Method of growing plants in closed space

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to growing plants in protected ground. The method includes planting of plants and their growing with periodic lighting the plants. At that the lighting is carried out with optical radiation focused with use of an optical system comprising an optical energy source and a reflector, located outside the closed space with the ability of transmitting at least one beam of optical energy into the closed space on at least one rotatable reflector placed in the closed space with the ability of transmitting the optical energy to the plants. Moreover, the time of lighting of a plant for 0.5-1.0 seconds is used, with an interval between lighting of 9-15 seconds.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the efficiency of light-pulse treatment of plants and simplify growing the plants in the closed space.

10 cl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, the cultivation of plants in greenhouses, and can be used for growing plants in greenhouses and greenhouses as hydroponics and soil.

Known (increasing the yield of concentrated light. /Ed. by A.A. Shakhova/, M: "Kolos", 1972, pp. 231-235) method flash treatment of vegetating plants, including the effects of pulsed light flux generated by sunlight concentrators. Pulse concentrated solar light obtained by focusing the solar radiation flux mirror concentrators. Pulse processing mode is achieved by rotation of the hub about the horizontal axis. The exposure time is determined by the type of biological object, the concentration of light, the duration of the light pulses and the intervals between them, the energy of the pulse.

The disadvantages of the method are dependent on weather conditions, complexity of installation and the complexity of use in field conditions, poor performance, overheating plants. The known method is not suitable for use when growing plants indoors.

Known (RU, patent 2071232) method flash processing plants. This method is applied to processing plants in the period of the flowering and fruit ovary involves consistent effect on plant pulsed light flux by scanning a focused through a lens or reflector solar radiation plants. Ask the total dose of radiation within comfortable with the necessary energy for a given species in a given period of ontogenesis. Determine the difference between a given flux density of radiation and natural sunlight and at a positive value of this difference exercise effects on plants the flow of concentrated solar radiation to her compensation. This processing method allows to optimize bacterial activity and to intensify the process of photosynthesis.

The disadvantage of this method is its dependence on weather conditions and the complexity of implementation. The known method is not suitable for use when growing plants indoors.

Known (RU, patent 2171028) method flash lighting plant, which uses laser irradiators with a wavelength of 500-530 nm. The application of the method allows to accelerate the growth of cuttings of roses.

The disadvantage of this method is that it is of limited use, in particular, exclusively for growing certain types of roses. In addition, for the implementation of the known method requires a special, complex and expensive equipment. For adjustment of the laser illuminator requires highly skilled and great time. The term service is s small lasers and is on average, 1500-2000 hours. Adjust it using the width of the pulses or the spectral composition of the radiation is impossible.

Known (RU, patent 2262834) method serial impact on plants pulsed light flux, in which the pulses of the light flux shape in the form of electrical discharges using spark gaps. Used to implement the method, the device comprises a surface with plants, power supply, voltage Converter, the control unit housing With light sources and the shape of light pulses.

A disadvantage of the known solution should recognize the need to use special spark gap. To obtain light pulses to the gap required to apply high voltage pulses that are unsafe. When working arresters creates a powerful electromagnetic radiation, which adversely affects the people, leads to failures of electrical devices and may affect the operation of electronic equipment. The action of the spark gap is accompanied by a crash that causes complaints of staff. In addition, adjust it using the width of the pulses or the spectral composition of the radiation is impossible. And finally, the service life of such lighting devices are small and limited to a certain number of flashes.

Known (RU, patent 2326525) method with ecomuseo lighting plants. When implementing a way to consistently produce flash effects on plants, and the flash effect is produced by the scanning light flux from the established in a number of LEDs with different emission spectrum by sequential illumination surface areas with plants, when this scan is produced by reflection of the light flux LEDs rotating flat reflectors placed on a common shaft, whose axis is set parallel to the surface with plants.

The disadvantage of this method should recognize its complexity, due to the use of block (matrix) light-emitting diodes. In addition, LEDs are not quite lasting and do not provide optical radiation whose spectrum corresponds to the spectrum of solar radiation.

Known technical solution is accepted as the nearest equivalent.

The technical problem to be solved by the proposed method is to develop a simple and effective method of growing plants in an enclosed space.

The technical result obtained by the implementation of the method consists in simplifying and reducing the cost while increasing the efficiency of flash processing plants.

