Method to detect gas hydrates in low-temperature rocks

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: standard electric logging of a well is carried out in low-temperature rocks, the area of possible bedding of gas hydrates and hydrate formation is identified in them. In the identified area of low-temperature rocks, on the basis of data of standard electric logging, zones are registered, in which measured values of the apparent electric resistance of low-temperature rocks are equal to at least 15 Ohm.m. Coolant is pumped in the investigated rock interval, afterwards thermometry is realised using highly sensitive thermometers, providing for error of temperature measurements of not more than 0.01°C, and zones are sought for, rock temperature in which, relative to the lowest registered temperature in the identified zone is at least by 0.2-0.5°C lower than the temperature of rocks adjacent to the borders of the detected zones. At the same time the latter zones are considered as zones containing gas hydrates. The area of possible bedding and hydrate formation is the area of rock bedding characterised by availability of thermobaric conditions for gas hydrates existence in rocks.

EFFECT: its higher efficiency by detection of gas hydrate rocks bedded in low-temperature rocks below a foot of permafrost rocks.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to oil and gas industry and can be used, in particular, the detection of gas hydrates in the low-temperature rocks (TM) during the construction and operation of wells in the TM.

Closest to the present invention is a method of detecting gas hydrate in permafrost rocks, lies in the fact that conduct standard electrical logging of wells have it thermometry and look for areas containing gas hydrates (see RF patent №2428559, EV 36/00, EV 47/06, 2011).

The disadvantage of this method is its low efficiency, due to the fact that it is not possible to identify gas hydrate rocks that lie in the low-temperature rocks below the soles of permafrost).

The technical result, which sent the proposed method is its efficiency by identifying gas hydrate species, occurring in the low-temperature rocks below the soles of MMP.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that the detection of gas hydrates in the low-temperature rocks, lies in the fact that conduct standard electrical logging of a borehole in a geological cross-section of its low-temperature rocks (TM), have it thermometry and look for areas containing gas hydrates, standard electric SC is Ainy spend NP, beneath the soles of permafrost and borehole thermometry in NP distinguish the area of possible occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate formation (SGO), characterized by thermobaric conditions for the existence of hydrates in the rocks, in the selection of the NP according to standard electrical logging register area in which the measured values of apparent electrical resistance (IES) not less than 15 Ohm·m, and are pumping the well fluid, and after thermometry conduct the search zone, the temperature of the rocks in which, relative to the lowest registered temperature in the selected zone, not less than 0.2-0.5°C below the temperature of the rocks adjacent to the boundaries of the detected areas, while the latter is considered as zones containing gas hydrates, as well as due to the fact that the area of possible occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate take the area of occurrence of species characterized by the presence of thermobaric conditions for the existence of hydrates in the rocks and it is defined as the area of occurrence of species in geological borehole, where the values of the pressures in the rock, with corresponding pressure values, temperature, equal to the hydrostatic or abnormal pressures, which are not below the values of the equilibrium hydrate formation pressure and suitable is x the values of temperature, not above equilibrium, when the respective composition of natural gas at the site of occurrence of the species and, in addition, due to the fact that in the borehole thermometry is performed with the use of highly sensitive thermometers (HFT), which provides the measurement error of the temperature is not more than 0.01°C.

The invention is illustrated by the diagram in figure 1, which shows the results of the study wells in the context of low-temperature rocks beneath the soles of MMP. Figure 1 positions 1, 2, 3, 4 indicated thermometry data for wells No. 301, No. 501, No. 601 and # 1001; accordingly, the position of the 5 - point locations corresponding to the depth of the sole MSE for each well; position 6 is located at a certain depth the area of possible occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate formation. Position 7 identifies for each well depth intervals where there are rocks with low temperatures (low temperature anomaly) in the investigated section of the NP; the position of the 8 zones of occurrence of rocks with values KES, equal to not less than 15 Ohm·m; the position of the 9 - point, which registered the lowest temperature in the respective areas of the species for each well (the temperature of the rocks by 0.2°C To 0.5°C lower compared with the values of the temperatures of the rocks adjacent to the borders of you who Alannah zones; positions 10 and 11 represents the upper (top) and bottom (sole depth) border thermobaric the possible occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate formation; position 12 marked the depth of the permafrost zone (determined by the zero isotherm registered for the studied wells).

For the four considered wells North of the field figure 1 shows thermograms of identifying gas-hydrates in the TM below the soles of MSEs that are registered for wells No. 301, No. 501, No. 601 and # 1001. For well No. 501 thermometry was performed after injection of cement for the intermediate column with a diameter of 245 mm after 24 hours of idle wells. For well No. 601 registration made after the end of the drilling shaft for conductors with a diameter of 324 mm In the case of well No. 301 thermometry was performed in the depth interval 0-1450 m for the control of technical condition of the well after the extraction of gas from the reservoir. For well No. 1001 thermometry was performed in the depth interval 0-1489 m after exposure to breed brine, namely after the extraction of gas from slaughter during the inspection of the technical condition of the well.

