Method to produce sod peat and peat-producing machine

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method includes stages of peat production from a peat production field using a producing auger installed in a winning pipe, supply of produced peat under pressure into outlet nozzles, with which the winning pipe is equipped, cutting of pressed peat discharged from outlet nozzles, into pieces. At the same time the method includes a stage of transfer into the peat production field stack, by means of a belt conveyor or a similar device, of sod peat produced at different distances from the peat production field. Besides, transfer of the freshly produced sod peat is carried out with its laying above the previously produced sod peat dried without usage of turning and bundling.

EFFECT: minimised number of vehicles, working stages and reduced losses of peat.

14 cl, 8 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a method blanks lump of peat and peat machine.

The level of technology

Modern methods of preparation of lump peat have the disadvantage that contain many individual working steps, which make the production process slow and cumbersome. Traditionally extracted peat is laid out on the Moors. To speed up the drying process, lumpy peat tossing several times and collected in rolls, and finally rolls of lump peat loaded for transportation.

Traditional peat extraction machine with the tractor consists of a frame to which at three points docked actually working machine. With the specified frame connects the pipe (excavation pipe), which serves as a shell that hosts the primary auger or a combination of the screw and disc cutters. Peat is forced through the discharge nozzle or nozzles. Power machines is usually done mechanically or hydraulically.

The disadvantages of this procurement process lump peat, as a rule, include the requirement for a large amount of energy, the complexity of the procurement process, and interruption of peat extraction machines, caused by clogging. Additional problems caused by a functional insecurity complex the machine, as well as the inconvenience and high cost of their care.

Losses during normal harvesting of lump peat is high, approximately 20-50%, and explains the presence of several work stages (see publication technical research centre of Finland VTT News sheet 2045 - about the properties of fuels used in Finland, as well as patent publication Finland 106060). A significant proportion of losses due to destruction of the material during several stages of the tedding and raking, and that to lump peat mixed with the roots of plants, stones and coins. Therefore, peat, for example, lump peat, required several times to sift. Most large pieces of foreign material cannot be separated using sieves, they have to be removed from the peat by hand. Inefficiency used in the present methods of harvesting peat also contributes to the fact that the working stages perform the best for this piece time and the next procurement cycle can be started only after will be collected peat produced in the previous cycle.

Disclosure of inventions

The present invention is to provide a method and machine for implementing the method, by which can be remedied these shortcomings, there can be minimized the number of machines, the number of working the steps and reduced losses.

This is accomplished by means of the method and the peat machine, the hallmarks of which are set out in the independent claims. Preferred embodiments of the invention are disclosed in dependent claims.

The invention provides several advantages. For example, with the present invention, the use of milled peat (corpocracy), calorific value and energy density which is lower than the lump peat, to some extent replaced by the use of lump peat. Advantages of the invention it is hard to deny, because it may be reduced overall energy demand and reduced the number of machines for turf mining sites. Almost all of these can be eliminated such disadvantages as the dust and the risk of fire associated with milling peat.

One major advantage of the present invention is that it becomes possible and cost-effective use of peat fields small area, due to the small size of the machine and increased efficiency. In this regard, it should be noted that the workpiece lump peat does not depend on weather conditions to the extent that it depends on the weather billet milled peat. Thanks to the present invention, the harvesting of peat becomes less dependent on fluctuations of weather conditions. Thanks this is the invention, the disadvantages of methods of harvesting peat, which are currently in use, can be substantially reduced or completely eliminated.

Thanks to the present invention significantly reduced the number of work operations in the harvesting of peat, such as, tedding, raking and sifting, reducing the total energy consumption, energy consumption in the process of peat extraction, and the time of extraction per unit of energy. From the results of successful tests conducted on the prototype, it follows that the procurement process of lump peat can be improved and simplified. The process of peat extraction, from the point of view of continuity, the overall efficiency and environmental safety can be improved significantly. Due to the foregoing, economic competitive ability of lump peat compared with other forms of energy will rise to a new level without significant support from the society.

Brief description of drawings

Embodiments of the present invention will be described in more detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 depicts the corresponding invention peat extraction machine;

figure 2 depicts the extracting screw, the bearing and the design of rotating grapples;

figure 3 depicts the design of the extraction pipe, the exhaust path is ubcov and Lucas emptying;

figure 4 depicts the design of the hydraulically controlled pipe release and cleaning and cutting device and its mounting;

figure 5 illustrates the manner in which you can implement using the considered machine;

6 depicts a variant of the design of the drum for forming furrows;

Fig.7 depicts the steps that are discussed;

Fig illustrates the application of this method.

The implementation of the invention

Peatland selected for the peat, at first, clear of trees, roots and visible stones. The excavation of peat from peat bogs perform using auger mining, which involves peat excavation in pipe with uniform speed. At the other end of the auger is provided by the helical rib of the opposite direction to reduce the pressure and reduce wear on the rear end of the extraction pipe. Thus, formation of a working pressure and sending it to the exhaust pipe through which there is peat. Inside the excavation of the pipe is provided by the helical blades, which together with the outer edge of the rotating auger grind possible branches and twigs before they reach the nozzles of the production of peat. For additional reliability, the location of each vent on the axis of the extraction of the auger can be the fixed grapples cleaning. Task grapples cleaning to prevent the ingress of debris into the exhaust pipes.

