Method of growing plants in closed space
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to growing plants in protected ground. The method includes planting of plants and their growing with periodic lighting the plants. At that the lighting is carried out with optical radiation focused with use of an optical system comprising an optical energy source and a reflector, located outside the closed space with the ability of transmitting at least one beam of optical energy into the closed space on at least one rotatable reflector placed in the closed space with the ability of transmitting the optical energy to the plants. Moreover, the time of lighting of a plant for 0.5-1.0 seconds is used, with an interval between lighting of 9-15 seconds.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the efficiency of light-pulse treatment of plants and simplify growing the plants in the closed space.
The invention relates to agriculture, namely, the cultivation of plants in greenhouses, and can be used for growing plants in greenhouses and greenhouses as hydroponics and soil.
Known (increasing the yield of concentrated light. /Ed. by A.A. Shakhova/, M: "Kolos", 1972, pp. 231-235) method flash treatment of vegetating plants, including the effects of pulsed light flux generated by sunlight concentrators. Pulse concentrated solar light obtained by focusing the solar radiation flux mirror concentrators. Pulse processing mode is achieved by rotation of the hub about the horizontal axis. The exposure time is determined by the type of biological object, the concentration of light, the duration of the light pulses and the intervals between them, the energy of the pulse.
The disadvantages of the method are dependent on weather conditions, complexity of installation and the complexity of use in field conditions, poor performance, overheating plants. The known method is not suitable for use when growing plants indoors.
Known (RU, patent 2071232) method flash processing plants. This method is applied to processing plants in the period of the flowering and fruit ovary involves consistent effect on plant pulsed light flux by scanning a focused through a lens or reflector solar radiation plants. Ask the total dose of radiation within comfortable with the necessary energy for a given species in a given period of ontogenesis. Determine the difference between a given flux density of radiation and natural sunlight and at a positive value of this difference exercise effects on plants the flow of concentrated solar radiation to her compensation. This processing method allows to optimize bacterial activity and to intensify the process of photosynthesis.
The disadvantage of this method is its dependence on weather conditions and the complexity of implementation. The known method is not suitable for use when growing plants indoors.
Known (RU, patent 2171028) method flash lighting plant, which uses laser irradiators with a wavelength of 500-530 nm. The application of the method allows to accelerate the growth of cuttings of roses.
The disadvantage of this method is that it is of limited use, in particular, exclusively for growing certain types of roses. In addition, for the implementation of the known method requires a special, complex and expensive equipment. For adjustment of the laser illuminator requires highly skilled and great time. The term service is s small lasers and is on average, 1500-2000 hours. Adjust it using the width of the pulses or the spectral composition of the radiation is impossible.
Known (RU, patent 2262834) method serial impact on plants pulsed light flux, in which the pulses of the light flux shape in the form of electrical discharges using spark gaps. Used to implement the method, the device comprises a surface with plants, power supply, voltage Converter, the control unit housing With light sources and the shape of light pulses.
A disadvantage of the known solution should recognize the need to use special spark gap. To obtain light pulses to the gap required to apply high voltage pulses that are unsafe. When working arresters creates a powerful electromagnetic radiation, which adversely affects the people, leads to failures of electrical devices and may affect the operation of electronic equipment. The action of the spark gap is accompanied by a crash that causes complaints of staff. In addition, adjust it using the width of the pulses or the spectral composition of the radiation is impossible. And finally, the service life of such lighting devices are small and limited to a certain number of flashes.
Known (RU, patent 2326525) method with ecomuseo lighting plants. When implementing a way to consistently produce flash effects on plants, and the flash effect is produced by the scanning light flux from the established in a number of LEDs with different emission spectrum by sequential illumination surface areas with plants, when this scan is produced by reflection of the light flux LEDs rotating flat reflectors placed on a common shaft, whose axis is set parallel to the surface with plants.
The disadvantage of this method should recognize its complexity, due to the use of block (matrix) light-emitting diodes. In addition, LEDs are not quite lasting and do not provide optical radiation whose spectrum corresponds to the spectrum of solar radiation.
Known technical solution is accepted as the nearest equivalent.
The technical problem to be solved by the proposed method is to develop a simple and effective method of growing plants in an enclosed space.
