Method of land irrigation with close level of occurrence of mineralised groundwater

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method comprises supplying water to irrigated land of the irrigation rate, providing moistening of the estimated soil layer without the flow of irrigation water into the groundwater. At that, between moistened layer and groundwater a layer is formed of granular hydrophobic material with grains of not less than 5 mm. The upper layer of soil in the irrigated area during the inter-irrigation period is maintained in moistened condition by finely sprinkling irrigation.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce the risk of soil salinisation with close level of occurrence of mineralised groundwater in the absence of the ability of making drainage by breaking the capillary pores and stopping the movement of groundwater to the root-zone soil layer, and to prevent desiccation of the upper layer of soil in the inter-irrigation period.

1 dwg

 

The present invention relates to agriculture and can be used for irrigation of lands flooded by saline ground water found at a depth of 1-1 .5 m In depth where groundwater downward current irrigation water often reaches their level, and after watering when the soil is drying out upward capillary current brings salt to the surface of the field, producing the salinization of the root zone soil layer.

The most efficient method of irrigation with shallow groundwater table is a tab on the site of deep drainage, the drainage of ground water through drains and collectors in the receiving water, irrigation to a depth less than the depth of backfill drainage and abstraction in the drainage water percolating beyond the estimated soil layer. (A.V., Curvilin, A.I. the Kibæk, textbook "Reclamation", 116-119, "IPC "[", 2006).

The disadvantages of this method is the high cost of deep drainage, large additional costs for maintenance of the drainage network in working condition. Exhaust drainage water have a negative impact on the environment. In addition, there are tracts of arable land where there is no possibility of the device intakes for water drainage.

There is a method of irrigation with a similar level of occurrence of the mineral is used groundwater, which includes irrigation sprinkler small norms moisture soil layer of thickness less than the depth of the water table. This prevents the flow of irrigation water to the groundwater (IA Kostomarova, "Irrigation of winter wheat and cotton sprinkler when close to the groundwater table, abstract, 12-13, M. 2012). This method is adopted as a prototype.

The disadvantage of this method is that the absence of receipt of irrigated current in ground water does not exclude the possibility of upward capillary current passing salt groundwater in the root layer of soil. This is because above the groundwater level is formed capillary fringe, the height of which, depending on water-physical properties of the soil may be from 0.5 to 6 m When the groundwater level 1-1,5 m capillary fringe, as a rule, reaches the arable layer. Therefore, when the irrigation downstream irrigation current merges with the capillary fringe. After watering when dry the surface of the field formed by the ascending current of irrigation water, which is the tightening of saline water in the surface soil and the accumulation of salts.

The purpose of the present invention is to reduce the risk of salinization of land with a similar level of occurrence of saline groundwater, prisutstvie possible drainage construction.

This objective is achieved in that in the known method of irrigation with a similar level of occurrence of saline groundwater, including serving on irrigated land water irrigation rate, moisturizing estimated soil without runoff of irrigation water in groundwater, according to the alleged invention, between irrigated soil and groundwater form a layer of granular hydrophobic material with a grain size not less than 5 mm, and the upper layer of soil in the irrigated area during the irrigation interval support in moistened condition by conducting fine sprinkling.

A new technical result of the proposed method is that the layer of hydrophobic material with a grain size not less than 5 mm provides a gap of capillary pores, stopping the movement of groundwater to the root zone of soils, with fine sprinkling prevents drying the top layer in the inter-irrigation period and prevents the upward current of irrigation water, which contributes to more complete use. Thus the moisture root zone soil without access saline groundwater and the risk of salinization.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated by a drawing, in which figure 1 is presented with the EMA moving water in the soil during its implementation.

On the surface irrigated area has a combined sprinkler 1, which allows watering mode fine sprinkling (DMD) and to maintain a moist top layer 2 soils. By watering in the normal sprinkling it provides a supply of irrigation norms for humidifying the estimated root layer 3 soil below which the stacked layer 4 of hydrophobic material, separating the capillary fringe 5 groundwater 6 from the root layer 3 soil.