However, if for some reason the debris will clog the exhaust pipes, exhaust pipes to clean them from clogging will be introduced pipe release and cleanup. Monolithic pipe release and cleaning can prevent material clogging of the internal cavity of the exhaust pipe back in the direction of the auger. At the same time, when the pipe release and clean ready to enter into the exhaust pipe, on the opposite side of the outlet pipes, the hatch opens emptying, which allows debris to exit the vehicle.

Grapples cleanup, revolving inside the excavation of the pipe enables the removal of debris through the hatch emptying. The exhaust pipes can be cleaned so that the driver does not have to leave the tractor cab and stop the process of peat extraction.

In addition, on the front side of the extraction tube has a bearing, which increases the service life of the peat machine. Frame, in which is fixed a bearing, prevents roots and rocks to enter the excavation auger. Frame mounting bearing also works as guide rails, when there is a dip machine at the working depth and movement in the soil. The frame also prevents damage Masha is s when hitting obstacles.

Compressed peat, coming out of the exhaust pipes may be through cutter cut into segments of desired length, and dropped on a conveyor belt or similar device, moving the pieces at a suitable distance from the peat machine, a stack of peat sites (peat cards). This process ensures that, even in small spaces, this method of procurement lump peat gives multiple winnings compared to the existing methods of harvesting peat. Moreover, the new stacking method greatly accelerates the workpiece lump of peat and improves its quality. When using this method, lumpy peat, there is no need to stir and walkout on peat containing fines and impurities. When using this method, pieces of peat are passed in the stack immediately in the form of layers.

On top of the first received/produced and naturally dried layer of lump peat impose new layers of lump peat, until then, until it is ready ventilated, quick-drying stack pure lump of peat. Thus, pieces of peat lie on top of each other and completely dry without tedding and raking. And all operations sifting also excluded, since the lump peat not smeshivaet is by no extraneous material. Thanks to the present invention, at the beginning of the process of peat excavation lump peat can be transferred to a peat stack, and this is accomplished in a single operation, and using one machine. Compared with the traditional way of harvesting peat, eliminates the need for multiple job steps.

In accordance with the present invention, the production of lump peat is produced directly in multiple overlapping layers, and thus, in a preferred embodiment, the formed stack can be directly picked up by the truck, loaded onto a vehicle and transported to the nearest stockpile warehouse or plant for incineration. Thus, consider a new way of harvesting peat contains only two working stage - excavation of peat and its laying in Kuskovo the form directly in a pile on the peat bog, and loading of lump peat on the vehicle.

Figure 1 shows a variant implementation of the peat machine, in which the extraction tube 2 is fixed to the steel beam frame 1, within the excavation pipe 2 on the bearings installed extracting the screw 3. The pipe has two functions. On the one hand, it closes the screw, and thereby protects it from bumps, for example, stones. On the other hand, the pipe works in conjunction with the auger, defining the space in to what PR can rotate the auger, not giving peat opportunities to fall from the screw. On the lower end of the extraction pipe fixed bearing and is protective frame 4, which also plays the role of guide rails that protect the screw 3 from damage.

Extraction tube 2 is fixed in a steel frame 1 at an angle of about 35 relative to the earth. On the lower end of the extraction pipe 2 provided additional hatch 5, which can be opened by means of a hydraulic cylinder, and which is designed to accelerate the supply of peat on the screw 3, if necessary. On the other side of the screw 3 has a gear 6 for transmission of mechanical power on the screw 3. The axis of the extraction of the auger is equipped with a toothed clutch 7 and the roller chain, which increases the reliability of the axis. The rotation transmission mechanism 6 in the preferred embodiment, is transmitted through the shaft from a source of mechanical power, such as a tractor.

The operation hydraulically controlled pipe 9 release and cleanup, Luke 10 emptying and additional hatch 5 can be carried out from the tractor cab. Cutting device 11 is mounted on bearings and is automatic due to the kinetic energy of the pieces of peat. That is, the cutting device may contain multiple blades, which are mounted on rotating Structures under neatorama.com to each other. When the peat comes out of the exhaust pipes, he pushes one of the blades of the cutting device, which causes the cutter unit to turn and as the blade cut a piece of peat. Usually chunks of peat have a length of 50-200 mm and a diameter of 40-80 mm Long pieces can be changed by changing the number of blades of the cutting device, and the diameter of the pieces using the exhaust pipes with different internal diameter.

It is desirable that the conveyor belt 12 or a similar device was mounted at the exhaust pipe 13 and the cutting device 11 by means of two horizontal fingers 14, one of which is hinged to a vertical finger. Due to the swivel mounting on a vertical finger, the pipeline can take a side and commit to road transport. The height of the output end of the conveyor can be adjusted using the winch 15 and mounting delays 16. Thus, the movement of pieces of peat in the desired position can be directed vertically. Along the length of conveyor movement pieces of peat can be sent with the introduction of the conveyor triangular plate or similar device. The belt conveyor can be equipped with guide plates, so that the pieces of peat, coming out of the exhaust pipes, were distributed on the conveyor belt evenly. Due to such plates chunks of peat retain the right direction is executed while moving on the conveyor belt. Thus, pieces of peat can be distributed evenly and in the peat stack.

