Wood-filled plastic and method for production thereof
SUBSTANCE: wood-polymer composition consists of, wt %: wood-vegetable filler 70-90, thermoplastic polymer binder 8-25, a sodium salt of polyethylene polyaminomethylene phosphonic acid 0.5-1.0 and target additives - the balance. The thermoplastic polymer binder is selected from a group of vinyl polymers based on vinyl chloride or copolymes thereof with vinyl acetate, polymers based on ethylene, propylene, copolymers thereof, polymers based on methyl methacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene or mixture thereof.
EFFECT: invention improves strength properties of the composition, simplifies the composition and method for production thereof.
2 cl, 2 tbl
The invention relates to the technology of wood-polymer compositions and can be used in the building materials industry, furniture industry, mechanical engineering and other industries.
Known composition to obtain a film material including polyvinyl chloride (100 parts), a copolymer of vinyl chloride with vinyl acetate (90-110 parts), plasticizer (48-56 parts), stabilizer (3-4 parts), wood flour (60-90 parts), the pigment (2-6 parts) (A.S. USSR 553264, IPC2C08L 27/06, publ. 05.04.1977, B. I. No. 13). The disadvantages of this composition are narrow circle used thermoplastic polymers and of the products obtained and the low strength characteristics of the films.
A method of obtaining molded products of wood-plastic materials, including drying of wood particles to a moisture content of 0.5-1.5%, consistent mixing with dioctylphthalate, with powdered polyvinyl chloride and zinc stearate, extruding the resulting mixture at a temperature in the zone of compression 90-160°C and in the zone of extrusion 140-160°C (A.S. USSR 1712150, IPC5UK 3/52, B27N 3/02, publ. 15.02.1992, B. I. No. 6). The disadvantages of this method are the narrow range of applied polymers and of the products obtained and the low strength characteristics of the products obtained.
A method of obtaining a polymer composition based on maleinovogo binder (polypropylene, polyethylene), comprising a mixture of polyethylene or polypropylene with wood filler and homogenization of the mixture at 160-210°C, followed by the introduction of a mixture of 3-5 wt.% plasticizer and homogenization at 150-200°C (A.S. USSR 1694598, IPC508J 3/205, publ. 30.11.11, BI No. 44). The disadvantage of this composition are the low strength properties and a multi-stage plastic recycling.
Known polymer composition comprising a thermoplastic polymer selected from the group of vinyl-based polymers of vinyl chloride or its copolymers with vinyl acetate, polymers based on ethylene, propylene, copolymers, polymers based on methyl methacrylate or mixtures thereof), an organic filler (wood waste, agricultural or textile production, with fractional composition of 0.1-8.0 mm), the target additives (plasticizer is dioctylphthalate, the stabilizer is calcium stearate, organic dye) (U.S. Pat. RF 2005752, IPC5C08L 97/02, publ. 15.01.1994). The disadvantage of this composition is a low strength characteristics and high water absorption.
Closest to the technical essence and the achieved technical result is a wood-polymer composition based on a thermoplastic polymer, wood and vegetable fillers and special additives and method of reception, including smallchange woody vegetation filler with the processing of the polyelectrolyte, drying with the processing of cross-linking agent and mixed with other dried components (U.S. Pat. RF 2132347, IPC6C08L 97/02, publ. 27.06.1999). A disadvantage of the known compositions is that it has a complex composition and the technology of production, and not enough high strength properties.
The technical result, which directed the present invention is to improve the strength properties of the composition and the simplification of the composition and method of receipt.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that wood-plastic composition consisting of wood and vegetable filler, a thermoplastic polymer binders and special additives, characterized by the fact that it further comprises a reagent PAF-13A and these components are selected in the following ratios, wt.%:
|woody vegetation filler||70-90|
|thermoplastic polymer binder||8-25|
|and additives target||the rest,|
and method for producing wood-filled plastics, including drying of components, mixing and termof romanie, characterized by the fact that woody vegetation filler before drying treated with an aqueous solution of the reagent PAF-13A, dried at 90-100°C and mixed with other pre-dried components.