To achieve the technical result of the proposed use of the work developed a method of growing plants in an enclosed space. According to the developed method to produce planting and carrying out farming activities with periodic plants lighting, and lighting produce focused using an optical system of the optical radiation, comprising a source of optical energy and a reflector located outside the enclosed space capable of transmitting at least one beam of optical energy in a closed room on the installed indoors, at least one rotating reflector mounted with the possibility of transmission of optical energy plants. When implementing the method can be used for more than one reflector located outside the confined space, and each such reflector corresponds to the transmission system, at least one beam of optical energy in a closed room on the installed indoors, at least one rotating reflector mounted with the possibility of transmission of optical energy plants. A reflector located outside the closed space, can be made with the possibility of generating more than one beam of optical energy, each of which is directed inside a closed space. A reflector located outside the closed space can be performed with the prob is the possibility of focusing the source of optical radiation. In particular, it can be made in the form of rotation of a body (Hemi-sphere or paraboloid of revolution), and the reflection of the optical radiation occurs from the inner surface. In a preferred variant of realization of the specified reflector may be mounted for rotation to maximize the capture of incident optical energy and transfer it inside of a closed space. The movement of the reflector can be carried out manually or automatically.

As the source of optical radiation can be used sunlight or electric incandescent lamp. Can also be used with a discharge lamp.

Depending on the plant species, phases of its development, as well as decide pulsed light tasks the duration of the pulse light may be from 0.5 to 1.0 sec when the interval between pulses from 9.0 to 15 seconds. The pulse duration and interval between pulses set by the speed of rotation of the reflector is installed indoors.

When using an enclosed room of considerable size within it simultaneously use multiple rotating reflectors. In this case, can be superimposed on one plant flash processing different from the rotating reflectors.

In some embodiments of the method of the plants is placed in tiers.

In some embodiments of the developed method the lighting system of the plants in the process move along the height.

Used enclosed space can be a greenhouse, terrace, veranda, gazebo, shed or greenhouse.

To improve the efficiency of the method in some embodiments of the reflector located outside the closed space, set with a possibility of rotation.

In some embodiments of the method for a more uniform distribution of light energy over the plants additionally mounted reflective elements. Preferably these additional set of reflective elements placed with the possibility distribution of optical energy at the maximum of the square.

Luminous flux from the optical source areas flows into the enclosed space through the hole in the wall or roof of the premises, which depending on the external conditions, can be closed or not closed glass.

The specific implementation of the system of supply of light energy, and the distribution of its indoors depends on the location of the premises (including, and latitude), as well as the design of the room.

Specific modes flash exposure of plants depend on many factors, including h is the following, the plant species (tree or grass), the phase of plant development, the initial distribution of plants, the appointment of plants (fruit, vegetable, ornamental), types of leaves, sun-loving or shade-loving plant, etc.

The developed method can be grown berry plants (currant, gooseberry, edible honeysuckle, vine, Actinidia), potatoes, everbearing strawberries, as well as ornamental plants (juniper, cedar, Magnolia, plushy, hydrangea etc).

The application of the method allows for resolution of the prototype to simplify the method of flash radiation when it is significantly cheaper due to the use of cheaper and more available components used for the implementation of the method as well as to improve the efficiency of flash processing plants through the use of the natural spectrum of the optical radiation.

1. The method of growing plants in an enclosed space, including planting and planting them with periodic illumination of plants, characterized in that the light produced is focused using an optical system of the optical radiation, comprising a source of optical energy and a reflector located outside the enclosed space capable of transmitting at least one beam of optical energy in C is the covered area on the installed indoors, at least one rotating reflector mounted with the possibility of transmission of optical energy to the plants, and use the lighting time of one plant within 0.5-1.0 when the interval between the light 9-15 C.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the source of optical energy using sunlight.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the source of optical energy use electric incandescent lamp.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plants are placed in tiers.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the lighting system of the plants in the process move along the height.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use a closed space in the greenhouse.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use a closed space in the greenhouse.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reflector is located outside the closed space, set with a possibility of rotation.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a more uniform distribution of light energy over the plants additionally mounted reflective elements.

10. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the said additional set of reflective elements placed with the possibility distribution of optical energy at the maximum of the square.



 

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3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

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FIELD: agriculture.

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3 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture. In the method from a large number of variables the variable of order is selected in a complex multifactorial system "plant - environmental factors", changing the most rapidly and influencing most strongly on the processes in the system. Also the control parameters are chosen by which it is possible to carry out the influence on the productive processes of plants. At that the level of effectiveness of agro-technologies is determined by the ratio of the value of the exergy of the variable of order in the actually obtained crop production, in the experiment with the estimated agro-technology to the value of the theoretical exergy of the variable of order obtained by calculating from the expression: η(%)="рпц"/℮tpp where η is an indicator of the effectiveness level of optimality of agro-technologies, ℮"рпц" is real yield in exegetical units, ℮tpp is theoretical value of potentially possible yield under the given environmental conditions in exegetical units. The device comprises a sensor of exergy of optical radiation for crop production, the unit of estimated value calculation of exergy of power of exergy of optical radiation, a storage unit. The device comprises the unit of determining the level of efficiency of agro-technologies. At that the output of the unit of exergy of power calculation of optical radiation is connected to the first input of the unit of determining the level of efficiency-optimality of agro-technologies, the output of the storage unit is connected to the second input of the unit of determining the level of efficiency of agro-technologies, and the output of the unit of determining the level of efficiency of agro-technologies is connected with the operator agro or the input of the information system.