The application of belt conveyor 12 prevents the mixing of pieces of peat swamp trash because lumpy peat directly placed layers to the place from which will be its loading. There is no need for tedding, raking and sifting lump of peat in the peat bog, on which there is a foreign material. Foreign objects, such as stones and roots, usually reduce the energy output of lump peat.

Winch 15 may operate mechanically and hydraulically. The drive of the conveyor 12 may be of the hydraulic motor 17, through which you can easily control the speed of the conveyor from the cabin if required.

Figure 2 shows the design of the extraction screw 3, bearing and rotating grapples 21. The screw 3 is fixed in bearings at both ends to increase functional reliability and to prevent damage to the auger. From the figure it is seen that the auger 3 consists of chopping blade 18, which bypasses the screw 3 on its outer edge, the main (cleaning) of the spiral ribs 19 and the helical ribs 20 with the opposite direction of the spiral, and grapples 21 from solid steel, attached to the axis of the screw 3, and located between the screw R is bromine 19 and the helical rib 20 from the counter direction of the spiral. If necessary, grapples 21 cleaning systems can be equipped with a mixing ribs 22 or similar devices. Peat, which was received in the excavation pipe on her site, where there is no screw edge under high pressure is directed into the exhaust pipe 13, while the peat due grapples 21 and mixing ribs 22 is mixed, and pressed the form is pushed out through the exhaust pipe 13 on the conveyor belt 12 or equivalent type.

Figure 3 shows the design of the excavation of the pipe 2, the outlet pipes 13 and Luke 10 emptying. The exhaust pipe 13 is installed on the excavation of the pipe 2 at an angle to its axis, which may be about 35, and thus the discharge nozzles directed along the axis of the conveyor 12. Mount the exhaust pipe 13 in the frame may be fixed relative to the excavation of the pipe 2. In a preferred variant the flange 23 to which may be attached a number of outlet pipes having different diameters and shape.

In addition, excavation of the pipe 2 can be equipped with spiral ribs 24 which is made of solid steel, which are rigidly attached to the inner wall of the excavation of the pipe 2, are in the direction of the spiral ribs of the extracting screw 3, and have the direction opposite to the direction of the spiral auger. Ribs 24 excavation of the pipe 2 is n conjunction with the blade 18 of the auger grinds garbage coming into the extraction pipe 2. If one or more outlet pipes 13 are clogged, then, simultaneously, by means of a hydraulic cylinder opens the hatch 10 discharge and pipe 9 release and cleanup begin to move in the direction of the outlet pipes 13. Thus, the material of the pipe 9 purification pushed out from the discharge nozzle 13 has an opportunity to fall out of the car through the hatch 10 emptying.

Figure 4 shows the design of the pipes 9 release and clean cutting device 11, and attaching them. In a preferred embodiment, the pipe 9 release and cleanup rigidly mounted on a steel frame 25 of the control device, which is arranged to move through the response of this control device and the hydraulic cylinder, so that may be the purification of exhaust pipes 13, and may be the return pipe 9 cleaning in the original position, and the operator (driver) of the tractor will not go out of the cabin and to stop the process of harvesting peat. In practice, you can do so that when the operator noticed a blockage of one or more outlet pipes, he pressed the button control in the cockpit. This will make pipes 9 cleaning quickly enter into the exhaust pipe 13 and out of them. This operation is to clean the key, in practice, may so fast, what is not required at the time of cleaning to stop the process of peat extraction.

Cutting device 11 with the blades attached to the links 26 of the hinge mechanism, which is attached to the frame 25 of the control device. When pipes 9 cleanup begin the movement, the links 26 of the hinge mechanism, raise the cutting device 11 with the blades, so that the pipe 9 cleaning could freely move. Cutting device 11 on both sides mounted on bearings and is powered by the kinetic energy of the incoming peat. Turning around its own axis cutting device with their blades, cutting peat into pieces of desired length before the pieces will fall on the conveyor. The length of the pieces, and, consequently, the speed of drying of peat can be adjusted by changing the number of cutting blades and the diameter of the outlet pipes 13.

Figure 5 shows how the machine harvesting of peat, and, in the preferred case, the conveyor belt 12 or similar device attached to the frame under the exhaust pipe and cutting device peat machine. The length of belt conveyor can be variable. One way to change the length of the pipeline is to have the belt conveyor was the possibility of rotation around the three points and that was the ability to change the position of these points other the other. When you want to have the maximum length of the conveyor, these three points can be located on the same line. If you want a shorter pipeline, it is possible to change the position of the three points to form a triangle. The height of the output end of the conveyor can be adjusted in the process of peat extraction by means of the winch 15 and mounting delays 16. Thus, lumpy peat can be directed to the desired location of the stack.

