Hollow construction block

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of monolithic construction of industrial and civil objects erected from the proposed hollow blocks comprising a single universal reinforcement base. The hollow construction block comprises outer and inner walls connected by links, and reinforcement elements, at the same time the walls are made from construction material, and the hollow block is made as capable of formation of the construction object by means of placement of multiple hollow blocks, external peripheral surfaces of outer and inner walls of which are in contact with similar surfaces of adjacent blocks. Reinforcement elements are placed inside the outer and inner walls and form the first frame in every of them, and links are made of reinforcement elements that fix the first frames of the outer and inner walls and in combination with reinforcement elements of the first frames that form the spatial reinforcement frame of the block, having reinforcement fixators, made as capable of connection of spatial reinforcement frames of adjacent blocks to form a single reinforced structure of the construction object, having a single cavity for simultaneous filling with construction material.

EFFECT: possibility to create proposed blocks of different spatial shape, which provides for the possibility to create construction objects of different shape, having a monolithic homogeneous strong and stiff structure, with increased speed of object construction and improvement of its aseismic stability.

30 cl, 22 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of monolithic construction of industrial and civil purposes, and more specifically to the construction of hollow block.

The present invention can be used for construction without formwork walls of buildings and structures for various purposes, for example, for the construction of pad foundations strip foundations, basements, ground floors, construction of load-bearing walls and interior partitions, forming internal and external (direct, acute, obtuse) angles of the walls, support columns between floors, the construction of fences, swimming pools, decorative arched bridges, forming the end surfaces of the above-mentioned structures, as well as the formation of wall openings for installation of window and door designs. In addition, the present invention can be used for the construction of vaulted and arched structures, as well as stereopanic hollow structures.

In connection with the growing need to increase the number of dwellings currently there is a problem of increasing the speed of construction quality of housing, and buildings and structures for other purposes.

Known for building hollow block, as described in the application EN 2009126444 and executed with the possibility of the formation of the construction site through the placement of multiple blocks, the outer peripheral surface of the outer and inner walls which are placed in contact with the same surfaces of the adjacent blocks. This hollow construction unit contains a hollow frame having outer and inner walls, connected by bridges. When this wall and lintel made of building self-hardening material. Bridges can be made of solid one-piece, one-piece removable and can contain elements of the valve, arbitrarily located in building self-hardening material jumper.

This construction the hollow block is designed to ensure that in the process of construction of the building to form concrete frame within a fixed casing, formed of the outer and inner walls of many blocks. When you do this consistently form a reinforced horizontal belt made by a random placement of the reinforcement elements in the free space between the outer and inner walls of the blocks on the same horizontal level and fill the space self-hardening material. And also consistently form a vertical reinforced columns by a random placement of the valve in the space between the outer and inner walls of the many located one above the other blocks and their subsequent hall is vcoi self-hardening material.

Using data of hollow building blocks you step by step to erect a building rows, providing first the formation of separate horizontal zones, and then the formation of separate vertical columns. This leads to the necessity of gradual fill of these individual elements. For the subsequent formation of a number of required solidification of the previous row, which leads to the formation of seams and greatly increases the speed of construction of the object.

This arbitrary placement of reinforcement within the concrete lintels and in the space between the outer and inner walls fixation blocks, and rows of blocks together. The result is a porous, non-monolithic structure having a low strength. In addition, the lack of fixing blocks and rows and run jumpers from building self-hardening material reduces the rigidity of the structure as a whole. This excluded the possibility of creating a different form of monolithic construction projects, including with seismic resistance.

In addition, running jumpers from the building material, the cured before the erection of the building object, leads to the fact that, after successive filling cavities with his blocks, for example, construction mixture, mater what al these jumpers is included in this mixture. This leads to heterogeneity of structure construction project. As a result, the building blocks of the object appear "cold bridges" and air gaps, which increases heat loss, reduces the insulating properties of the object and its strength.

The basis of the invention the task is to provide a construction of hollow block with such design features that would create a single universal reinforcing the base unit, providing for the establishment of the proposed blocks of different spatial forms, which enables the creation of various forms of construction of objects that have a monolithic homogeneous, strong and rigid structure that exactly matches the specified size, by increasing the speed of construction and the improvement of seismic stability.

This problem is solved by the creation of hollow construction unit comprising outer and inner walls, connected by bridges, and the parts of the valve, with walls made of a building material, and the hollow block made with the possibility of forming a construction site by placing a variety of hollow blocks, the outer peripheral surface of the outer and inner walls which are placed in contact with the same surfaces of the adjacent blocks, when it is, according to the invention, the valve is placed inside the outer and inner walls to form each of the first frame, and the jumper is made of parts of the valve, fastening the first frame of external and internal walls and in combination with elements of the valve of the first part forming a spatial reinforcing frame unit having a valve retainers made with the possibility of spatial connection of rebar cages adjacent blocks to form a unified reinforced structure of a building object, having a single cavity for simultaneously filling a building material.