The method is implemented as follows. TM wells with geophysical studies geological section of the low-temperature rocks hold it to a standard electrical logging. Electrical logging spending is in NP, beneath the soles of MMP. Then perform thermometry well. Before thermometry well in NP distinguish the area of possible occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate formation, characterized by the conditions of the possible existence of gas hydrates in the rocks. In the selection of the NP according to standard electrical logging register area in which the measured values of apparent electrical resistance of the NP is equal to not less than 15 Ohm·m, followed by pumping the well fluid.

Then look for areas (item 8 in figure 1), the temperature of the rocks in which, relative to the lowest registered temperature (item 9) in the selected area, not less than 0.2°C-0.5°C below the temperature of the rocks adjacent to the boundaries of the detected zones. These zones are considered as zones containing gas hydrates. When this played on the borehole thermometry should be carried out using highly sensitive methods of thermometry, which ensures that the measurement error of the temperature is not more than 0.01°C.

As pumping of the fluid in the wells can be seen used in the construction of the well, the pumping of drilling mud in the barrel section of the NP during drilling, flushing shaft front casing in the TM or the injection of cement when cementing in the context of NP. Also is the quality of the pumping fluid in the wells used for sampling fluid from a well when it is test or investigation of its technical condition.

Thermometry should be conducted after the end of pumping fluid, such as injection of cement into the well. Typically, it is conducted not earlier than 10-15 hours after the injection of cement. Data thermometry can be obtained after any pumping of fluid into the well.

It should be noted that according to the values of pressures and temperatures of the rocks, areas of potential occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate formation in the investigated borehole in this area taking into account the obtained data, a standard electrical logging register area in which the measured values KES low-temperature rocks equal to not less than 15 Ohm·m then perform thermometry wells and conduct the search zone, the temperature of the rocks in which, relative to the lowest registered temperature in the selected area, not less than 0.2°C-0.5°C below the temperature of the rocks adjacent to the boundaries of the detected zones. Such areas are considered as zones containing gas hydrates.

For the area of possible occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate take the area of occurrence of the NP, which is characterized by a thermobaric conditions for the existence of hydrates in the rocks. It is defined as the area of occurrence of NP in the geological cross section of the well where the pressure in the rocks when appropriate ejstvujuschij these pressures the temperature values equal to the hydrostatic or abnormal pressures, which is not lower than the values for the equilibrium hydrate formation pressure and corresponding temperature values, which is not higher than the equilibrium values when the determined composition of natural gas in this area of occurrence of the NP.

This area can be defined by the parametric results of exploration drilling at the Deposit with registration in the low-temperature borehole corresponding formation pressures and the natural temperature of the rocks.

Using the impact of increased temperature of the coolant at the studied rocks in the borehole and check lower temperatures in the zones with high values of the IES in the rocks after pumping coolant allows you to identify based on conducted thermometry presence in the studied rocks of the phase transition from the decomposition of gas hydrates and, accordingly, the more intense the absorption of heat in selected areas, resulting in lower temperatures in these selected areas. This fact indicates the presence in these areas of gas hydrates.

Consider the examples identify gathertogether rocks using data thermometry (see figure 1). For the four considered wells North of the field figure 1 shows thermograms of identifying gas-hydrates in the TM below the soles of MMP. These thermograms is adopted for wells No. 301, No. 501, No. 601 and # 1001. For well No. 501 thermogram registered after the injection of the cement intermediate casing borehole diameter 245 mm after 24 hours after the injection of cement and idle wells (position 2 in figure 1). For well No. 601 thermogram removed after drilling of the wellbore for conductors with a diameter of 324 mm (item 3 in figure 1). For well No. 301 thermometry conducted at depths in the range of values 0-1450 m during the inspection of the technical condition scaini after the extraction of gas from the reservoir (item 1 in figure 1). For well No. 1001 thermometry conducted at depths in the range of values 0-1489 m also after exposure to breed brine (item 4 in figure 10).

In the diagram (see figure 1) is the lowest temperature recorded position 9 in the selected zones (item 8), corresponds to the depth of the reservoir hydrates (it can be in the middle of the highlighted area in the event of the same hydromassante rocks in the area).

Sole MMP below which explores the incision NP, shown in figure 1 for all wells in position 5. The sole of the permafrost zone with low temperatures in the NP position shown 12 in figure 1, while for the studied wells it can be traced to depths of 280 m At a depth of 200 m temperature TM for the studied wells was changed in the range of values 0-2,0°C.