On the other hand, the length of the conveyor can be fixed. Then, if peat extraction machine is located close enough to the peat stack, chunks of peat can be directed from one side of the stack through the top on the other side.

The present invention provides the ability to collect peat with the same band several times in the same stack, stacking lumpy peat layers, and gradually forming a dry and clean the stack 27, which, in the preferred embodiment, takes the truck, transferring directly to the vehicle that is transporting the peat in the reserve pile or to the place of use.

Figure 5 shows moved by the conveyor to a stack of four layers of lump peat 31. You can see that the pieces of peat in the lower three layers are smaller compared to pieces you just extracted peat in the top layer. In the drying process of lump peat, pieces of offset which are, and between adjacent pieces of the same layer and between the pieces of the different layers are formed gaps. Thus, if the lump peat to give the opportunity to dry naturally within 3-6 days (preferably, no more than two weeks), before adding, dropping a new layer of lump peat, it is possible to get blown, well-ventilated stack.

At the base of the peat stacks 27, you can perform the grooves 30, oriented transversely to the top of the pile. Rainwater on these furrows will be able to go to the sides of the pile, not accumulating under the top. Because of this, in rainy weather, even the bottom-most layer of lump peat will be good conditions for drying.

Figure 6 shows a variant implementation of the drum 28 for rolling grooves, the metal sections 29 which form a furrow in the soil when preparing the substrate under the peat stack. The grooves enable the rainwater away from the Foundation to the bottom layer of lump peat not lay on damp surfaces. A few hours after rolling, the surface and furrow acquire hardness, and form a water-repellent surface.

Further, according to Fig.7, will be described the method of stacking peat. At step 702 form the basis under the pile. Before this step can be made in the dena cleanup site peat or strips from the trees, roots and visible stones. The base may have a width of, for example, 2-8 m, and in the preferred embodiment, about 6 m Discharged from the conveyor peat blocks can have a width of about 50 cm Layer of the stack is the area covered by the pieces of peat, which is transferred to the pile of discarded peat blocks. Under the layer can be understood lump peat, placed on one side of the stack or on both sides of the stack.

Typically, the bandwidth of peat map is about 20 m, and thus, in this example, effective for turf mining sites remain 14 m band. The width of the pile and stripes are not limited to the above values. Thus, the stack where the layers of lump peat, width narrower than the entire width of the strip, i.e. the width of the pile is less than half the entire width of the strip, and may be even less than a third of the entire bandwidth. It is desirable that the stack was located in the middle of the strip, but, alternatively, it can be positioned in a different place depending on the characteristics of the strip.

The length of the strip depends on the size of the peat bogs. On the peat bogs can be several bands, and they can be separated from each other by trenches drainage system. The length of the peat stacks essentially equal to the length of the peat cards. At the ends of peat cards can be left which prohibited place the tractor to avoid piles. Thus, the stack may be a little shorter peat map.

The beginning may be made in the layout of the base under the stack by use of a screw Profiler, which aligns the base, and may, if required, to form a base with a bias towards ditches, drainage system, so that the top point of the base was in the middle. Finally, the substrate can be laminated drum, forming grooves, so that both sides of the base were formed furrow, allowing rainwater away from the Foundation. Laminated surface hardens and becomes the property of vodootlivnye within a few hours after treatment. Thus, it forms the basis for optimum drying of lump peat.

The base of the peat stacks may be in the form of a ridge with gentle slopes or similar form. When creating and planning grounds on which should be placed the first layer of the pile of lump peat this strip, on both sides of the base may be made of the slope of at least 5 cm/s, to ensure the flow of rain water and drying pieces of peat took place as soon as possible, despite the weather. On the other hand, producing laying the first layer of lump peat and flat base, however, in this case the most is the bottom layer of lump peat may not dry well, as the layers placed on top of it.

At step 704 produce the excavation of peat from peat bogs. At step 706, the peat is fed under pressure into the exhaust pipes. At step 708 cylinders of compressed peat cut into lumpy peat. At step 710 make the transfer on the basis of the first layer of lump peat, so to get the first layer of the pile of lump peat. Production of lump peat consider the method can be carried out on the area of the strip, excluding space occupied himself peat stack.

At step 712, the first layer of the pile of lump peat leave to dry naturally under the action of sun and wind without turning, and/or raking.

At step 714, which may begin in 3-6 days (preferably not later than two weeks after the production of the previous layer, extracting peat for the next layer of lump peat, and passed for laying on top of the previous layer. Layer their lump of peat, which is located in the stack on top of the previous layer of lump peat, then leave to dry for several days before adding, dropping a new layer of lump peat.

Then the above steps can be repeated several times during the season of harvesting peat. The number of layers that are harvested from the strip may be, for example, from 2 to 16. It should be noted that the lump peat is, when you are collecting in a pile, after a couple of hours formed surface with a water-repellent properties. In the process of drying the grain size decreases. When the stack consists of multiple layers, drying and offset pieces peat forms a structure in which between the pieces there are gaps. Thus, the stack, which consists of layers of lump peat and dried out in a natural way, automatically becomes a very well-ventilated. In fact, the more layers, the better are the conditions for drying. When the above method, only the bottom layer of lump peat in contact with the ground.