The technical result obtained by the implementation of the method consists in simplifying and reducing the cost while increasing the efficiency of flash processing plants.
To achieve the technical result of the proposed use of the work developed a method of growing plants in an enclosed space. According to the developed method to produce planting and carrying out farming activities with periodic plants lighting, and lighting produce focused using an optical system of the optical radiation, comprising a source of optical energy and a reflector located outside the enclosed space capable of transmitting at least one beam of optical energy in a closed room on the installed indoors, at least one rotating reflector mounted with the possibility of transmission of optical energy plants. When implementing the method can be used for more than one reflector located outside the confined space, and each such reflector corresponds to the transmission system, at least one beam of optical energy in a closed room on the installed indoors, at least one rotating reflector mounted with the possibility of transmission of optical energy plants. A reflector located outside the closed space, can be made with the possibility of generating more than one beam of optical energy, each of which is directed inside a closed space. A reflector located outside the closed space can be performed with the prob is the possibility of focusing the source of optical radiation. In particular, it can be made in the form of rotation of a body (Hemi-sphere or paraboloid of revolution), and the reflection of the optical radiation occurs from the inner surface. In a preferred variant of realization of the specified reflector may be mounted for rotation to maximize the capture of incident optical energy and transfer it inside of a closed space. The movement of the reflector can be carried out manually or automatically.
As the source of optical radiation can be used sunlight or electric incandescent lamp. Can also be used with a discharge lamp.
Depending on the plant species, phases of its development, as well as decide pulsed light tasks the duration of the pulse light may be from 0.5 to 1.0 sec when the interval between pulses from 9.0 to 15 seconds. The pulse duration and interval between pulses set by the speed of rotation of the reflector is installed indoors.
When using an enclosed room of considerable size within it simultaneously use multiple rotating reflectors. In this case, can be superimposed on one plant flash processing different from the rotating reflectors.
In some embodiments of the method of the plants is placed in tiers.
In some embodiments of the developed method the lighting system of the plants in the process move along the height.
Used enclosed space can be a greenhouse, terrace, veranda, gazebo, shed or greenhouse.
To improve the efficiency of the method in some embodiments of the reflector located outside the closed space, set with a possibility of rotation.
In some embodiments of the method for a more uniform distribution of light energy over the plants additionally mounted reflective elements. Preferably these additional set of reflective elements placed with the possibility distribution of optical energy at the maximum of the square.
Luminous flux from the optical source areas flows into the enclosed space through the hole in the wall or roof of the premises, which depending on the external conditions, can be closed or not closed glass.
The specific implementation of the system of supply of light energy, and the distribution of its indoors depends on the location of the premises (including, and latitude), as well as the design of the room.
Specific modes flash exposure of plants depend on many factors, including h is the following, the plant species (tree or grass), the phase of plant development, the initial distribution of plants, the appointment of plants (fruit, vegetable, ornamental), types of leaves, sun-loving or shade-loving plant, etc.
The developed method can be grown berry plants (currant, gooseberry, edible honeysuckle, vine, Actinidia), potatoes, everbearing strawberries, as well as ornamental plants (juniper, cedar, Magnolia, plushy, hydrangea etc).
The application of the method allows for resolution of the prototype to simplify the method of flash radiation when it is significantly cheaper due to the use of cheaper and more available components used for the implementation of the method as well as to improve the efficiency of flash processing plants through the use of the natural spectrum of the optical radiation.
1. The method of growing plants in an enclosed space, including planting and planting them with periodic illumination of plants, characterized in that the light produced is focused using an optical system of the optical radiation, comprising a source of optical energy and a reflector located outside the enclosed space capable of transmitting at least one beam of optical energy in C is the covered area on the installed indoors, at least one rotating reflector mounted with the possibility of transmission of optical energy to the plants, and use the lighting time of one plant within 0.5-1.0 when the interval between the light 9-15 C.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the source of optical energy using sunlight.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the source of optical energy use electric incandescent lamp.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plants are placed in tiers.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the lighting system of the plants in the process move along the height.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use a closed space in the greenhouse.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use a closed space in the greenhouse.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reflector is located outside the closed space, set with a possibility of rotation.
9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a more uniform distribution of light energy over the plants additionally mounted reflective elements.
10. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the said additional set of reflective elements placed with the possibility distribution of optical energy at the maximum of the square.