When cash is chii at a depth of 200 m in wells rocks normal hydrostatic formation pressure of 2.0 MPa or increased abnormal pressure (above hydrostatic), for example, 2.5 MPa, and penetrate deep gas from a depth of 750 m and more can be of gazogidraty Deposit. Studies have shown that species in selected SGO (item 6 in figure 1) at a pressure of, for example, equal to 2.5 MPa and a temperature of rocks minus 2.0°C and below can lie down and form hydrates with a certain composition of natural gas. Marked allows you to select the depth of 200 m as the upper limit (roof) SGO (item 10). Given that at a depth of 560 m temperature rocks can vary from 7.5°C to 10.2°C with a corresponding formation equilibrium hydrate formation pressure, it should be assumed that these promodag may be hydrates at a specific methane composition of the gas. This depth (item 11 in figure 1) is adopted for the lower boundary (sole) SGO.

As can be seen from the data presented in figure 1, studies on the identification of gas hydrates in NP are in the range of 200 to 560 meters below This depth soles MMP (for wells # 301 and # 501 depth soles MMP marked, respectively, at depths of 52 m and 48 m (position 5); for well # 601 - at a depth of 97 m and for well No. 1001 - depth 80 m) for the wells within the zone of SGA where thermobaric conditions and taking into account data thermometry can be a separate sitting area with gas hydrates.

Consider p is the realizations of this method on the example of well No. 301.

For this well hold standard electrical logging in the selection of SHO and register in her zone at depths of 222 m - 247 m KES rocks, equal 16-23 Ohm·m in the area (item 8 in figure 1). In the future, after the construction of this well supervise its condition with the gas (fluid) from a well with a bottom hole for 10 hours. After selection of gas (coolant) through 7 hours in it spend sensitive thermometry emitting interval of rocks at depths of 220 m 240 m, which registered a decrease of temperature. In this depth interval with the lowest temperature (item 9), equal to 15.6°C. compared to the temperature of the rocks of 15.8°C and 16.3°C at the border zone (item 8), it is 0.2-0.7°C below the temperature of 15.6°C. Thus, it can be considered that the rocks in the selected area (item 8), contains gas hydrates.

During the drilling of this well is in the area of SGA there was an increase of gas content of methane gas in the drilling fluid when drilling above gas hydrate intervals. With further deepening of the well noted, and it also recorded an increase of gas content in that the drilling fluid had a high positive temperature, which also indicates the presence of gas (gas hydrate) layers in SGA. The conducted studies show, is that associated with the decomposition of gas hydrates under the influence of high temperature drilling mud and with the release of free gas when drilling in a national Park. The marked factor of increasing the gas content of the drilling fluid while drilling in SGA also confirms the presence of gas hydrates in the investigated section of the Park.

In the study four wells breed based on the data of the electrical logging of the selected area (item 8 in figure 1) with high values of KES. For well No. 301 in the depth interval 222 m - 247 m KES=16-23 Ohm·m For well No. 501 in the depth interval from 210 m - 238 m KES=17-24 Ohm·m For well No. 601 in the depth interval 218 m - 228 m KES=15-21 Ohm·m For well # 1001 in the depth interval of 220 m - 243 m KES=17-22 Ohm·m this should draw attention to the fact that these zones are located within depth intervals (item 7) with low temperatures breeds and include inside of breed (item 9 in figure 1), with the lowest temperature. Rocks in the studied wells in selected areas (item 8 in figure 1) are considered in gas hydrates.

When drilling above the wells in the area of SGA there was an increase of gas content of methane gas in the drilling fluid when the drilling depth intervals where gas hydrates. With further deepening of wells used drilling fluid was characterized by high positive temperature. This indicated the presence of gas reservoirs in SGA, including gas hydrate.

Point, where he found the minimum temperature (item 9 in figure 1) in the separation of the nom low-temperature depth interval (position 7), and the presence of zones (item 8) with values of KES not less than 15 Ohm·m allow to reliably distinguish rocks with gas hydrates.

Released during the decomposition of gas hydrates cooled gas in identified areas (item 8 in figure 1) in free form moves up and down in these depth intervals (item 7) and cools the surrounding rock formation of these well traced on the chart, "low-temperature funnels temperatures" (item 7 in figure 1) relative to the lowest temperature (item 9 in figure 1) in the low-temperature depth interval.

The use of the proposed method can improve its effectiveness by identifying gas hydrate species, occurring in the low-temperature rocks below the soles of MMP. It also allows to reliably detect gas hydrates and map gas hydrate deposits according to thermometry wells during their construction at a deeper productive horizons. In this case, there is no need for special geological time-consuming selection and research cores with gas hydrates.