At step 716, at the end of the harvesting season, lumpy peat (layers) which are naturally dried in the sample, collect, that is loaded for transportation to storage or to the plant where it is burned. Natural drying is here involves drying only by sun and wind. There is no need for raking or tedding lump peat.

On Fig shows the implementation of the considered method. Shown peat map 850, on both side which are ditches 852, 854. Collection of lump peat is carried out in a pile 862, which may be located essentially in the middle of the peat card 850. Stack 862 lump peat narrow compared with the entire width companycare 850. The length of the pile is essentially equal to the length of the peat card or a little less. The base of the pile 862 lump peat may have a top 856, and the sides 858, 860, at least, partial slope. The slope allows rain water to escape from under the pile in a peat bog, and later in a ditch, 852, 854.

On Fig also shows the movement of the tractor that performs the extraction of peat. The tractor shown in four different positions 854A-854D. In position A peat extraction machine is close to the pile of lump peat, and the belt conveyor can have a short configuration. Lumpy peat can be passed on the side nearest the tractor, or through the top 856 on the other side of the pile.

In position 854 In peat extraction machine is close to the edge of the peat cards. Since the distance to the pile 862 large, it is necessary that the conveyor belt had a maximum length.

Position C corresponds to the situation when the machine inspects the stack, moving from one side of the stack to another. In position 854D machine works on the other side of the pile, rather than in terms A-Z, and its direction of movement shown by the arrow in front of the machine.

Thus, the discussed method and machine related to the production of lump peat peat cards (technology platforms). Itself peat map can be a rectangular the optimum strip width, for example, 20 m, which is limited to ditches. Length peat cards can range from tens of meters to kilometers.

Lumpy peat extracted from the strip, is passed to the stack, where he is given the opportunity of natural drying, i.e. drying without raking and tedding. The pile of lump peat may be located, for example, in the middle of the strip. Thus, peat extraction machine can work, circling the pile, and can pass in a pile of peat extracted from both sides of the pile. A stack of narrow compared to the total band width, i.e. the width of the base layer is less than half, or less than one third the width of the strip.

The stacks can be base generated in the form of a ridge with the top and sides, with at least a partial draft. The slope may be about 2-10.

On each of the sides of the base of the pile can be made furrows, which are directed across the top of the base. Thus, rain water has the ability to go from the base of the pile, and lumpy peat, put on the base, has the best conditions for drying.

New layers of harvested peat can be added to the stack with an interval of, for example, in a few days, depending on weather conditions.

Machine, carrying out the process of the extraction of peat, contains an auger for digging peat with breadboard the th site. The machine is also equipped with a belt conveyor adapted to transfer vegetabilia peat and laying it on the base layer.

The machine also has mechanisms to adjust the belt conveyor, so that you can pass lumpy peat in a stack with different distances (between machine and stack). This can be done by changing the length of the conveyor belt.

The machine also provided to adjust the height of the conveyor belt, so that the lump peat can be dumped onto the pile with a small height (between the belt conveyor and the top surface of the peat stacks). Thus, it is possible to avoid breaking the pieces of peat when they are flushed to the stack. Side of the conveyor, which comes out lumpy peat, can be adjusted in height by means of a winch and mounting delays.

According to a variant embodiment of the invention, it is proposed peat extraction machine containing the extraction tube in which is placed the primary auger, which in turn contains the bulk of the helical ridge and a helical rib with a spiral direction opposite to the main helical rib, the machine also includes a discharge port through which the lump peat may come out of the excavation of the pipe. On the axis of the extraction of the screw, between the main helical rib and rib with a counter direction is the group of spiral, on the parcel, not containing the spiral ribs in the area of the exhaust pipe can be placed grapple cleaning made with the possibility of removal and grinding debris coming out of the end of the exhaust pipe. Thus, the grapple cleaning rotates with the auger, and on each cycle of rotation cleans the area of the end of the discharge pipe.

According to a variant embodiment of the invention, it is proposed peat extraction machine containing the extraction tube in which is placed the extracting screw, this machine also contains an outlet, through which the lump peat may come out of the excavation of the pipe. Peat extraction machine also includes a pipe emptying and cleaning, made with the possibility of its introduction into the exhaust pipe in order to remove the clogging of the nozzle. On the excavation pipe machine can contain sunroof emptying, which allows debris to exit the excavation of the pipe, thus closing and opening the hatch emptying can be coordinated with the work of the pipes emptying and cleaning, so that the work of the pipes emptying and cleaning has begun the process of opening the hatch emptying.

According to a variant embodiment of the invention, it is proposed peat extraction machine containing the extraction tube in which is placed the extracting screw, this machine also contains vypusknoi pipe, through which the lump peat may come out of the excavation of the pipe. Peat extraction machine also includes a rotary cutting device for cutting peat, coming out of the exhaust pipe, to pieces, but such cutting device is made to rotate at the expense of the kinetic energy of the outgoing peat. Thus, the falling peat causes the rotation of the cutting device that contains multiple blades.

