Method for secure transmission of information using pulse coding

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: method for secure transmission of information includes generating an information signal with encoded information, adaptive summation of said signal with a chaotic masking signal, transmitting the resultant signal over a communication channel to a receiving device, detecting information; during detection, the information signal is identified based on a neural network technique.

EFFECT: high information security.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to radio engineering and communication theory and can find application in communication systems using chaotic masking signal to improve the protection of transmitted data from unauthorized access.

The use of chaotic signals as the mask or carrier oscillations is one of the new ways of information security in communication systems, actively developed since the early 1990-ies. The first work on the use of the phenomenon of dynamical chaos to ensure the confidentiality of information, laid theoretical basis of the new principles of encoding and detection of information signals (K.M. Cuomo, A.V. Oppenheim Circuit implementation of synchronized chaos with applications to communications // Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1993, 65; K.M. Cuomo, A.V. Oppenheim Communication using synchronized chaotic systems // US Patent No. 5291555 from 01.03.1994; L. Kocarev, for K.S. Halle, K. Eckert, Chua L.O., Parlitz U. Experimental demonstration of secure communications via chaotic synchronization // Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos. 2, 1992, 709; Dedieu H., M.P. Kennedy, M. Hasler Chaos shift keying: modulation and demodulation of a chaotic carrier using self-synchronizing Chua'circuit's // IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 40, 1993, 634; Parlitz U. Estimating model parameters from time series by autosynchronization // Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1996, 1232). In the proposed structural schemes of practical implementation of the procedures for detecting information signals transmitted by modulation of the parameters of the generator of chaotic oscillations, located in the transmitting device is ve, or by additive summation of the information signal and the chaotic masking fluctuations, there was an emphasis on the phenomenon of synchronization of oscillations. However, the effectiveness of such structural schemes is limited by the requirement of high identity generators receiver and transmitter, which is difficult to achieve in practice. Despite the successes achieved by the transmission of speech and music signals in low frequency and radio bands (Dmitriev A.S., Panas A.I., Starkov S.O. Experiments on speach and music signals transmission using chaos // Int. J. Bifurcation and Chaos. 5(4), 1995, 1249), it became clear that the application of the phenomenon of complete chaotic synchronization is not possible to improve the performance of communication systems using chaotic signals, as it leads to serious limitations on the quality of the communication channel.

Possible solutions to the existing problems are modifications of communication systems through the use of the phenomenon of generalized chaotic synchronization (Koronovskii A.A., Moskalenko, I., Popov P.V., Hramov A.E. Method of secret transmission of information // Patent RF №2295835 dated 20.03.2007) or the rejection of the principles of chaotic synchronization and the use of alternative methods of detection. As such methods can be used, for example, the technique of reconstruction of dynamical systems, allowing you to resolve a number of fundamental problems inherent in the systems with the IDE, using the principle of synchronization of chaos (Anishchenko V.S., Pavlov A.N. Global reconstruction in application to multichannel communication // Phys. Rev. E. 57, 1998, 2455; Pavlov A.N., Anishchenko V.S. Way multichannel confidential information transmission // Patent RF №2382502 from 20.02.2010). Significant progress in the development of communication systems that use the phenomenon of deterministic chaos has been made in the work group A.S. Dmitriev (IRE RAS), who proposed the scheme premonitions radio and use to send messages of chaotic radio pulses (Dmitriev A.S., Panas A.I., Starkov S.O., and other Method of transmitting information using chaotic signals // Patent RF №2185032 from 27.07.2000; Dmitriev A.S., Panas A.I. Dynamical chaos. New media for communication systems. M.: Fizmatlit, 2002).

However, it should be noted that the use of chaotic oscillations to protect the transmitted information messages currently refers to the number of developing areas, and the development of new guidelines for coding and detection of transmitted signals, is able to provide opportunities for the creation of communication systems, competitive compared to existing analogues or even superior to them is an important task of science and technology. To this end, it seems appropriate use of modern information technologies in the analysis of complex signals the systems.

The closest to our proposed method protected information transfer is the method proposed by K.M. Cuomo, A.V. Oppenheim Circuit implementation of synchronized chaos with applications to communications // Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1993, 65. This method requires the addition of chaotic masking signal to the transmitted information signal and the detection based on the phenomenon of complete synchronization of oscillations. The main disadvantage of this method is the principle of detection of not being able to provide an acceptable quality of transmission of the message.