Consider the example of implementation of the proposed method of irrigation on the plot with shallow saline groundwater at a depth of 1.5 m and medium loamy soils occupied by crops of spring wheat. On these soils the height of the capillary fringe of the groundwater may exceed 1.5 m, and with intense drying of the soil, creating the conditions for removal of salts on its surface.

According to the proposed method, on the irrigated plot before sowing produced by laying a layer of hydrophobic material 4 at a depth of 0.8-1.0 m For the formation of the layer 4 you can use the Device for subsurface introduction of amendments and powdered fertilizers" (patent RF №2080763, IPC A01C 23/00, bull. No. 16, 1997), designed for layer-by-layer soil lime and other bulk materials.

As the hydrophobic material can be used is with granules of polystyrene or expanded clay. The surface of expanded clay granules to impart hydrophobicity cover waterproof paint. The granule size from 5 to 10 mm, and the thickness of the layer 4 is 50-80 mm

After laying hydrophobic layer 4 on the site make preplant tillage, sowing and installation of seasonal-stationary system of combined irrigation. Spring wheat - culture solid sowing. The thickness of the irrigated root layer is for this culture of 0.5-0.7 m To maintain soil moisture in this layer at the level of 0.7 from HB requires irrigation at the rate of 450-500 m3/ha Pre-sowing treatment (disking, harrowing) of the soil and the sowing significantly dry up the top layer, which sow the seeds, so after planting to obtain amicable shoots spend outside watering with a fine sprinkler, allowing you to moisten the soil to a depth of sowing (3-5 cm), keeping intact soil structure and aeration. This is formed by the layer 2 constant moisture. In order to avoid the formation of a crust RID of this layer is repeated daily until the first irrigation sprinkler. Irrigation sprinkler irrigation to moisten the soil on the estimated rooting depth of the layer of conducting the norm 400-450 m3/ha. While the irrigation rate is reduced by 50 m3/ha. This part of the irrigation norms given in the form of daily the CSOs spraying (DMD) field surface after watering with. This spray allows you to prevent upward movement of irrigation water to the surface and reduces the loss of irrigation water from the root zone soil layer for evaporation. By reducing the supply of water in the rooting zone to 0.7 from HB irrigation sprinkler repeat. Irrigation water when watering sprinkler penetrates into the depth of the root zone, ensuring that the necessary plant roots level moisture. After cessation of watering with DMD resume. During the irrigation season groundwater 6, located at a depth of 1.5 m up the capillaries 5, reach layer 4, in which the capillaries capillary fringe 5 is interrupted, as, thanks to its hydrophobic properties and grain size. When the grain size of 5 mm or more in the pore space between the capillary channels can be formed. Therefore, the capillary movement of salts to the soil surface is interrupted.

Thus, the proposed method of irrigation lands with a similar level of occurrence of saline groundwater helps to protect the root layer of soil from the rise of salts from the groundwater and excessive evaporation from the soil surface, stimulating a rise.

