Multifunctional magnetohydrodynamic (mhd) machine

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed rotary MHD machine has disc rotors and collectors for inlet and outlet of the working medium, mounted in parallel in a housing. According to the invention, working elements which convert energy of the working medium to mechanical energy and then to electrical energy are disc rotors made from electroconductive porous material which is pervious on at least one end surface and are mounted with possibility of counter-rotation while providing electrical contact with each other on electroconductive areas of the rotor shafts which alternate with insulated areas of shafts in checkered order relative each other. Each pair of rotor discs lying in the same plane is placed between poles of permanent magnets placed in a perpendicular plane to axes of the rotors and is connected in series to only one pair of voltage contacts on shafts so as to allow series-flow of current through each disc of both rotors.

EFFECT: design of a multifunctional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) machine, high emf generated by the MHD machine.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely the energy-transducing devices of the rotary type. The proposed MHD machine, depending on conditions and the task can be: a generator, a conductive MHD pump of the centrifugal type for pumping conductive and not conductive gaseous and liquid media flowing chemical and electrocatalytic reactors.

The conceptual basis of the proposed multifunctional machines are known property of reversibility homopolar electric machine and method of organization of the working environment in the devices of the rotary type using permeable porous materials.

A classic example of a unipolar generator is the generator Faraday /1/, known as the "Faraday disk". Contains electrically conductive disk is driven in rotation by means of the handle, a permanent magnet that generates a field parallel to the axis of rotation of the disk and two current collectors - one on the axis of the disk, the other at the edge of the disk. As a result, when the rotation of the disk occurs EMF between its center and edge. This generator has a very low EMF (from fractions to units of volts) with a low internal resistance and a large current.

Similar to the proposed device is a Dynamo is a machine or generator excitation permanent magnets Nikola T. the SLA /2/, representing the combination of two disks Faraday located in the same plane and electrically interconnected by a flexible conductive strap on the periphery. Power collection was carried out through an axial bearing, which is fixed and rotated disks. This scheme allows two times to increase the EMF of the electric machine. One of the differences of the present invention from known is the electrical connection between the two rotating in opposite directions drive through the direct contact of the side surfaces of the disk, or by being created locally conductive zone. Another difference is the combination of an electric generator and propulsion in a single car in which to drive, made of highly permeable porous electrically conductive material is used, the working environment - a jet of gas or liquid.

A prototype of the proposed technical solutions is an energy-transducing device of the rotary type and the way of organizing the flow of the working medium /3/. Power-transforming device of the rotary type contains at least one rotor mounted on the shaft for rotation, the collector supply and discharge of working medium, and the rotor is made of any geometrical shape, such as a disk, a cone, truncated cone ball from permeable in different directions of cellular material with the formation of channels within the body of the rotor to the flow of the working medium. According to the method, the direction and intensity of the working environment define the shape of the rotor and its cellular structure, permeable in different directions. As the porous material is a catalytic material, and the processes of energy and mass exchange and chemical interaction occurs inside the body of the rotor with the participation of its developed surface.

The disadvantages of the above prototypes is that each of them separately has low EMF and does not possess multifunctional properties of MHD machine.

Object of the invention is the creation of multi-MHD machine and increase the generated EMF.

The task is implemented due to the fact that multi MHD machine is an energy-transducing device of the rotary type, containing parallel mounted in the housing of disk rotors and the collector supply and discharge of the working environment, according to the invention the working elements, which convert the energy of the working medium into mechanical and then electrical is disk rotor made of a conductive porous material permeable, at least one end surface, ustanovlennye with the possibility of counter-rotation and providing electrical contact between a on conductive areas rotor shafts, interspersed with isolated sections of the shaft in staggered relation to each other. Each pair lying in the same plane disks placed between the poles of the permanent magnets installed in the perpendicular plane to the axis of the rotor and connected in series only one pair of contacts of an electrical voltage on the shafts, so that provides the current passes successively through each drive both rotors.

A positive result is achieved due to the fact that getting a higher electromotive force and increasing productivity MHD machine becomes possible when using multi-rotors installed so that when the opposite rotation of the discs, electric charge can flow from one of the disks of the first rotor to the other, paired with him to drive the second rotor through a conducting medium or by direct touch rotating in opposite directions disks. When the direction of the magnetic flux or the direction of the poles of the magnet must be the same for both pairs of discs to the disc rotation in opposite directions developed the current in one disc from the center to the circumference, and the other from the circumference to the centre, resulting in the addition of the electromotive forces of the two disks.

The principal difference is proposed to the constituent of the invention from known is the direct electrical contact between the two rotating in opposite directions disks and the combination of an electric generator and propulsion in a single machine, in which to drive, made of highly permeable porous electrically conductive material is used, the working environment - a jet of gas or liquid.