SUBSTANCE: light diode radiator comprises a body from a heat conductive material, at least partially ribbed at the rear side. The body has an outlet hole, which is closed with an optically transparent protective glass or a diffuser. Inside the body there are linear boards installed with assembled groups of light diodes with a different spectrum of radiation in the range of spectral efficiency of photosynthesis /400-700 nm/ with optical axes, facing the outlet hole of the body, and connected to a source of supply. At least on two internal side walls of the concave body there is a cascade of longitudinal plates forming terraces from a heat conductive material, which create ribs of an internal radiator of a conductive heat sink. Longitudinal plates are in thermal contact with body walls and face the outlet hole with a flat part. On each plate there are linear boards /lines/ installed in thermal contact, mostly boards with an aluminium base with high-capacity light diodes or light diode modules, or separate light diodes, which are connected in series or in parallel-serial chains to a source of supply.
EFFECT: design will make it possible to improve thermal and spectral characteristics, to increase density of radiation flow with reduced dimensions of a radiator.
6 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light diode phyto-irradiator comprises circuit boards with light elements consisting of groups of light diodes with different spectra of radiation, a fan and a control system with a switch of light diode groups, an illumination sensor and a sensor-spectrometer. Circuit boards are arranged from a flexible material in the form of semicylinders, are connected in pairs with sheds and are installed into a cylindrical dome. Light diodes are arranged at the outer side of circuit boards in several rows. The control system is installed outside the borders of the vessel and is arranged on the basis of an industrial computer, which controls a phyto-irradiator in accordance with the program.
EFFECT: reduced material intensity of a device and a simplified control system, higher efficiency of device light energy usage by cultivated plants, improved conditions for the photosynthesis process, and as a result, crop capacity of plants in a protected soil increases, time for vegetable growing is reduced.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: lamp is comprised of a body in the form of translucent tubular bulb with light diodes being located inside this bulb on the extended boards, at least in tow rows. Besides, maximums of light diodes direction patterns in each row are located under the angle to each other. The longitudinal grooves are made opposite to each other and on the internal surface of translucent tubular bulb. The body is provided with bases having their flanges located in the longitudinal bulb grooves so that they can be shifted or fixed. The extended boards of light diodes contact with the above bases. The artificial illumination method to light rooms or cages for birds and to affect birds with luminous radiation is implemented with the help of the above mentioned lamp.
EFFECT: production of durable, reliable in operation and practically feasible lamp based on light diodes with related method of artificial lighting.
8 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the process the flow of optical radiation of normalised is formed for the given crop plant intensity and duration. The spectral parametres of the flow are created that affect the plants by combined effect of several light sources of different specters. At that in preliminary experiments different ratios of one deal of one of the light sources in the general flow are imposed. Values of combination coefficient of sources flows in the general flow are calculated for the given ratios according to the formula , where ΦA, ΦB are respectively flows from sources A and B; the spectral fraction of the overall flow is calculated according to the formula where , are respectively the deals of flows in the i-th spectral ranges of sources A and B. Values of energy consumption are calculated by the formula , where are normalised values for the irradiated crops. The functional dependence of the energy consumption from the flow combination coefficient rate εµ=f(µ) is determined. Radiation regime is set at the value of the combination coefficient of flows, as corresponding to a minimum on the obtained functional dependence by changing the deal of flows from used light sources that form irradiance at the site of growing plants.