The method of irrigation with a similar level of occurrence of saline groundwater, including the feed rochemical water irrigation rate, moisturizing estimated soil without runoff of irrigation water in groundwater, characterized in that between irrigated layer and groundwater form a layer of granular hydrophobic material with a grain size not less than 5 mm, and the upper layer of soil in the irrigated area during the irrigation interval support in moistened condition by conducting fine sprinkling.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: drying plant for solutions, suspensions and paste-type materials consists of a housing with a spraying chamber arranged in its upper part and equipped with an injector and a header for supply of heat carrier, a drying chamber with a vibro grain mill located in the central part of the chamber, and a heat carrier gas distribution system. Drying plant also includes solution supply and spent heat carrier cleaning system. Gas distribution system is equipped with two gas-distributing units: top and bottom. Top unit supplies heat carrier to spraying jet root and is designed for uniform distribution of heat carrier along the sprayed material jet. Bottom gas distributing unit allows for supplying heat carrier to the lower part of the housing, where a gas-distributing grate is installed. The grate is provided with nozzles to supply secondary heat carrier and a chute for granules discharge. Vibro grain mill is installed in central part of the housing in the form of a vibrating tray with a screen bottom with perforation coefficient equal to 0.3…0.5, and a perforated plate elastically fixed at the bottom by means of springs with perforation coefficient equal to 0.5…0.7, and a vibratory drive has a control unit, by means of which direction, amplitude and frequency of vibration is changed in the required optimum range of operating parameters of the granulating plant: vibration level is in the range of 100…120 dB, frequency of an oscillating process is in the range of 50…100 Hz; each injector consists of a cylindrical part with outer thread for connection to a nozzle of distributing pipeline and two in-series connected hollow cylindrical-conical belts coaxial to it, and coaxial to the housing, in its lower part there fixed is a nozzle formed with outer conical surface and an end blind partition wall perpendicular to the nozzle axis, in which there is a central throttle hole and at least three inclined holes at an angle of 45° to the nozzle axis; on the nozzle conical surface there is a cylindrical collar with outer thread for connection of the nozzle to lower cylindrical-conical belt of the housing; on the nozzle, on the side opposite to liquid supply, there is an additional row of jet nozzles which are formed at least with three pairs of mutually perpendicular vertical channels for liquid passage and horizontal channels which are intersected on a conical side surface of the nozzle and form outlet holes of each jet nozzle; paired channels are located at a right angle to each other in longitudinal planes of the housing; conical side surface of the nozzle has the apex angle equal to 90°, and two rows of throttle holes are made on the cylindrical-conical belt rigidly attached o the cylindrical part of the housing: one row represents at least three horizontal holes made on cylindrical surface; the other row represents at least three inclined holes at an angle of 45°, which are made on conical surface; in horizontal plane the projections of axes of holes in those rows are located at the distance from each other through an angle lying in optimum range of values of 7.5…60°. On the cylindrical-conical belt connected to the nozzle by means of inner thread there is a row consisting of at least three horizontal throttle holes; in horizontal plane the projections of axes of holes and jet nozzles, which are formed at least with three pairs of mutually perpendicular vertical and horizontal channels on conical side surface of the nozzle, are located from each other through an angle lying in optimum range of values: 7.5…60°.

EFFECT: improvement of drying efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: in a device for no-carryover drying, comprising a loading device of moist material or solution, a drying chamber, a fan and a system of spent drying agent treatment, besides, the drying chamber comprises a cylindrical vessel, a porous shell installed coaxially in it, forming a free space for even passage of a drying agent inside the shell, besides, the shell material is made on the basis of aluminium-containing alloys with their further filling by titanium hydride or air with density within 0.5…0.9 kg/m3 with the following strength properties: compression strength within 5…10 MPa, bending strength within 10…20 MPa, and dry product is removed from a hopper via a gate lock, besides, for removal of the drying agent from the shell there is a rotary hollow porous cylinder, connected by means of a shaft with a drive, installed on the cover. Besides, the porous cylinder is made of a stiff porous material, for instance, foam aluminium or metal ceramics, or metal foam rubber with porosity extent within the range of optimal values: 30…45%. Supply of moist material or solution may be carried out by several sprayers, evenly arranged along the entire cross section of the shell, and the drying agent via the space under the upper cover leaves the device, at the outlet of which there is an acoustic plant installed for catching of medium-dispersed particles, connected with a cyclone connected to a discharge device. Optimal parameters for sound treatment in the acoustic plant with concentration of particles in the drying agent flow of at least 2 g/m3 are as follows: level of sound pressure in the range of 145…150 dB, frequency of oscillating process in the range of 900…1100 Hz, time of sounding in the range of 1.0…2 s, according to the invention, the body of each nozzle is made with a channel for supply of solution and comprises a coaxial rigidly coupled bushing, with a nozzle fixed on its lower part, made in the form of a cylindrical double-staged bushing, the upper cylindrical step of which is connected by means of a threaded connection with a central core, comprising a cylindrical part and a coaxial hollow cone installed with a circular gap relative to the inner surface of the cylindrical bushing, and the circular gap is connected at least with three radial channels, made in the double-stage bushing, connecting it with the circular cavity formed by the inner surface of the bushing and the outer surface of the upper cylindrical stage, besides, the circular cavity is connected to the channel of the body for supply of solution, and a sprayer is rigidly connected to the cone in its lower part with the help of a screw, and the sprayer is made in the form of an end round plate, edges of which are bent towards the circular gap between the nozzle and the hollow cone, at the same time on the side surface of the cone there are at least two rows of cylindrical throttling holes, with axes lying in planes perpendicular to the axis of the cone, and in each row there are at least three holes, besides, axes of throttling holes of one row are displaced relative to axes of throttling holes of the other row by an angle in the range of 15°÷60°.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of drying.