One of the goals of the introduction of woody vegetation filler in the composition of the polymer composite is a savings of more expensive polymeric binder, so the use of this filler content below 70 mass (and the content of thermoplastic above 25 mass) leads to a loss of economic efficiency of technical solutions. The content of the woody vegetation of the filler above 90 mass (and the content of thermoplastic below 8 mass) leads to rapidly increasing loss of strength properties of the polymer material. The use of reagent PAF-13A at the number below 0.5 mass does not allow to achieve a sufficient degree of alignment of the treated wood and vegetable filler with thermoplastic polymer. The upper limit of the content of PAF-13A 1.0 mass is determined by its adequacy to align the filler at its maximum content (90 mass).
Table 1 presents examples of modes of production and composition of the proposed wood-filled plastics. Table 2 shows the properties of the compositions according to the examples.
The introduction of large quantities of fillers can affect the strength characteristic is cteristic polymeric materials, and other properties. For the best combination of polar particles of wood filler with a non-polar matrix of thermoplastic polymers can be used chemical modifiers.
A characteristic feature of the claimed technical solution is the presence in the composition of the reagent PAF-13A, which represents the sodium salt polyethylenepolypropylene acid (TU 2439-360-05763441-2001), which is a polymer electrolyte, has an affinity for polar surfaces of particles of wood filler, and can firmly contact with them due to the interaction with the surface groups and fill the pores of the particles. Modification of particles of wood and vegetable filler reduces the polarity of their surface and improves compatibility with various thermoplastic polymers. Consequently, it is possible to obtain composites with high (up to 90 wt.%) wood-containing vegetable filler. Among thermoplastic polymers include polyethylene, polypropylene or their copolymers, polyvinyl chloride or its copolymers with vinyl acetate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, or a mixture thereof. It should be noted that the list does not limit the possibilities of using other non-polar or monopolarly inherently thermoplastic polymers capable of when on the revani to soften up of fluid status and be mixed with fillers, including processed by the proposed method woody and fibrous filler.
The method of obtaining wood-filled plastics can be carried out as follows. Woody vegetation filler is treated with a solution of PAF-13A (sodium salt polyethylenepolypropylene acid) and dried at a temperature of 90-100°C, then mixed with previously dried the rest and processed by extrusion or pressing.
According to the proposed technical solution as a wood filler can serve as wood flour of different grades (GOST 16361-87).
As the target additives used stearates of calcium, zinc and other known plasticizers and dyes.
As can be seen from tables 1 and 2, the compositions illustrated non-limiting examples 1-14, is compared with the prototype of the higher strength properties and simple structure, and technology of obtaining.
Reference to the application
1. Wood-plastic composition consisting of wood and vegetable filler, a thermoplastic polymer binder from the group of vinyl-based polymers of vinyl chloride or its copolymers with vinyl acetate, polymers based on ethylene, propylene, the copolymer is in,
polymers based on methacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, or mixtures thereof, and specific additives, characterized in that it further contains a reagent PAF-13A, which is the sodium salt polyethylenepolypropylene acid, and these components are selected in the following ratios, wt%:
|woody vegetation filler||70-90|
|thermoplastic polymer binder||8-25|
2. The method of obtaining wood-filled plastics according to claim 1, comprising drying the components, mixing and thermoforming, characterized in that the wood-vegetable filler before drying treated with an aqueous solution of the reagent PAPA, followed by drying at 90-100°C and mixed with other pre-dried components.
SUBSTANCE: composite contains 55-75 wt % bagasse fibre with particle size of 40-120 mesh and length to diameter ratio ranging from 3:1 to 5:1 and 25-45 wt % thermoplastic polymer. The bagasse is prepared from a by-product of sugarcane refining. The separated fibres are softened by adding water and grinding. The fibres are then mixed with a thermoplastic polymer and the fibre-polymer mixture is extruded to obtain a composite.
EFFECT: obtaining a high-strength ecologically clean composite which can be used for a long period of time without deformation and colour change.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to olefin-containing compositions for producing wood materials and crude wood materials, use of olefins to endow crude wood materials with hydrophobicity and a method of producing wood materials from crude wood materials. The composition contains crude wood materials from lignocellulose in form of fibres, chips or shavings, as well as olefins or a wax composition. The wax composition contains olefins and additionally paraffin wax in form of long-chain saturated hydrocarbons. The olefins contain an average of 24-50 carbon atoms; more than 50 mol % are alpha-olefins; have a maximum of carbon chain length distribution between 24 and 40 carbon atoms. Bringing crude wood materials (shavings, chips, fibres) into contact with said olefins and optionally together with paraffin wax provides hydrophobisation thereof. Binder is added to said composition to obtain fibreboards, wood chipboards and oriented strand boards.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain end products with good hydrophobic properties.