EFFECT: method provides energy savings at the regulation of radiation mode.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: according to the method regulation for this type of plant values of percentages of energy in various spectral bands of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) are set. Range of PAR is isolated from the total flux, energy flow in separate spectral bands of PAR is measured. The percentages of energy in various spectral bands are calculated in relation to the energy of PAR. The value of flow energy consumption of optical radiation is determined by the formula where and are respectively, regulatory, and measured percentages of the energy flux of radiation in the i-th spectral band.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the information content at measurement of value which characterises the energy efficiency of irradiation process.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of lighting technology and may be used to grow crops under artificial lighting. In method intensities of light flow and spectral composition of light source are periodically changed. Illumination of plants in sheltered ground structures is realised on the basis of principle of doubling natural daily rhythm due to smooth changeover of illumination level from night to day and back. Changeover takes place twice a day, with account of change in moon and sun spectra of radiation. Besides peaks of maximum daily illumination correspond to moments of upper, daily, and lower, night, culminations of sun. Ratio of light and dark periods duration depends on extent of vegetative ripeness and type of grown crops.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase crop capacity by optimisation of light mode, to increase speed of plants growth, to reduce consumption of electric energy, as well as to expand range of application.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has a framework manufactured from profile metal elements connected with one another with screw anchoring elements. The greenhouse has posts, horizontal longitudinal beams attached to the posts, oblique and horizontal flooring joists connected with one another as well as with the posts as transverse triangular bents secured on the posts. The upper part of the bents carries roofing panels with transparent films. The greenhouse is equipped with roofing film coating with adjustable area. The coating is made as rolls carrying transparent film. The rolls are mounted with an ability to roll and unroll the film on the ceiling of the greenhose by means of a mechanism equipped with flexible tractional straps. The staps are connected with the elements of the roll structure, reeved through the block mounted inside and outside of the greenhouse and carry counterbalances on the free ends of the handle. The rolls are made as a cylindrical body coupled with pivot bolts on the ends and mounted with a capacity to rotate relative to the pivot bolts with a controlled value of slowdown, to set up tension of the film while unrolling the roll. The film is made with flexible bands attached to it with a sticker to prevent sliding of the roll along the ceiling while reeling the film.
EFFECT: reduced materials consumption of the structure at the same time preserving its reliability, as well as natural ventilation of the greenhouse is ensured and as well as use of rainfall without any hand work of the gardener when watering plants.
3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, namely to the lamps aimed at growing the young plants, vegetables or flowers in domestic or industrial conditions and can be used in other national economy fields where individual lighting is required, for example in breeding different creatures. The feature of novelty consists in the fact that the LED plant spotlight is made as a square frame from "П"-shape beam channel; the light emitting diodes are set at the plates; the plates are set in one row in transparent tight dome lights with the latter being mounted inside the casing with a gap in respect to each other in several parallel rows so that central axles of the LED light flows are directed in the same direction to the front casing surface and perpendicular to its plane.
EFFECT: manufacturing of a plant spotlight having low temperature of the casing heating and low power supply voltage and being strong, insensitive to splashes, not preventing the radiation of the outer light sources to come to the lit item and able to provide for the spectral radiation optimal for PAR considering the plant development stage and species and allowing for the alteration of the radiation and exposure time if necessary.
14 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: agriculture and plant cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: claimed material contains luminophors with luminescence in spectral range of 400-500 nm, 500-600 nm, 600-750 nm, and 1200-2000 nm. Luminescence intensity ratio in ranges blue:jade:red is (2-3):(2-4):(4-5), and in IR:PAR (photosynthetic active radiation) is 1:(1.15-2). Material has thickness of 120 mum and is obtained by extrusion of granulated polyethylene and mixture of said luminophors. Material of present invention is useful for plant cultivation in frame area.
EFFECT: accelerated plant growth and maturation, improved yielding capability, decreased morbidity and late blight lesion, improved taste, odor, vendibility, and increased storage time after cropping.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and food industry, as well as aromatherapy. In the method the volume of fraction of volatile compounds of ethereal oil of mint leaves is determined in a period of technical ripeness. The volume of fraction is calculated from the difference between the amount of ethereal oil of secretory glands, obtained based on the number and size of the glands per unit of area of mint plant leaves using light microscope with a video system Lumenera Infinity 2 followed by data processing using the program Infinity camera V:5.02, and the volume of ethereal oil obtained by the method of hydrodistillation.
EFFECT: method enables to determine quickly the content of fraction of volatile compounds in the ethereal oil and carry out the selection of breeding material.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and, in particular, to selection. In the method the content of ethereal oil in leaves of mint plants is determined according to the total volume of the secretory glands. At that the quantity and size of the glands per unit of leaf area of a mint plant is obtained using a light microscope with video-system Lumenera Infinity 2 followed by data processing using the program Infinity camera V:5.02. Also, a light microscope with a digital camera and a scale rule or a binocular with an ocular micrometer is used.