2 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: in a chamber for heat and mass exchange between dispersed particles and a gaseous medium, comprising a body with a cover, a vessel with porous walls installed inside the body concentrically to it, nozzles installed inside the vessel and a device for bleeding of the spent coolant with the porous working surface, equipped with a drive, and inside the vessel there are lattices fixed, between which there is a layer of an inert carrier filled, which increases efficiency of heat and mass exchange. To increase efficiency of operation of the inert carrier, at least two rods are connected to the rotary hollow porous cylinder, and their axes are parallel to the axis of the cylinder, and are at identical distance from its axis, and to each of rods at the angle of 45…90° there are additional rods attached, making it possible to intensify heat and mass exchange between coolant and dispersed material, according to the invention, the body of the nozzle is made with a channel for liquid supply and comprises a coaxial rigidly connected bushing, with a nozzle fixed in its lower part made in the form of a cylindrical double-staged bushing, the upper cylindrical stage of which is connected by means of a threaded joint with a central core, made of a cylindrical part and a coaxial conical socket installed with a circular gap relative to the inner surface of the cylindrical bushing, and the circular gap is connected at least with three radial channels made in the double-staged bushing, connecting it with the circular cavity, formed by the inner surface of the bushing and the outer surface of the upper cylindrical stage, besides, the circular cavity is connected with the channel of the body for liquid supply, at the same time to the conical socket, in its lower part, there is a receptacle rigidly fixed in the form of an end round plate with at least seven radial tabs, which are bent towards the circular gap between the nozzle and the socket, on the side surface of the socket there are at least two rows of cylindrical throttling holes, with axes lying in planes perpendicular to the socket axis, and in each row there are at least three holes, besides, in the end round plate there are at least three conical throttling holes with an angle near the top of the cone lying in the range of 45° - 90°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of drying and tempering processes.

2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of dust separation.

Scrubber // 2490052

FIELD: process engineering.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of dust separation.

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FIELD: machine building.

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Swirling nozzle // 2486965

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-power engineering and may be used in coolers, scrubbers and other heat exchange hardware that sprays fluids and ejects gases. Nozzle comprises distribution chamber with orifice, adapter with outlet and fluted swirler. Flutes on outer surfaces diverge from axis to periphery and smoothly flex to change into converging channels to communicate with complex-shape inner chamber and to change into blind cylindrical hole. Chamber top section features cylindrical shape while mid section is shaped to convex parabolic surface. Converging channels are directed along tangent toward swirler inner chamber without through bore along its axis. Adapter outlet is shaped to Venturi nozzle. Hemispherical ledges are arranged at nozzle confuser section and inner chamber convex parabolic section. Simultaneously, notable rarefaction is created inside swiftly swirling vortex to cause intensive fluid evaporation and to force the cone outward saturated with vapours that facilitates fluid cooling.

EFFECT: higher ejection capacity.