The present invention is to develop a new method of secure transmission of information using pulse coding and alternative principle of detection of information signals.

Technical result achieved in the proposed method of information transfer, is simplifying its implementation due to the transition from communication systems with two identical generators of chaotic oscillations in the receiving and transmitting devices, communication systems, containing generators pulse signals only in the sending unit and does not require their identity. In addition, the proposed method is more efficient as it provides a new principle of detection of transmitted messages based on neural network methods the e signal recognition.

This object is achieved in that a method of secure transmission of information, including the formation of the information signal with the encoded information, the additive summation of the information signal with chaotic masking signal, transfer the total signal over the communication channel to the receiving device, the detection information according to the decision as an information and masking signals use a single sequence of pulses of similar shape, and the encoding of information is performed by the distance between adjacent pulses of the information signal, and in the process of detecting teach shape recognition pulse-based neural network method and convert the time intervals between pulses of the information signal to the information. When the additive summation of the information signal with chaotic masking signal is further mixed with noise.

Shape recognition pulses is carried out using a block of digital signal processing performed with the opportunity to identify similar form single pulses in noise conditions using the principles of neural network pattern recognition.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 and figure 2 presents the results of the recognition sequences close fo the IU single pulses in the presence of interference on the basis of the standard method of principal component analysis (Jolliffe I.T. Principal Component Analysis, NY: Springer, 2002) (figure 1) and the method of artificial neural networks (Haykin S. Neural networks: a comprehensive course, M; Williams, 2006) (figure 2), the scheme for the implementation of the system of information transmission using pulse coding (figure 3), and figure 4 presents illustrations that characterize the effectiveness of the system of information transmission, where the following notation:

1 - the unit conversion information point in the process;

2 - generator single pulses;

3 - generator chaotic sequence masking single pulses;

4 - the source of the noise;

5 is a block form of a single pulse;

6 - point Converter process information;

7 - transmitted image,

8 is an example of detection of an unauthorized access,

9 - detection using the configured neural network.

The method consists in the following. Information using unit 1 is converted into a point process that encodes information in the time intervals between the generation of single pulses, the shape of which is defined by the generator 2. The conversion point in the process the analog signal can be carried out in the framework of the model of accumulation is reset, providing an integration signal and generate pulses when the integral of the specified threshold level, then EIT is giving integral is set to zero (D. Racicot, Longtin A. Interspike interval attractors from chaotically driven neuron models // Physica D 104, 1997, 184). The received information signal is summed with the chaotic masking sequence of single pulses of slightly different form, which is generated in block 3. To protect transmitted information is additionally mixed noise 4, leading to distortion of the pulse shape and complicating their detection. The intensity of the noise is large enough to obstruct the procedure of identification of similar pulses. Additionally, this procedure is complicated by the presence of noise in the communication channel. In the receiving device, including units 5 and 6, is the detection of the information signal. In the process of detection is the recognition of noisy single pulses using block 5 containing a microprocessor, programmed to implement the procedure of the neural network method. The use of a microprocessor is a simple and cheap design, which allows to solve effectively the problem of shape recognition signal under strong interference, the Selected sequence of single pulses of the information signal is then converted into information in block 6. By analogy, this method can be implemented for digital signals.

The procedure of recognition of placentas the activity of pulses, coding the transmitted message in the time intervals between pulses, based on the standard method, the signal recognition based on artificial neural networks using perceptron structure using the model of a neuron Makalaka-Pits (Haykin S. Neural networks: a comprehensive course, M; Williams, 2006). More effective methods of recognition can be based on wavelet neural networks (Q. Zhang, A. Benveniste, Wavelet networks // IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 3, 1992, 889), can reduce the accuracy of the identification of noisy pulse (Tupitsyn A.N., Nazimov A.I., Pavlov A.N. Identification of action potentials of small ensembles of neurons with the use of wavelet analysis and neural networks method // proceedings of the Saratov University. The new series. Physics. 2, 2009, 49). The choice of the type of neural network is not crucial for the practical implementation of our proposed method to protect the transmitted information, and determines the technical requirements of the characteristics of the communication channel. In particular, when a high level of noise using wavelet neural networks is the preferred option form recognition pulse signals.