23 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: wood working industry.
SUBSTANCE: wood and polymer composition contains a wood filler and thermoplastic wastes. The wood filler is bark of conifers exposed to serial extractive treatment with water or aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide or isopropyl alcohol. The thermoplastic wastes are wastes of polystyrene or polyvinyl chloride.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve physical and mechanical indices of a wood polymer composition, to expand raw resources for manufacturing of this composition and to reduce its prime cost.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials, particularly, to fabrication of compacted wood biological composite materials. Proposed method comprises making biological composite material including biological binder and saw dust. Produced material is dried to make a mat by cold compaction and subjected to hot forming. Saw dust is mixed with biological binder based on culture broth obtained in cultivation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacterium on nutrient medium. Said medium consists of the mix of molasses, wastes of sugar production, and lactoserum taken in the ratio of 2:2:1 at temperature 24-26°C for 72-96 hours in static conditions with addition of liquid glass in concentration of 2.5 wt %.
EFFECT: moisture-resistant nonpolluting materials without phenol compounds.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a biodegradable thermoplastic composition for producing materials and articles which are biodegradable in natural conditions. The biodegradable thermoplastic composition contains lignocellulose filler, a binding agent and polyethylene as a polymer base. The binding agent is a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. The lignocellulose filler used is in form of cheap manufacturing wastes with no food and feed value and natural materials selected from flax shive, sunflower husks, sodium lignosulphonate, leaves and straw.
EFFECT: composition is characterised by high biodegradability and meets requirements for materials for processing using conventional processes and equipment.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing wood materials from lignocellulose-based grinding products, with low emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes. The lignocellulose-based grinding products and an adhesive based on amino plastic, diisocyanates, polyurethanes and/or tannin-formaldehydes or mixtures thereof are prepared. The lignocellulose-based grinding products are mixed with the adhesive and the mixture is pressed during heat treatment. Before pressing and after splitting into fibres or processing into chips, a combination is added to the grinding products, said combination comprising at least one component having buffer capacity, selected from a hydrosulphite salt or sulphite salt. At least one component is optionally added, said component being selected from urea, a urea derivative or hydroxides of alkali, alkali-earth metals or ammonia.
EFFECT: wood material obtained using the method have low emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, during synthesis thereof and during prolonged use thereof.
5 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a polymer composition based on PVC, an impact strength modifier, a heat stabiliser, a binding agent and addition of modified wood flour. The wood flour is obtained by pre-saturating wood flour with aqueous solutions of binding agents of silica sol or carbon nanotubes, stirring the obtained mixture and drying.
EFFECT: wood-polymer materials based on the obtained highly filled rigid polyvinyl chloride composition have high tensile strength and thermal stability, low viscosity, flammability and water absorption.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of wood-filled composite materials based on timber wastes and mineral binders. Proposed method comprises mixing wood filler with binder. Filler is treated in tight chamber in atmosphere of flue gases at 190-200°C for 50-60 minutes. Then, prior to mixing, filler is processed in plasma-forming gas flow in discharge chamber at high-frequency generator power of 200-600 W and vacuum of 100-130 Pa for 250-280 s. Air is used as said plasma-forming gas fed at flow rate of 0.08-0.12 g/s. After mixing of filler and binder, molding and heat treatment are performed.
EFFECT: higher strength.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of construction materials and specifically to compositions of mixtures for making heat-insulating articles used in building walls, floors and partition walls. The crude mixture for producing heat-insulating materials contains the following in wt %: wood aggregate 69.0 - 78.0, hydrolised lignin 1.0 - 2.0, ground thermoplastic wastes 20.0 - 30.0.
EFFECT: reduced toxicity of heat-insulating articles.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking and may be used in production of fireproof particle boards. Proposed composition comprises wood particles, amidophosphate as fire-retardant additive, binder including resin and formaldehyde solution as additive. Resin binder contains melamine-phenolic resin and, additionally, latent catalyst while outer layers binder contains melamine-phenolic resin, latent catalyst and surfactant.
