviations in psychic disorders in small children to detect initial manifestations of psychic disorders in children aged 1 mo - 3 yr. A child undergoes diagnostic tests to study 5 spheres of psychic activity: sensorics including the studying of vision, hearing, reflector tactile sensitivity and individual tactile sensitivity; emotions; the sphere of gnosis including the studying of attention, expressive and impressive speech, peculiarities of one's thinking; in behavioral sphere one should evaluate biological behavior that includes alimentary behavior and one's skills to be neat, and, also, social behavior that includes the development of "mother-child" system and communication with alien people, moreover, for every age period there are 20 test questions and each task is evaluated by 5 points, then one should determine the coefficient of psychic development (CPD) by the following formula: CPD = Σ (+ n), where Σ (+ n) - the sum of points for all fulfilled age tasks and at CPD being equal to 90 - 110 points one should detect normal psychic development, at CPD being equal to 80 - 89 and 111 points and higher the risk for the development of nervous-psychic pathology is detected and at CPD being equal to 79 points and less one should state nervous-psychic development as affected.
EFFECT: higher quality of diagnostics.
FIELD: medicine, medicinal psychology.
SUBSTANCE: one should test a patient by seven scales: frequency, duration, intensity, sensor perception of pain, emotional attitude towards pain, neurotization level, adaptation capacity level to evaluate the results obtained by the scales mentioned from 0 to 6 points. Moreover, the scales for sensor perception and emotional attitude, the levels of neurotization and adaptation capacity should be evaluated in accordance to the Tables given in description. Additionally, one should, compare the degree of psychogenic constituent of pain according to chromatic choice made by a patient depending upon, at least, three choices of pain intensity: "pain during testing", "no pain", "severe pain" in accordance to the Tables given in description. Then, according to the results of testing one should evaluate the degree of patient's pain feelings both quantitatively and qualitatively. Moreover, by the scale of frequency the appearance of pain should be evaluated from "pain appeared once during several days or rarely" to "constant pain". By the scale of duration pain should be evaluated from "momentary pain" to "constant pain". By the scale of intensity the pain should be evaluated from "very weak pain" to "unbearable pain". By the scale of neurotization level one should take into account basic behavioral factors, such as anxiety, emotional lability, aggression, depression, psychogenia, hypochondria. The present innovation enables to increase significance in evaluating pain achieved due to broadened verbal description of patient's pain feelings.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of evaluation.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex, 17 tbl
FIELD: medicine, psychotherapy.
SUBSTANCE: the method deals with correcting neurological and psychopathological disorders with anxiety-phobic symptomatics due to individual trainings. The method includes evaluation of body reaction to stimulating signals, seances of individual training performed due to the impact of two quasiantipodal stimulating signals of similar physical modality applied in time of sporadic character, and as a signal one should present biological feedback for the altered value of physiological parameter adequately reflecting body reaction to the impact of stimulating signal. At the first stage of training it is necessary to achieve body adaptation to the impact of quasiantipodal stimulating signals, at the second stage it is necessary to obtain conditional reflex for one out of stimulating signals, for this purpose one should accompany this stimulating signal with discomfort impact, during the third stage, finally, due to volitional efforts one should suppress body reaction to stimulating signal. The devise suggested contains successively connected a transformer of physiological parameter into electric signal and a bioamplifier, an analysis and control block with a connected block to present the signals of biological feedback, a block for presenting discomfort impact, an indication block and that of forming and presenting quasiantipodal stimulating signals. The innovation enables to have skills to control one's emotions, decrease sensitivity threshold to environmental impacts and learn to how behave during stress situations.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of training.
15 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves measuring patient weight, recording age and sex of the patient. The patient is positioned in front of computer display unit. The data are inputted into the computer comprising software containing a program for estimating organism organs and systems condition. The following organs are detected. Lung, spleen, heart, kidneys, liver are proved for having deviations from norm with negative sign towards hypofunction or with positive sign towards hyperfunction. The data are displayed with the program on the screen as a table with reference and current values being shown in relative units with plus or minus sign. Canal states are estimated from detected organs being under maximum stress on the basis of infogram: lung canal P, spleen - canal RP, heart - canal C, kidneys - canal R, liver - canal F. When estimating organ state with deviation having plus sign, that means hyperfunction, canal state is estimated as having energy excess. When organ state deviation has plus sign, that means hyperfunction, canal state is estimated as having lack of energy. Eye diseases are diagnosed from state of organs and canals of P, RP, C, R and F. Hyperfunction in organ and excess in canal being available, initial ophthalmic disease stage is diagnosed. Hypofunction in organ and deficit in canal being available, chronic ophthalmic disease stage is diagnosed.
EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.
3 cl, 7 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out situation, planning, self-control and correction analysis. Volitional effort is included into functional self-organization process structure components. Functional self-organization process structure components characterize the following individual human specific characteristics: 1) goal-setting as taking and retaining aims; 2) situation analysis as revealing and analyzing circumstances essential from the point of view of achieving the set goal; 3) planning as scheduling private activity; 4) volitional effort as changing private activity sense; 5) self-control as controlling and estimating private actions; 6) correction as adjusting private goals, situation analysis, plan of actions, private activity sense, estimation criteria and self-control forms. Human self-organization process structure diagnosis is set after relaxation training aimed at relieving emotional effort and overfatigue. The relaxation training is exercised in coachman position with calming musical accompaniment and comprises the following stages: 1) respiratory exercises (inspiration duration is equal to expiration one, breath is hold between the inspiration and expiration for a time twice as short as inspiration time) 4 min long; 2) relaxation exercises (invoking heaviness and warmth sensation) of head, arms, legs and body -8 min long; 3) rest in maximum relaxation state - 4 min long.
EFFECT: high accuracy of diagnosis.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves showing sequence of two luminous pulses of 10 ms duration separated by 150 ms long pause. The pulses are repeated in constant 1.5 s long interval. Pause duration between two luminous pulses is reduced at the first measurement stage at constant speed of 20ms/s until a testee fixes fusion of two luminous pulses into single one in subjective assessment mode. Pause duration between two luminous pulses is increased at the second measurement stage with given constant step of 0.4 ms until the testee identifies the moment of subjective perception of two luminous pulses separation. Pause duration is reduced in discrete mode with given constant 0.1 ms long step at the third measurement stage until the testee identifies the moment of subjective perception of two luminous pulses fusion into single one. Human vision system persistence time is determined to be equal to pause duration between two luminous pulses when subjective fusion into single pulse takes place at the third measurement stage.
EFFECT: high accuracy in determining human vision system persistence time.
SUBSTANCE: method involves asking patient to tell or write down 5-7 novels. Rhetorical structure representations of the novels are built. Rhetorical structure mean depth being greater than 8, branching index being greater than 88 and occurrence of relations like sequence and consequence being less than 8, cognitive source relation being greater than 5, opposition relation being greater than 2 per 100 discourse units, neurotic disorder is to be diagnosed.
EFFECT: high accuracy of the method.
2 dwg, 1 tbl