The signal recognition using neural network requires a preliminary procedure of adaptation (learning) to previously known sequences of single impul the owls, to further identify the form of noisy pulses at the input of the receiver. Pre-configuring a network in a known sequence single pulse generators 2 and 3 is the "key" to the subsequent separation of the information signal from the masking chaotic sequence of pulses of similar shape. Regardless of the choice of the type of neural network, rule learning can be summarized in the following algorithm calculations:

1) Set the initial values of the synaptic coefficients and thresholds of the neural network and wavelet coefficients (in the case of using wavelet neural networks;

2) Is the recognition of forms of single pulses of the training sample. After recognition of each pulse shape the errors are calculated on the basis of the standard back-propagation algorithm error (Rumelhart D.E., Hinton G.E., Williams R.J. Learning representations of back-propagation errors // Nature (London) in 1986, 533), and adjusted coefficients and thresholds of the neural network;

3) the procedure for the recognition and correction is repeated for a certain number of stages of learning, which is determined based on the specifics of the problem being solved (selected forms of pulse signals).

After presetting the neural network allows you to share information sequence is donochnyj pulses, encoding the transmitted message, and masking chaotic sequence of pulses. Not having configured the network with a high level of noise that can be added to the transmitted signal, an observer will not be able to reliably discern the shape of the pulse generators 2 and 3. This is illustrated in figure 1 and figure 2, which shows examples of the recognition information and the masking sequences are close in the form of pulses in the presence of strong interference. The method of principal component analysis, often used to solve problems of recognition of signals of the pulse type, leads to a large error recognition (more than 40% at the selected level of background noise) (figure 1), while the neural network method provides an error is close to zero (figure 2).

Comparative analysis of neural network methods for shape recognition pulse signals and other methods of digital processing of the experimental data demonstrates the effectiveness of artificial neural networks for solving these problems (Tupitsyn A.N., Nazimov A.I., Pavlov A.N. Identification of action potentials of small ensembles of neurons with the use of wavelet analysis and neural networks method // proceedings of the Saratov University. The new series. Physics. 2, 2009, 49). Test studies indicate the possibility of recognition of at least three is posledovatelnostei close in the form of single pulses using neural network methods. This allows the implementation of multi-channel communication system in which taken at the input of the receiver carrier signal will contain a number of information signals. From the point of view of practical implementation of such a communication system it is necessary to include additional units in the scheme depicted in figure 3, namely, the number of blocks 1, 2 and 6 must equal the number of simultaneously transmitted information signals.

After the separation of the pulses on the clusters in the space of characteristics of the neural network method, the identity of each individual pulse of a particular cluster is identified using the standard method of k-means (Lewicki M. And review of methods for spike sorting: the detection and classification of neural potencials // Net. Com. Neu. Sys., 9, 1998, R53). When using three types of pulses the proposed method allows to implement a procedure for the simultaneous transmission of two information messages, for which it is necessary to provide two generators pulse signals that encode the transmitted information, and generator chaotic masking sequence of single pulses.

Studies have confirmed the possibility of simultaneous transmission of at least two information signals, disguised in a chaotic sequence of single pulses of the generator 3 (figure 4). The number d is stinct of the proposed method are:

1) No problems of identity generators receiving and transmitting device, substantially limiting method (K.M. Cuomo, A.V. Oppenheim Circuit implementation of synchronized chaos with applications to communications // Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1993, 65), based on the phenomenon of complete synchronization of chaotic oscillations;

2) High noise immunity method protected information transfer, significantly surpassing the possibility of an alternative approach, based on the reconstruction of dynamical systems (Pavlov A.N., Anishchenko V.S. Way multichannel confidential information transmission // Patent RF №2382502 from 20.02.2010);

3) the Original method of detection. To date, artificial neural networks have not been applied in communication systems using chaotic masking signals.

Thus, polozhitelnymi effects of the proposed method protected information transfer are high noise immunity, the possibility of multi-channel data transmission in real time and a new principle of detection of the information messages in the output device.

1. The method of secure transmission of information, including the formation of the information signal with the encoded information, the additive summation of the information signal with chaotic masking signal, transfer the total signal is the channel of communication to the receiving device, detection information, wherein the quality information and the masking signals use a single sequence of pulses of similar shape, and the encoding of information is performed by the distance between adjacent pulses of the information signal, and in the process of detecting teach shape recognition pulse-based neural network method and convert the time intervals between pulses of the information signal to the information.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the additive summation of the information signal with chaotic masking signal is further mixed with noise.



 

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