EFFECT: method enables to speed up evaluation of the potential productivity of breeding samples.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to the field of agriculture. The method includes calculated or instrumental determination of exergy values of plant radiation parameters. In a complex multi-factor system "plant - environmental factors - control factors" they select an order variable from a large number of variables, and this variable is the most quickly varying and most intensely acting at processes in the system, also control parameters are selected, with the help of which it is possible to influence productional processes of plants. At the same time the order variable is inflow of optical radiation exergy to plant in respect to plant photosynthesis. The control parameters are temperature, air moisture, soil moisture, concentration of mineral elements of root nutrition. For arid southern zones of agriculture with excess of solar optical radiation and lack of moisture, the order variable selected is soil moisture - exergy of soil water potential. For northern cold areas of agriculture the order variable is ambient air temperature - exergy of temperature potential, and total exergy of optical radiation in respect to plant photosynthesis for these areas of agriculture is included into the number of control parameters. The device comprises a comparator, a timer, a memory unit, a sensor of solar radiation exergy, an ambient temperature sensor, a soil temperature sensor, a soil moisture sensor. The control logical switchboard has five control switches. At the same time inputs of control switches are connected to the first, second, third, fourth and fifth outputs of the control logical switchboard. The sensor of optical radiation exergy capacity is connected to the fifth input of the control logical switchboard. The unit designed for functioning under conditions of arid southern areas of agriculture with excess of solar optical radiation additionally contains a unit for calculation of soil water potential exergy, the output of which is connected to the first input of the comparator. The unit designed for functioning under conditions of northern cold areas additionally contains a unit for calculation of temperature potential exergy, at the same time the output of the unit for calculation of temperature potential exergy is connected to the second input of the memory unit.
EFFECT: inventions make it possible to increase productivity of plants and to increase energy efficiency of crop sector.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural biotechnology, seed breeding of potato, potato farming. The method comprises culturing of sanitated potato plants in vitro by grafting on a nutrient medium containing macro- and microelements according to Murashige-Skoog, sucrose, Fe-chelate, glycerol, indole acetic acid, agar-agar, vitamins according to White, obtaining meristematic regenerated plants and planting the plants in soil. Before planting in the soil the meristematic regenerated plants are subjected to daily effect of temperature +4-+5°C for 2 hours during 6-7 days.
EFFECT: method enables to improve viability of the regenerated plants when transplanting into the soil, to increase cold resistance of potato plants by 55% and plant resistance to potato cyst-forming nematodes by 53%, and also to increase yield of potatoes.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture. In the method from a large number of variables the variable of order is selected in a complex multifactorial system "plant - environmental factors", changing the most rapidly and influencing most strongly on the processes in the system. Also the control parameters are chosen by which it is possible to carry out the influence on the productive processes of plants. At that the level of effectiveness of agro-technologies is determined by the ratio of the value of the exergy of the variable of order in the actually obtained crop production, in the experiment with the estimated agro-technology to the value of the theoretical exergy of the variable of order obtained by calculating from the expression: η(%)=℮"рпц"/℮tpp where η is an indicator of the effectiveness level of optimality of agro-technologies, ℮"рпц" is real yield in exegetical units, ℮tpp is theoretical value of potentially possible yield under the given environmental conditions in exegetical units. The device comprises a sensor of exergy of optical radiation for crop production, the unit of estimated value calculation of exergy of power of exergy of optical radiation, a storage unit. The device comprises the unit of determining the level of efficiency of agro-technologies. At that the output of the unit of exergy of power calculation of optical radiation is connected to the first input of the unit of determining the level of efficiency-optimality of agro-technologies, the output of the storage unit is connected to the second input of the unit of determining the level of efficiency of agro-technologies, and the output of the unit of determining the level of efficiency of agro-technologies is connected with the operator agro or the input of the information system.
EFFECT: inventions enable to increase the productivity of plants by plant cultivation taking into account the environmental conditions of the land.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and particularly to beekeeping. In the method, a developing liquid is applied onto a cucumber flower using a brush or by spraying and the number and location of dark spots formed where the legs of the insects touch the flower are determined. The developing liquid used is a solution which consists of 95% ethyl alcohol - 45 ml, acetone 10 ml, glycerol - 9 ml, 10% sodium lauryl sulphate - 1 ml, black shiny dye E151 - 0.01 g, distilled water - the balance, per 100 ml.