Peat extraction machine may contain grinding ribs located inside the excavation of the pipe, where is also located the extracting screw, the axis of which it is the main helical edge and the edge opposite direction of the spiral.

In the peat machine, on the axis of the extraction of the screw, between the main helical rib and rib with a counter direction of the spiral can be made of solid steel grapples cleaning, and also attached to the axis of the auger mixing ribs.

Peat extraction machine on the excavation of the pipe may contain additional port for an additional supply of peat, and Luke emptying to remove debris and maintenance.

In the peat machine control optional sunroof, sunroof emptying and pipes emptying and cleaning can be done remotely, so there is no need for stopping the pad from sliding the the process of harvesting peat.

In the peat machine conveyor, specifying the direction of movement of lump peat, can be made with the possibility of its spread to the side and fixing the locking finger during transport.

In the peat machine, the lower end of the extraction tube may be equipped with mounting and protective frame, which, according to a preferred variant, acts as guide rails or similar.

It should be understood that the invention is not considered limited options for implementation, and that in the form and details of its implementation can be modified without leaving the scope of the claims of the patent.

1. Method blanks lump peat, containing the steps:
production (704) peat peat cards using the extraction screw (3)placed in the excavation tube (2);
filing (706) extracted peat under pressure into the exhaust pipe (13), which is provided with extraction pipe (2);
cutting (708) compressed peat emerging from the outlet nozzle (13), in pieces,
characterized in that it contains a phase transfer (714) in the stack (862) peat cards through belt conveyor (12) or similar device lump peat (31), extracted with different distances (854A-854D) with peat map (850), and the transfer vegetabilia lump of peat produced with him laying on top of rapidbit lump peat, dried without the use of tedding and raking.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that lumpy peat (31) is passed to the stack (862)whose length essentially equal to the length of the peat map (850).

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that lumpy peat (31) is passed to the stack (862), which is narrow compared with the width of peat map (850).

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that lumpy peat (31) is extracted from both sides of the pile (862), which is located essentially in the middle of the peat map (850), and transmit lumpy peat (31), extracted from both sides of the pile (862), in the specified stack (862), which is located essentially in the middle of the peat map (850).

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that Southbury lumpy peat (31) is passed to the stack (27) in the form of a layer, and the stack contains one or more layers of previously extracted lump peat (31), dried in a natural way.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that Southbury lumpy peat passed in the stack (862)with the subgrade in the form of a ridge with the top (856) and having a slope of the sides (858, 860).

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that Southbury lumpy peat passed in the stack (862)with the subgrade in the form of a ridge with the top (856) and having a slope of the sides (858, 860), with each of the sides contains bores the s (30), directed across the top (856) ridge.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that Southbury lumpy peat (31) is passed to the stack (27) laying on top of lump peat, dried naturally for a period of not more than two weeks.

9. Peat extraction machine containing the extracting screw (3) for peat extraction peat map (850)placed in the excavation tube (2); exhaust pipe (13), which is provided with extraction pipe (2), for pressing the peat; and a cutting device (11) for cutting into pieces of compressed peat, coming out of the exhaust pipe, characterized in that it contains a conveyor belt (12) or similar device configured to transfer vegetabilia lump of peat stack (862) peat cards, means for adjusting the length of the belt conveyor (12) or similar device to transfer vegetabilia lump of peat stack (862) with different distances (854A-854D) between the peat machine and stack (862), so that the transfer vegetabilia lump peat is with him laying on top of the previously extracted lump peat, dried without the use of tedding and raking.

10. Peat extraction machine according to claim 9, characterized in that it includes means for adjusting the height of the conveyor belt (12), providing a reset lump peat, dropping from the sky is logo distance between the belt conveyor (12) and the upper surface of the pile (862).

11. Peat extraction machine according to claim 9, characterized in that it contains the excavation tube (2)in which the extracting screw (3), containing the basic helical rib (19) and screw the rib (20) with a spiral direction opposite to the main helical rib (19), this machine has a discharge port (13) to release the compressed lump of peat from the excavation tube (2).

12. Peat extraction machine according to claim 11, characterized in that the axis of the extraction of the screw, between the main helical rib (19) and the rib (20) with a counter direction of the spiral, in the area of the exhaust pipe (13) is placed grapple (21) cleaning, are designed to remove debris coming out of the end of the discharge pipe (13).

13. Peat extraction machine according to claim 11, characterized in that it contains a pipe (9) release and cleaning to remove clogs outlet pipes (13).

14. Peat extraction machine according to claim 9, characterized in that it contains a rotary cutting device (11) for cutting peat in pieces, but such cutting device (11) is made to rotate due to the kinetic energy of the pieces coming out of the peat.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: in the method to mine gravel deposits, including contouring of balance reserves by data of exploration wells, opening of a sand bed, performance of opening and production works, after contouring of balance reserves the opening works are carried out with solid transverse trips into a dump to the level of the maximum elevation of the balance reserves contour. Production works are started by slabbing with a bulldozer in the area of the maximum elevation of the balance reserves contour with transportation of sands into a mined space. Each subsequent lifting of the balance reserves contour is mined in the similar manner, peats located between lifts of the balance reserves contour are transported through slabbing with secondary displacement into the dump.