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FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fluid and solution sprayers. Nozzle comprises case with swirling chamber and atomiser. Case is composed of union with fluid feed hole and coaxial cylindrical sleeve rigidly jointed thereto. Centrifugal swirler composed of blind cylindrical insert is connected to case lower section and aligned therewith. Insert has at least three tangential inlet cylindrical bores. Radial-flow swirler has communicated and aligned axial, taper and cylindrical throttling bores. Radial-flow swirler is arranged in case cylindrical chamber to form annular cylindrical chamber to feed fluid to radial-flow swirler tangential fluid inlets and communicated with two chambers: conical and cylindrical chambers aligned with said swirler. Chambers are arranged so that outlet of one chamber makes inlet for another chamber. Said tangential fluid inlets represent channels arranged tangentially to cylindrical insert inner surface. Swirling intensifier with inner helical thread is rigidly secured to cylindrical chamber edge and aligned therewith.

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FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to high-pressure nozzle, in particular, to nozzle for removal of scale from steel parts, and to method of its fabrication. High-pressure nozzle incorporates jet straightener and feed channel extending to convergent outlet chamber with discharge hole. Note here that jet straightener has free flow section in the zone around feed channel central lengthwise axis while feed channel has stepped contraction with taper part and long permanent-diameter cylindrical part. Proposed method comprises sintering of raw stock of solid alloy powder.

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19 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fluid and solution sprayers. Confuser is rigidly secured to nozzle body bottom edge. Confuser inner surface has helical thread with trapezoidal-shape high-pitch directed opposite fluid flow swirling.

EFFECT: higher efficiency due to increased spray cone.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method the plant protection unit is operated, which consists of the vehicle and the sprayer with nozzles for spraying agent of protection. The operation of the movement of plant protection unit is performed by the onboard computer with the navigation system in accordance with coordinates of the route inputted in the onboard computer. The operation of spraying is carried out by using the nozzles of the sprayer in untreated areas of the field. At that operation of spraying is carried out by using the nozzle of the sprayer in untreated contaminated areas of the field to be sprayed - the contaminated area. The operation of the plant protection unit, movement and choice of the route geometry of movement, positioning accuracy of the unit on the route, the length of the rod, the number of nozzles on the rod, the radius of nozzle discharge pattern, the criterion for inclusion of the nozzles and operation of spraying is carried out with a minimum of environmental damage, and power resources costs of the plant protection unit, taking into account the spatial position of the contaminated zones and field configuration for a given precision of navigation and the system of determining the geographical coordinates.

EFFECT: method enables to minimise environmental damage and power resources costs for operation of the plant protection unit by reducing the length of the route of movement of the unit on sites including the contamination zones.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method the plant protection unit is operated, which consists of the vehicle and the sprayer with nozzles for spraying agent of protection. The operation of the movement of plant protection unit is performed by the onboard computer with the navigation system in accordance with coordinates of the route inputted in the onboard computer. The operation of spraying is carried out by using the nozzles of the sprayer in untreated areas of the field. At that operation of spraying is carried out by using the nozzle of the sprayer in untreated contaminated areas of the field to be sprayed - the contaminated area. The operation of the plant protection unit, movement and choice of the route geometry of movement, positioning accuracy of the unit on the route, the length of the rod, the number of nozzles on the rod, the radius of nozzle discharge pattern, the criterion for inclusion of the nozzles and operation of spraying is carried out with a minimum of environmental damage, and power resources costs of the plant protection unit, taking into account the spatial position of the contaminated zones and field configuration for a given precision of navigation and the system of determining the geographical coordinates.

EFFECT: method enables to minimise environmental damage and power resources costs for operation of the plant protection unit by reducing the length of the route of movement of the unit on sites including the contamination zones.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: automated check outlet conduit comprises a lock installed on a water-outlet hole on a horizontal axis of rotation, a control chamber with an elastic shell, communicated with reaches, a valve connected with a level sensor, limiters of the control range. The automated check water outlet is equipped with a stem for fixation of the range of discrete control within wide limits, having a movable float level sensor. The control chamber is equipped with an outlet nozzle, on which there is a magnet for valve fixation. At the same time limiters of the control range are made in the form of fixators, one of which is arranged in the upper part of the stem above the movable float level sensor, and the other ones are arranged above the outlet nozzle of the control chamber.