EFFECT: high-efficiency composition, higher quality of particle boards, better manufacturability.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a novel photopolymer acrylic oligomer-oligomer composition consisting of a bifunctional oligomer, an oligomer with functionality higher than 2, a monomer, a methyl methacrylate oligomer with molecular weight 20000-70000 and a polymerisation initiator, with the following ratio of components in pts.wt: acrylic bifunctional oligomer 15-95; acrylic oligomer with functionality higher than 2 15-70; acrylic monomer 0-25; methyl methacrylate oligomer with molecular weight 20000-70000 5-20; photopolymerisation initiator 0.1-1.0. Disclosed is a wear-resistant coating on organic glass, obtained via photochemically initiated three-dimensional radical polymerisation of the disclosed composition. Disclosed is a method of producing a wear-resistant coating on organic glass, involving a step for preparing a photopolymeric acrylic oligomer-oligomer composition and a step for curing thereof. The technical result is endowing resistance to formation of microcracks during ablation (silver resistance), low shrinkage and high adhesion to a coated substrate obtained via photopolymerisation of acrylic oligomer-oligomer compositions.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain wear-resistant protective coatings on organic glass with surface hardness close to that of sapphire crystals.
7 cl, 6 tbl, 19 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of articles from thermoplastic polymer against scratches. Proposed method comprises application of protective layer by co-extrusion, or extrusion, or multi-moulding, and, at least, one thermoplastic polymer. Said protective layer comprises acrylic polymer including the following components in wt %: 80 - 99.8% of methyl methacrylate (MMA); 0 - 20%, of, at least, one copolymer capable of radical copolymerisation with MMA, and 0.2 - 10% of toxilic anhydride, or acrylic and/or methacrylic acid and, not obligatorily, anhydride groups of the following formula: wherein R1 and R2 stand for H- or methyl radical.
EFFECT: improved impact strength.
13 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: polymer mixture consists of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPP) and a modified impact resistant methylmethacrylate polymer. Said impact-resistant methylmethacrylate polymer is modified with an impact resistant modifier with a "nucleus/shell/shell" structure. The first shell contains 80-98 wt % repeating (meth)acrylate monomers and 2-20 wt % styrene monomers of a defined formula (1). The second shell contains 50-100 wt % repeating alkylmethacrylate units, having 1-20 carbon atoms, 0-40 wt % repeating alkylacrylate units, 0-10 wt % styrene monomers of formula (1). The nucleus contains 50-99 wt % alkylmethacrylate repeating units having 1-20 carbon atoms, 0-40 wt % alkylacrylate repeating units having 1-20 carbon atoms, 0.1-2.0 wt % cross-linking repeating units and 0-8.0 wt % styrene monomers of formula (1).
EFFECT: polymer mixture is used to obtain moulded articles with high light transmission and high impact resistance at above-zero and subzero temperatures.
9 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: polymer powder compositions are obtained via radical polymerisation of one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers carried out in an aqueous medium in the presence of a nonionic protective colloidal and/or nonionic emulsifying agent, followed by drying. Aqueous dispersions of polymers undergo drying in the presence of an additional 0.1-20 wt % cation-active protective colloid, in terms of the amount of polymer components of the polymer dispersion. The protective colloid is selected from a group comprising homopolymers or copolymers of one or more cation-active monomers as a drying-promoting agent. The invention also describes cation-stabilised and water-redispersible polymer powder compositions for use in construction chemistry and use of the polymer powder composition in construction chemistry products, in production of adhesives and in production of coating materials.
EFFECT: polymer powder compositions have caking resistance and high redispersibility in water.
9 cl, 3 tbl, 15 ex
SUBSTANCE: polymer material contains acrylic polymer, chlorine-containing polymer and inorganic hydroxide. The acrylic polymer is selected from a homopolymer of alkyl(alc)acrylate or copolymer of alkylmethacrylate and alkylacrylate. The chlorine-containing polymer contains 5-70 wt % halogen. The inorganic hydroxide is selected from magnesium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide or mixtures thereof, except a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and zinc oxide or magnesium hydroxide and zinc stannate. Weight ratio between the chlorine-containing polymer and the acrylic polymer is at least 0.3. Polymer material is obtained by mixing the chlorine-containing polymer and inorganic hydroxide in molten acrylic polymer. The polymer material is used to make articles and structural elements in construction.
EFFECT: inorganic hydroxide gives the material high resistance to atmospheric effects.