EFFECT: reduced operational losses of a useful component.

2 dwg

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: peat fields floating in water areas of the water-storage reservoir are cut into blocks with sizes of sides of 2040 m with thin water jet under a pressure of 120-150 at and the range of 20-25 m, which is obtained by means of hydraulic monitor installed on the floating platform with attached equipment.

EFFECT: higher cleaning efficiency of water-storage reservoirs from floating peat fields.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises auger with cutting tool installed on it and planetary reducer. Auger is placed into jacket with longitudinal ledges on inner surface, rotating with the help of planetary reducer in the opposite direction relative to direction of auger rotation, besides, torque to auger and external jacket is sent from single drive.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of broken mineral transportation process.

2 dwg

Matrix for moulding // 2379516

FIELD: mining engineering.

SUBSTANCE: matrix for moulding contains contains casing, which, according to the invention, is implemented as divided. Divided casing contains external and internal parts, located co-axial with ability of free motion in axial direction relative to each other and forming annular slot. Two parts of casing are connected to each other by screws, herewith between heads of screws and external casing there are installed springs, which overlaps annular slot at absence of solution pressure in feeding system of binding additive.

EFFECT: simplification of moulding of as damp, as and dry materials, ensured by friction reduction.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of excavation of garden or fuel peat. Peat is extracted from a bog, is transported from the bog at a distance to a drying field, whereon transported peat is dried with the use mainly of direct solar energy so, that peat is being dried under influence of solar radiation and wind. When peat is dried, it is transferred from the drying place for further use or storing. The said drying field is made in form of specially leveled field, in essence not permeable to water and accommodated for drying; peat is spread on the field in form of a thin layer of 1-15 cm thickness of high consistent mass with contents of solid substance of 8-30%.

EFFECT: creating method and equipment which facilitate more efficient use of peat bogs with their banks without producing dust, noise and harmful effect to rivers.

17 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use in peat industry for extracting peat at non-dried, natural peat deposits.

SUBSTANCE: complex for extracting mineral resources, peat in particular, contains a lift with a winch for raising and deepening working organ in form of a system of coaxially positioned upper and internal pipes, the latter being connected to hydro-monitor in lower part, slurry pipelines, drilling plant containing diesel plant, high pressure forcing pump. Complex is also provided with water intake pump having pipeline tubing and connected to slurry pipeline by vacuum pump. Platform is made in form of a pontoon and connected by rigid connection to off-road rig, and on it high pressure forcing pump, diesel plant, vacuum pump are mounted and interconnected, and additional pipes are positioned for drilling the well and extending the slurry pipeline. Working organ is provided with peat intake connected to external pipe, which is positioned above the hydro-monitor, and has radially made apertures along whole perimeter with diameter not less than 15 mm, hydro-monitor being made in form of conical tip, perforated across whole surface, with diameter of apertures not more than 3 mm, while external pipe through the vacuum pump is connected to the slurry pipeline.

EFFECT: lowered costs, ensured ecological safety, increased reliability, shorter times needed to launch areas into operation, extended peat extraction season and transition to year-round production.

5 dwg

FIELD: open-pit mining for obtaining peat.

SUBSTANCE: method involves prior dewatering peat deposit; serially excavating peat from separate zones for depth equal to peat deposit thickness; installing caisson with watertight walls to isolate zone having volume equal to that of caisson from remainder peat deposit; pumping out water from peat deposit zone isolated by caisson to dewater peat inside caisson; removing peat from caisson along with retaining of cut upper horizontal ground forming layer; taking out caisson from excavated zone and diverting water from adjacent zones to above excavated zone; filling hole created in place of previous caisson location with cut upper horizontal ground-forming layer; reinstalling caisson in adjacent zone and repeating above peat production operations.

EFFECT: increased output due to reduced time of prior peat deposit dewatering, reduced peat drying time due to production of peat mass having lesser moisture content and possibility to maintain natural water balance of surrounding territory.

Milling cutter // 2253016

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has frame, front and back supporting rollers, cutter with working elements in form of thin plates placed along spiral line, forming apparatus, drive. Edges of thin plate of working elements are made in form of parabolic curve. Plates of working elements are made even, slanted and, in turns, rotated in opposite directions. Back support roller is mounted on side holders of front portion of forming apparatus.

EFFECT: higher quality.

8 dwg

FIELD: drying equipment engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has frame with frontal and backward rotary support rollers, sole with groove on surface and heaters placed therein. Device is provided with mechanism for vertical displacement of soil, placed between ends of frame and sole, on running surface of rollers ball-like shelves are placed in staggered order. Vertical displacement mechanism is made of guide with post, held on the middle of each frame end, and of screw positioned on guide aperture, having two nuts, on sole surface groove is made along shape of common sine curve in form of even size portions serially placed one after the other along and symmetrically to longitudinal axis of sole. One nut is set on screw above said guide and made in form of hub and wheel placed below it, rigidly interconnected by rods, and other nut is set on screw below the guide. Size of ball-like shelves, length and width of sole are determined from mathematical formulae.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

11 dwg

The invention relates to the field of study of rocks and can be used to determine the stresses acting in the rock

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of excavation of garden or fuel peat. Peat is extracted from a bog, is transported from the bog at a distance to a drying field, whereon transported peat is dried with the use mainly of direct solar energy so, that peat is being dried under influence of solar radiation and wind. When peat is dried, it is transferred from the drying place for further use or storing. The said drying field is made in form of specially leveled field, in essence not permeable to water and accommodated for drying; peat is spread on the field in form of a thin layer of 1-15 cm thickness of high consistent mass with contents of solid substance of 8-30%.