EFFECT: method enables to use less toxic solutions and increases their distinguishing capability.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and fruit growing. The methods lie in use of amino acid based preparation for treatment of fruit and berry crops, which is used in the first version in the form of an aqueous solution of glycine at a concentration of 70-90 mg/l, and in the second embodiment of the method it is used in the form of an aqueous solution of alanine at a concentration of 80-100 mg/l. The treatment is carried out in the middle of September on the crown of green leaves of fruit tree and/or berry bush.
EFFECT: methods enable to improve the sustainability of fruit and berry crops to frost in winter period, to provide high productivity during fruit-bearing and safety of fruits and berries in the conditions of refrigerated storage, to enhance the abilities of the method implementation.
2 cl, 6 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used in cultivation of medicinal plants for obtaining the drug raw materials. The method of harvesting the spiny eleuterococus leaves includes harvesting the spiny eleuterococus leaves in the period from the phase of beginning of mass fruit ripening prior to beginning of the autumn leaves colorisation. The leaves harvesting is carried out from the middle to late August, from bushes growing on well-lit areas up to 30-35% of the leaves biomass is cut which is located lower than one internode from the apical bud, and a part of the leafstalk is left.
EFFECT: use of this method enables to use rationally the medicinal plant species as a medicinal and nutritional active raw material.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method in carrying out biochemical analysis after ripening fruits and berries the fruits and berries storability is determined by determining the quantities of natural weight loss in the control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage during the control period of time. The extreme values of their maximum and minimum are obtained, of which the minimum values correspond to the long-term storability, and the maximum - to the short-term in determining the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase, in control fruits and berries. The dependences of amounts of natural weight loss are obtained in control fruits and berries on the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in them, and the anticipatory forecasting is carried out. The activity of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase is determined in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops, the dependences of amounts of natural weight loss are obtained in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the activities in the wood tissues of grafts, which are compared, respectively, with the dependences of amounts of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries on the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in these fruits and berries. The comparison is carried out experimentally and on a single occasion. The extreme values of maximum and minimum activity of catalase or peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are determined. The anticipatory forecasting is carried out by the extreme values of maximum and minimum of their activities. At that the fruits and berries collected from fruit and berry crops which activity of catalase in the wood tissues of grafts, respectively, has extreme values of the maximum, and which activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in the wood tissues of grafts has extreme values of the minimum, are due to long-term storage.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of placement of fruits and berries for storage at the expense of an anticipatory forecasting of storability prior to their ripening, and extend the abilities of the method implementation.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to fruit growing. The method comprises determining the quantities of natural weight loss of control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage during the control time period after ripening and harvesting them in the summer-autumn period. In the method according to the first version the total value of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring period which precedes the summer period of growing fruits and berries, ripening and harvesting in the summer-autumn period, is determined. The dependences of values of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the total value of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are obtained, in which the minimum quantities of natural weight loss correspond to the maximum values of total glucose and fructose in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to long-term storability. The maximum values of the natural weight loss correspond to the minimum total values of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts, correspond to the short-term storability. According to the second version the sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring period is determined, the dependences of values of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the content of sucrose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are obtained, in which the minimum values of natural weight loss correspond to the maximum sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to long-term storability. The maximum values of natural weight loss correspond to the minimum sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to short-term storability. At that, the subsequent prediction of storage of fruit and berry production is carried out according to determining the total value of glucose and fructose or sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring periods.
EFFECT: inventions enable to reduce the time of placement of fruit and berries for storage, provide early prediction of storage of fruit and berry products long before the ripening of fruits and berries.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to hydroponics. The cultivation column of concrete mixes or plastic is made with the ability to plant it into the wall of plants, has a cover with a nozzle fixed in it, a flexible hose to connect to the main pipe of nutrient solution, a supporting stand to stabilise the position and connecting the communications, a securing hoop to stabilise the position in the upper part, an electrical connector for the connecting lighting garlands. In the method the position of the cultivation column is stabilised using the supporting stand in the lower part and a metal wire in the upper part. The nutrient solution is fed and removed, the air and air-gas mixture supply is performed at least for one column. The cultivated plants are lightened by lighting garlands.
EFFECT: inventions enable to provide an intensive regime of growing plants.
2 cl, 4 dwg