45 cl, 3 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: declared invention concerns hydrogel compositions useful as a dressing material or protective agent, and for application of a wide range of active substances in relation to the skin and tissues of mucosas, such as mouth, including tooth bleaches. The faza-parted, film-forming composition containing an admixture is offered: (a) the first polymer bulking up in water, and the specified polymer is not dissolved in water at pH less than approximately 5.5, or water-soluble polymer; (b) an admixture of hydrophylic polymer and additional low-molecular polymer, capable to formation of hydrogen communications with hydrophylic polymer; (c) the second polymer bulking up in water, and the specified polymer we will not dissolve in water at all value pH; and (d) unessential active substance, in a dissolvent or in an admixture of dissolvents where the composition is exposed to separation of phases at hydration.
EFFECT: treatment of a disease state of various surfaces of a body (teeth, fingernails, skin, mucosas etc).
44 cl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains water-swelling, water-insoluble polymer, mixed hydrophilic polymer and complementary oligomer able to form hydrogen bond with hydrophilic polymer, and a bleaching agent, preferentially peroxide. The composition is applied a dental bleaching composition and applied on teeth to be bleached, and then removed as the required bleaching is reached. In best versions the composition is unstable and translucent. There are also methods of preparation and application of the compositions.
EFFECT: reduced dental sensitivity and damage or irritation of gums and oral mucous membranes, improved clinical effectiveness.
54 cl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: there is offered wheel impregnation composition containing aqueous solution of binding agent, oxyethylated lanolin and liquid glass, where a binding agent is a mixed aqueous copolymer emulsion prepared by emulsion polymerisation of methylolmethacrylamide, vinylacetate, butykacrylate, methylmethacrylate and methacrylic acid in mass ratio 1.0:9.0-9.5:2.5-3.0:3.5-4.0:0.04-0.06 respectively with the composition formulation as follows (wt fractions): copolymer emulsion (on dry basis) - 100, oxyethylated lanolin - 3-8, liquid sodium glass - 1-6, water 360-440.
EFFECT: development of wheel impregnation composition improving resistance of sisal-fabric and sisal-cord wheels with operating cost reduction.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: there is disclosed application of inorganic IR-reflecting pigments for dark-coloured moulding compounds containing mixed polymethyl(meth)acrylate and adjugated matrix to 45 wt % containing (wt %): styrene (70-92), acrylonitrile (8-30), additional comonomers (0-22) and inorganic pigments. A moulded piece made of these moulding compounds is characterised with heating rate 50°C/20 min and less. In addition, there is disclosed application of the declared moulded piece over the other moulded piece with using conventional methods.
EFFECT: development of well processed, stable opaque-coloured IR-reflecting moulding compounds.
7 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to compositions, with low coefficient of friction for use in friction units of living organisms. Proposal is given of an antifriction composition, containing, as polymer binding mixture (with ratio of components in the binder): methyl methacrylate monomer (27-36 mass units), polymethyl methacrylate polymer powder (72-64 mass units), initiator - benzoyl peroxide 1 mass units (polymer binder A); or a mixture (with ratio of components in the binder): methyl methacrylate (27-36 mass units), copolymer powder (72-64 mass units) with the following content of components: methyl methacrylate - 89 mass units, ethyl methacrylate - 8 mass units, methyl methacrylate - 2 mass units, as well as initiator-benzoyl peroxide - 0.6-1.5 mass units (polymer, binder B) and ultrahigh-molecular polyethylene with 1·106 - 12·106 dalton molecular weight, in powder form (2-15 mass units per 85-98 mass units of polymer binder). Compared to the prototype, the value of coefficient of friction decreases by 2-4 times.
EFFECT: design of a composition, which reduces friction in the maxillotemporal joint of a polymer implant.
3 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing plastic, particularly polyvinyl chloride-based polymer compositions, which are used in various industries, including for making insulation and sheaths of wires and cables. The composition contains 100 pts.wt polyvinyl chloride, 40-80 pts.wt plasticiser, 3-15 pts.wt heat stabiliser and 0.1-8.0 pts.wt filler, which is chemically deposited calcium carbonate with surface treatment with fatty acids with particle size of 15-70 nm.
EFFECT: introduction of said filler into the polyvinyl chloride-based composition reduces viscosity of the molten composition and increases frost-resistance thereof while preserving physical and mechanical properties.
1 tbl, 25 ex