1. Detection of gas hydrates in the low-temperature rocks, lies in the fact that conduct standard electrical logging of wells containing geological cross-section of its low-temperature rocks (TM), have it thermometry and about the W ill result search zones gas hydrates, wherein the standard electrical logging of wells is carried out in NP beneath the soles of permafrost)and borehole thermometry in NP distinguish the area of possible occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate formation, characterized by the presence of thermobaric conditions of the existence of gas hydrates in the rocks, in the selection of the NP according to standard electrical logging register area in which the measured values of apparent electrical resistance of the NP is equal to not less than 15 Ohm·m, and are pumping the well fluid, and after thermometry and conduct the search zone, the temperature of the rocks in which, relative to the lowest registered temperature in the selected zone, not less than 0.2-0.5°C below the temperature of the rocks adjacent to the boundaries of the detected areas, while the latter is considered as zones containing gas hydrates.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the area of possible occurrence of gas hydrates and hydrate take the area of occurrence of the NP, which is characterized by a thermobaric conditions for the existence of hydrates in the rocks, which is defined as the area of occurrence of NP in the geological cross section of the well where the pressure in the rocks at corresponding pressure temperature values equal Hydra is static or abnormal pressures, which is not lower than the values for the equilibrium hydrate formation pressure and corresponding temperature values, not above equilibrium, at a certain composition of natural gas in this area of occurrence of the NP.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the temperature measurement in the borehole is performed with the use of highly sensitive thermometers, ensuring the accuracy of temperature measurements is not more than 0.01°C.



 

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SUBSTANCE: method includes examination of exploring, product or force well, drilled in oil or gas saturated bed, in two stages. At first stage water is forced and water loss is measured. At second stage bed fluid is extracted and debits are measured on basis of oil or gas and water, and at both stages pit-face pressure is measured. On basis of measured parameters water level in production is determined, and volumes of extracted and forced water. Type of carbonate collector is determined on basis of dynamics of change of pit pressure at first and second research stages and change of relation of collected volume of extracted water to total volume of forced water during second stage, in time. For better identification of purely cracked and porous collector types, sampling and laboratory research of productive interval core is additionally performed, and results are taken in consideration during identification of carbonate collector type.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring tank and tachometer generator and pressure and temperature sensors on it. It is mounted at distance of one tubing pipe from extracting pump, where pressure is higher than saturation pressure, i.e. in one-phase liquid flow, and serves as connecting sleeve. At distance of two tubing pipes from deep station in connection sleeve additionally mounted is sensor of liquid hydrostatic pressure. Measurement of base parameters characterizing production of oil and gas product wells, is performed directly in the well close to position of extracting pump. Device allows to perform systematical measurements of product parameters individually for each product well at all stages of deposit extraction. Use of deep stations for measuring parameters of oil and gas wells product excludes use of expensive and complicated switching execution mechanisms of automated group measuring plants.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: during recording of pressure change pressure is measured at mouth at tubing column entrance and in inter-tubular space. Recording of pressure change is performed on basis of pressures comparison before and after stopping of well on basis of speed of pressure fall at mouth and in inter-tubular space after stopping of operation well and on basis of pressures comparison before and after well launch for forcing on basis of speed of pressure increase at mouth and in inter-tubular space after well launch. As criterion of pressurization estimation a calculated value of liquid flow, which enters and exits inter-tubular well space is taken.

EFFECT: higher trustworthiness.

1 ex

FIELD: geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring amplitudes of longitudinal acoustic wave on two working emitted frequencies of signal along casing column within given range. Amplitudes of longitudinal wave of acoustic signal are recorded along column at two frequencies (high Ahf and low Alf) and on basis of relation of these values, normalized by maximal values at portion of non-cemented column Avr (Ahf/Avr and Alf/Avr), separation of cementation defects by major types is performed (ring space, volumetric defect, mixed defect) and values of their openness are measured.

EFFECT: higher trustworthiness and higher precision.

2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes lowering equipment into well and performing analysis during extraction of oil from oil beds. In accordance to invention after raising down-pumping equipment from the well liquid is replaced with degassed liquid, and research is performed during pumping in of degassed liquid into oil beds and extraction of degassed oil from oil beds, at the same time pumping is performed using exhaust gases under high pressure from moving compressor, and extraction of degassed oil - by letting exhaust gases out of the well. During that on basis of share of oil beds in total debit of product and extraction and on basis of face pressures during extraction and removal bed pressures of oil beds are determined together with their productiveness coefficient.

EFFECT: higher reliability and precision.

1 ex

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