EFFECT: creating method and equipment which facilitate more efficient use of peat bogs with their banks without producing dust, noise and harmful effect to rivers.

17 cl, 11 dwg

The invention relates to a drying technique and can be used in the production of milled peat, and drying the fibrous, granular, powder and bulk solids

The invention relates to the technology of peat extraction

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of excavation of garden or fuel peat. Peat is extracted from a bog, is transported from the bog at a distance to a drying field, whereon transported peat is dried with the use mainly of direct solar energy so, that peat is being dried under influence of solar radiation and wind. When peat is dried, it is transferred from the drying place for further use or storing. The said drying field is made in form of specially leveled field, in essence not permeable to water and accommodated for drying; peat is spread on the field in form of a thin layer of 1-15 cm thickness of high consistent mass with contents of solid substance of 8-30%.

EFFECT: creating method and equipment which facilitate more efficient use of peat bogs with their banks without producing dust, noise and harmful effect to rivers.

17 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method includes stages of peat production from a peat production field using a producing auger installed in a winning pipe, supply of produced peat under pressure into outlet nozzles, with which the winning pipe is equipped, cutting of pressed peat discharged from outlet nozzles, into pieces. At the same time the method includes a stage of transfer into the peat production field stack, by means of a belt conveyor or a similar device, of sod peat produced at different distances from the peat production field. Besides, transfer of the freshly produced sod peat is carried out with its laying above the previously produced sod peat dried without usage of turning and bundling.

EFFECT: minimised number of vehicles, working stages and reduced losses of peat.

14 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for obtaining products, generation of heat and electric energy from peat for agricultural industry, public living needs and industrial needs. The method involves peat excavation from a deposit, its dehydration, introduction of composites, binding modifying agents and mineral fertilisers, formation of granules or briquettes with additional drying, pre-packing and packing of the whole dried products, direction of some part of peat for pyrolysis for generation of thermal and electric energy. Peat is excavated from the deposit together with timber inclusions that are further separated from peat; peat is subject to mechanical dehydration till humidity is 75-82%; then, it is mixed with a draining filler, and the obtained mixture is again subject to mechanical dehydration till humidity is 45-60%, and the draining filler is separated for its repeated use. Dehydrated peat is transported to a modular processing station, and timber inclusions are transported to a pyrolysis station for heat treatment together with peat in order to obtain gaseous and solid fuel, with that, some part of solid fuel is used as a composite, and some part of gaseous fuel, thermal and electric energy is used for needs of a technological complex.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency and ecological compatibility of the method.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used in peat industry for production and processing of peat and vegetal-and-peat floating bogs in water reservoirs, as well as for extraction and peat processing on flooded areas. This invention comprizes the fact that excavation of floating in the water reservoir vegetal-and-peat floating bogs is carried out by double-jawed digging automatic grab, located on floating base directly in the water reservoir, with process equipment in the form of modules for excavation, raw material preparation, press-extruder, production of electric energy from gas, diesel-generator, gas generator, electric power, transshipment of ready products and warehouse, combined by transport and power lines. Floating process complex provides processing of vegetal-and-peat raw material in solid, liquid and gaseous fuels with subsequent conversion into electric power, thus providing complete independence of complex as a whole.

EFFECT: enabling extraction and processing of peat with moisture content from 50 to 70 % in water area.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: in the method, the extraction area is divided into adjacent even-numbered and odd- numbered parallel entries with width equal to the distance between the tracks of the mining complex, and the length equal to the length of extraction area in near-contour part of the deposit, but not less than 50 m and not more than 100 m, starting from the first odd-numbered stage up to the last odd-numbered stage. After restoring the surface vegetable layer on the even-numbered entries of the bearing capacity which is sufficient for movement of the mining complex with its support thereon, the extraction of odd-numbered entries is carried out in retreat order. When the mining complex is moved from the boundary of the deposit into the depth (direct movement of the complex), the extraction of lump peat is performed from upper cohesive layer by auger device with packing and transportation of packs by means of rope conveyer to the pile located behind the deposit contour. At that, the length of the pile is not more than the width of the extraction area. The extraction of peat from the lower watered layer with formation of peat pulp is carried out in the reverse movement of the mining complex by a mechanic and hydraulic method with hydraulic transportation of pulp via the pulp line into geotextile water-separating containers located the process zone behind the deposit contour.

EFFECT: reduced costs for preparation and development of the deposit, increased recovery factor of mineral, elimination of costs for reclamation of the deposit after peat extraction.

1 dwg

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