Also the difference of the invention from the known technical solutions is that the electrically conductive discs rotors at the same time are the main constituent element, a generator of electric power and propulsion. The high conductivity of the disk rotors offer multifunctional MHD machines, in contrast to the known magneto-hydrodynamic devices, allows you to work effectively with a non-conductive gaseous or liquid working medium.

Figure 1 presents the scheme of the multi-disk homopolar electric MHD machine, transverse section; figure 2 is a top view; figure 3 shows the conventional scheme of multi MHD machine.

According to the proposed technical solution of the MHD machine includes a housing 1 with two disk rotors 2 and 3, located in the same plane and mounted with the possibility of electrical contact between the side surfaces of the disks. In the perpendicular plane to the axes of the rotors are mounted poles 4 and 5 of the permanent magnet. Perpendicular to the axis of the rotor plane is the input channel of the manifold for supplying the working medium 6, which is fed into the gaseous or liquid the working environment, resulting in a rotation of electrically conductive porous disks of the rotor, and the output channel of the collector drainage work environment - 7. Asymmetrically with the shafts of the rotors are two Windows 8, and 9, intended for additional ejection of the gas or liquid environment. The shafts of the rotors are provided with a moving current-carrying contacts 10, 11 and shafts are selecting torque. Lots rotor shafts between the porous conductive disks 2 and 3 are electrically isolated 12 placed in staggered relation to each other on the rotors.

Multifunctional MHD machine can operate in different modes, represented in the examples: in the generator mode of the electric power, as a motor or pump, and the flow of chemical and electrocatalytic reactors.

Example 1

The way MHD machine in generator mode, including gas-dynamic movement, submitted to the working environment, resulting in multidirectional rotation of a porous electrically conductive disk rotor in a magnetic field and generating an electric current in an external load.

Mode generator the working medium flow of gas or liquid from the channel 6 enters the contact area of the porous disks 2, 3 and then, after partial mixing with the working environment of the channels 8, 9 moves to the outlet channel 7. Because of the th complex gas dynamic flow conductive porous discs rotors come in multi-directional rotational movement, and in the presence of an external magnetic field is generated an electric current is removed from the contacts 10, 11.

Example 2

The way MHD machine in the motor mode is to convert the energy of the working medium flow differently through a rotating porous electrically conductive disks of the rotor in the rotational energy of the rotor (open electrical circuit).

The way MHD machine in the motor mode, including the conversion of electric energy through differently rotating porous electrically conductive disks of the rotor in the rotational energy of the rotor (when included in an electrical circuit external EMF) without feeding the working environment.

In the absence of magnetic field or open an electrical circuit this MHD machine operates as a motor, which converts the energy of the jet of fluid into rotational energy of the rotor.

Example 3

The way MHD machine mode of the centrifugal pump exercising pump supplied working environment, with the possibility of selection of mechanical power from the rotor shafts.

When the connection contacts 10, 11 external source of electricity MHD machine operates as a centrifugal conductive MHD pump used, for example, for pumping liquid metals /4/. In this machine, unlike /4/moving conducting medium are rotors with a porous and electrically conductive disk, that allows you to pump both conductive and non-conductive environment.

Example 4

The main part of the working volume of the proposed MHD machine is a system of rotating discs made of a porous permeable electrically conductive material, which significantly increases the effective surface interaction of the latter with the fluid flow. With proper selection of disc material or coating having the desired catalytic properties, multi-MHD machine in generator mode or in the mode of the pump can be used as a flow electrocatalytic chemical reactor. The presence of Windows 8, and 9 allows dosing of reagents in the reaction zone.

Sources of information:

1. Faraday, M. Experimental researches in electricity T.1 // M. Ed. ANSS. 1947

2. U.S. patent. No. 406968 Dynamo Electric machine 16 July 1889, Nikola Tesla.

3. Patent of the Russian Federation. No. 2256861 Way of organizing the flow of the working environment and power-transforming device of the rotary type for its implementation, the IPC F28D 11/02, publ. 20.07. 2005 - the prototype.

4. V.A. Gorbunov, Kolesnikov SHE, Bells VE and other Experimental study of the characteristics of centrifugal conductive MHD pump. // Magnetohydrodynamics. 1984. No. 1. P.134-136

Many who funkcionalna magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) machine - power-transforming device of the rotary type, containing parallel mounted in the housing of disk rotors and the collector supply and discharge of working medium, characterized in that the working elements, which convert the energy of the working medium into mechanical and then electrical, is disk rotor made of a conductive porous material, permeable, at least one end surface, and installed with the possibility of counter-rotation and providing electrical contact between a on conductive areas rotor shafts, interspersed with isolated sections of the shaft in staggered relation to each other, and each pair lying in the same plane disks placed between the poles of the permanent magnets installed in the perpendicular plane to the axis of the rotor and connected in series only one pair of contacts of an electrical voltage on the shafts, so that provides the current passes successively through each drive both rotors.



 

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