EFFECT: inventions enable to increase the productivity of plants by plant cultivation taking into account the environmental conditions of the land.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and particularly to beekeeping. In the method, a developing liquid is applied onto a cucumber flower using a brush or by spraying and the number and location of dark spots formed where the legs of the insects touch the flower are determined. The developing liquid used is a solution which consists of 95% ethyl alcohol - 45 ml, acetone 10 ml, glycerol - 9 ml, 10% sodium lauryl sulphate - 1 ml, black shiny dye E151 - 0.01 g, distilled water - the balance, per 100 ml.

EFFECT: method enables to use less toxic solutions and increases their distinguishing capability.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and fruit growing. The methods lie in use of amino acid based preparation for treatment of fruit and berry crops, which is used in the first version in the form of an aqueous solution of glycine at a concentration of 70-90 mg/l, and in the second embodiment of the method it is used in the form of an aqueous solution of alanine at a concentration of 80-100 mg/l. The treatment is carried out in the middle of September on the crown of green leaves of fruit tree and/or berry bush.

EFFECT: methods enable to improve the sustainability of fruit and berry crops to frost in winter period, to provide high productivity during fruit-bearing and safety of fruits and berries in the conditions of refrigerated storage, to enhance the abilities of the method implementation.

2 cl, 6 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: use of this method enables to use rationally the medicinal plant species as a medicinal and nutritional active raw material.

2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method in carrying out biochemical analysis after ripening fruits and berries the fruits and berries storability is determined by determining the quantities of natural weight loss in the control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage during the control period of time. The extreme values of their maximum and minimum are obtained, of which the minimum values correspond to the long-term storability, and the maximum - to the short-term in determining the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase, in control fruits and berries. The dependences of amounts of natural weight loss are obtained in control fruits and berries on the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in them, and the anticipatory forecasting is carried out. The activity of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase is determined in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops, the dependences of amounts of natural weight loss are obtained in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the activities in the wood tissues of grafts, which are compared, respectively, with the dependences of amounts of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries on the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in these fruits and berries. The comparison is carried out experimentally and on a single occasion. The extreme values of maximum and minimum activity of catalase or peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are determined. The anticipatory forecasting is carried out by the extreme values of maximum and minimum of their activities. At that the fruits and berries collected from fruit and berry crops which activity of catalase in the wood tissues of grafts, respectively, has extreme values of the maximum, and which activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in the wood tissues of grafts has extreme values of the minimum, are due to long-term storage.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of placement of fruits and berries for storage at the expense of an anticipatory forecasting of storability prior to their ripening, and extend the abilities of the method implementation.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to fruit growing. The method comprises determining the quantities of natural weight loss of control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage during the control time period after ripening and harvesting them in the summer-autumn period. In the method according to the first version the total value of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring period which precedes the summer period of growing fruits and berries, ripening and harvesting in the summer-autumn period, is determined. The dependences of values of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the total value of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are obtained, in which the minimum quantities of natural weight loss correspond to the maximum values of total glucose and fructose in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to long-term storability. The maximum values of the natural weight loss correspond to the minimum total values of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts, correspond to the short-term storability. According to the second version the sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring period is determined, the dependences of values of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the content of sucrose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are obtained, in which the minimum values of natural weight loss correspond to the maximum sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to long-term storability. The maximum values of natural weight loss correspond to the minimum sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to short-term storability. At that, the subsequent prediction of storage of fruit and berry production is carried out according to determining the total value of glucose and fructose or sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring periods.

EFFECT: inventions enable to reduce the time of placement of fruit and berries for storage, provide early prediction of storage of fruit and berry products long before the ripening of fruits and berries.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to hydroponics. The cultivation column of concrete mixes or plastic is made with the ability to plant it into the wall of plants, has a cover with a nozzle fixed in it, a flexible hose to connect to the main pipe of nutrient solution, a supporting stand to stabilise the position and connecting the communications, a securing hoop to stabilise the position in the upper part, an electrical connector for the connecting lighting garlands. In the method the position of the cultivation column is stabilised using the supporting stand in the lower part and a metal wire in the upper part. The nutrient solution is fed and removed, the air and air-gas mixture supply is performed at least for one column. The cultivated plants are lightened by lighting garlands.

EFFECT: inventions enable to provide an intensive regime of growing plants.

2 cl, 4 dwg

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