EFFECT: expanded control range and stabilisation of device operation under various heads.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns agriculture, particularly, a suspension bracket for a self-propelled agricultural sprinkling machine. A vehicle comprises a frame, a bridge and a suspension bracket. The suspension bracket comprises at least one pair of connecting traction rods. The pair of traction rods, when looked at from the tops, forms "X", and when looked at the side, the rods are parallel to each other. The suspension bracket comprises the first upper pair and the first lower pair of connecting traction rod supports. The upper pair is located in the middle between the opposite ends of the bridge and is located between the lower pair of the traction rod supports. The second upper pair and the second lower pair of supports of connecting traction rods are installed on the main frame. Some ends of the upper pair of connecting traction rods are connected with several ones of the first upper pairs of the traction rod supports, the other ones - with several ones from the second upper pairs of traction rod supports. Some ends of the pair of lower traction rods are connected with several ones of the first lower pairs of the traction rod supports. Other ends are connected with several ones of the second lower pairs of the traction rod supports. The first and second upper pairs of traction rod supports are arranged so that one traction rod from the pair of upper connecting traction rods jointly with one traction rod from the specified pair of the lower connecting traction rods form "X". The other traction rod of the pair of upper traction rods jointly with the other traction rod from the pair of lower traction rods form "X". The suspension bracket comprises at least one pair of connecting traction rods, jointly with each other forming "X", when looked at from the top, in which the first ends are connected with the bridge, and the second ends are connected with the frame. The first and second ends of traction rods are arranged relative to each other so that at least one pair of traction rods is parallel.

EFFECT: invention provides for development of a wheel suspension bracket for a vehicle, which eliminates problems related to movement of rear wheels strictly in a track of front ones, when a bridge swings along an arc relative to points of fixation of a stabiliser of transverse stability.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes intermittent flooding of rice checks, water supply to rice crops is carried out in the form of asymmetrical triangular impulses regulated in space and time, reducing the bare soil moisture between the impulses is not allowed below 85% of the total water capacity (TWC), the program distribution of water in the irrigation network between the consumers is carried out on schedule by assigning time intervals of water supply to each of them on the parameters of the regulated impulse, which are determined by the following formulas: - The height of the impulse (water layer), hL;hL=σ+Δh, mm, where: σ is mean-square deviation of the roughness on the surface of checks, mm; Δh is a layer of water, ensuring flooding of high areas on the check and creating a favourable thermal regime of the soil, mm, it is assigned equal: in a phase of the "shoots-tillering" - 60 mm, in the phase of formation of the embryonic panicle - 100 mm; - The duration of the water supply to create a given impulse height, t1: t1=(hL/q)·α, day, where: q is a hydromodule of flooding equal to 100 mm/day; α is coefficient taking into account evaporation losses equal to about 1.05; - Duration of drawdown of the water layer in a natural way through evapotranspiration (E) and filtration (F) t2: t2=hL/(E+F), day; - Duration of bare soil between impulses t3: t3=0,15(hL+ω)E+F,  day, where : ω is humidity at which its water-keeping is close to 0, and the transpiration intensity is not reduced, for loamy soils it was found to be 85% TWC - The amount of strokes of water circulation N on the economic distributor is defined by the formula: N=Ttot/t1 where: Ttot is the total duration of the impulse, day.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of use of water resources.

1 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to mechanisation of watering and can be used for irrigation of agricultural crops by discrete (impulse) water supply in the centers of moistening. The set of locally-impulse watering comprises a storage container, a feeding tube with tap, a siphon with the drain outlet, a receiver-collector and irrigation pipes with water outlets. The water outlets are made in the form of microtubes connected with the inlet ends to the irrigation pipes, and with the outlet ends - with the atmosphere. The irrigation pipes are located below the outlet ends of the microtubes. The receiver-collector cavity is hermetically connected to the drain outlet of the siphon. The upper and lower ends of the receiver-collector are communicated respectively with the atmosphere above the level of the drain outlet of the siphon and with the irrigation pipes at the level of the irrigated area.

EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency of operation of the set and uniform distribution of irrigation water through the water outlets.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to reclamation. The method includes planting seeds or seedlings of vegetable crops and their vegetative irrigation with electroactivated aqueous solutions - anolyte and catholyte. The first irrigation after planting is carried out with the activated aqueous solution of anolyte and catholyte at their ratio (70:30)-(80:20). The subsequent irrigations are carried out with the activated aqueous solution of with the ratio of anolyte and catholyte (30:70)-(20:80). At that after the first irrigation with the activated solution one irrigation with light water is carried out, and the subsequent irrigations with the said solutions are alternated with irrigations with light water so that one irrigation with the activated aqueous solution is accounted for two irrigations with light water with the predetermined irrigation norm. Prior to mixing the components of the activated water the anolyte pH is 3.2-4.7, and the catholyte pH is 10.5-12.0.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of vegetable produce and increase productivity, reduce energy consumption and improve the environmental friendliness of the process, and also reduce the consumption of activated aqueous solutions during irrigation.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes division of sloping areas to at least two levels, performing the preparatory works associated with digging and displacement the soil to create the limited amounts on the areas of different levels. And on the sloping and divided to sections areas the diking is made with the creation of the reservoir for moisture collection located upward the irrigated areas. Then in spring period of thawing of soil to the depth of 0.5-0.8 height of topsoil the water is released from the reservoir into the lower irrigated diked areas with its uniform distribution on the irrigated areas. The moisture collection in the reservoirs located at a higher level is carried out throughout the year with use of underwater channels and trays made in the soil.

EFFECT: method provides long-term conservation of water and physical soil properties when used effectively.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil reclamation. The method includes conducting of primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrows of cuttings from licorice rootstocks, narrow-row sowing of wheatgrass and harvesting wheatgrass-licorice hay and licorice rootstocks. Formation of agrophytocenosis is carried out in I-II decade of October by alternating the bands of common licorice - 3 rows and wheat grass - 5 rows. And the distance between the furrows of licorice is 0.3 m, and between the rows of wheatgrass is 0.15 m. In the first year of formation of the plantation the two-fold mowing for hay of wheatgrass tops is carried out to a height of 0.12-0.15 m. On the 2-5th year, up to 2-3 mowing of wheatgrass-licorice hay is carried out. And during five years after each mowing of tops of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis the mineral feeding is carried out, irrigation with water with the salinity of less than 1.8-3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold of preirrigation soil moisture not lower than 65-70% minimum water capacity. The rootstocks of licorice are harvested at the end of the growing season of the 5th year of life of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the phytomeliorative effect contributing to reduction of content of water-soluble salts in the arable soil layer, to reduce the level of ground water, and increase the yield of high-protein cereal-legume hay and medicinal licorice raw material.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: system comprises a source of irrigation, water intake facilities connected to self-pumped pipeline, irrigation sites with compacted irrigation furrows. The self-pumped pipeline is connected through valves with diaphragm actuators to a pair of distribution pipelines. The irrigation pipelines are laid on the maximum slope of the terrain. The upper part of the irrigation sites with compacted irrigation furrows is laid at an angle to the terrain contour lines, and the lower part - parallel to horizontal lines. On the irrigation pipelines the hydraulic step motors are mounted. The hydraulic motors are connected to the spherical distribution valve. The spherical distribution valve outlets are connected by tubes to the water-distributing furrows. Through the water-distributing furrows the water is supplied to pairs of compacted irrigation furrows located at the edges of the beds. The upper part of the irrigation furrows is laid at a mild slope along the terrain contour lines. The lower part of the irrigation furrows is made in the form of deep irrigation furrows laid without slope. In the middle of the beds the trenches of up to one metre depth are laid, which are filled with peat and manure. The center of the beds is covered with trash mulch. The screens of ameliorative film are laid below the irrigation furrows. Above the screens of ameliorative film in the soil active layer of the beds a 5-10 cm layer of sand or gravel is laid. The irrigation control unit is connected to the valves diaphragm actuators.

EFFECT: construction enables to improve the uniformity of soil moisture, moisture capacity of the soil active layer, to prevent the water loss for depth filtration.

2 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.

4 cl, 4 dwg

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