The technical result of the invention is to create a universal reinforcing the foundations of the block, with different spatial form and providing for the establishment of various forms of construction of objects that have a monolithic homogeneous, strong and rigid structure that exactly matches the specified size. Due to the universality of reinforcing the foundations of the faces of the block may have a different shape in the plane, resulting in a block can have different shapes in space. This allows you to create arched (vertically arranged), radial (horizontal), spherical and other solid objects with, including concave or release of the s surface.

Moreover, due to the fact that the spatial reinforcing cages blocks bonded reinforcing crosspieces made of parts of the valve, these blocks to the construction site to form a single force reinforced structure formed with outer and inner walls having a single cavity, designed for simultaneous backfill or fill construction mixtures or solutions. This, in turn, allows you to mount and fill construction materials construction not rows, but in much larger quantities, for example, in the floor, which provides a monolithic uniformity, strength and rigidity of the construction object in General, excludes its aseistant and lamination, precluded the formation of "cold joints", which reduces thermal conductivity of the object and increases the insulating properties of the object, and also greatly increases the speed of construction.

The ability to mount and fill construction materials construction not rows, but in much larger quantities ensures that the joints have hardened building materials, which gives the opportunity to use the invention in the construction of swimming pools and other building objects that come into contact with an aqueous medium.

In addition, these constructive person the activity proposed unit increase seismic resistance of building the facility as a whole, that allows you to use these blocks for construction in earthquake-prone areas.

To increase the stiffness of the walls is preferable that each of the first frame had a rectangular shape and was placed along the corresponding wall.

For a good fixation of the reinforcement cage in the space it is desirable that the spatial reinforcement cage unit had two pairs of upper and lower crosspieces, which are fixed in the respective corners of the first frame, each pair of these jumpers with the respective two vertical parts of the first part to form two second frame, and the two upper or two lower jumper with the respective two horizontal parts, the first part of the form two third of the frame.

To stiffen the frame blocks having large dimensions, it is convenient to spatial reinforcement cage unit had an extra jumper, made from parts of the valve and connecting part of the specified framework.

To simplify installation of the reinforced structure of a building object favorably to each armature retainer contained tubular or rod, or triangular, or tape reinforcing element and connecting means arranged to connect the reinforcing elements rebar retainers adjacent components is.

To comply with the specified dimensions and construction of the object is possible that the upper and lower bar in each pair were essentially parallel to each other, and the plane in which lies the first pair of jumpers was essentially parallel to the plane in which lies the second pair of jumpers.

To create a building of objects of various complex forms useful to the plane in which lies the first pair of jumpers, was placed at an angle to the plane in which lies the second pair of jumpers.

To ensure a smooth installation of the blocks during the construction of the object of construction, eliminating the possibility of penetration of building materials in the gap between the walls of adjacent blocks and increase the bearing capacity of the block preferably, each wall at least on one face had a lock connection made with the possibility of connection with the corresponding wall of the adjacent block.

To simplify the manufacture of the walls placed within a framework appropriate to each wall consisted of two interconnected adjacent surfaces of the panels that are offset one with respect to another with the formation, at least on one face of the wall locking connection.

To create a building of objects of complex spatial forms and the creation of the floors as the consequently, to external and internal walls had different dimensions.

To create the top, bottom or side building blocks of object favorably to the hollow block had at least one additional wall.

To create beams, openings for installation of Windows and doors it is possible that at least one additional wall had at least one dimension, than the corresponding dimensions of the block size.

To create a spherical construction projects preferably, the faces, at least one wall were made oblique.

To stiffen the frame top, bottom or side blocks useful to inside additional walls were placed additional elements of the valve, forming a fourth frame, and also to the fourth frame had rebar clamps, fastening this frame with spatial reinforcing cage block.

To reduce the mass of the armature in blocks of large size, it is desirable that the inside of at least one wall were placed additional reinforcement elements forming at least one first additional portion of the corresponding frame that is located outside.

For uniform connection blocks in a checkerboard pattern favorably to the first additional part that cuts estoya frame has the length essentially equal to half the length of the frame.

To enhance the spatial reinforcing frame unit is possible that the first additional part opposite respective walls were bonded together by bridges made of parts of the valve.

To simplify the construction of the corner construction of objects useful for external and internal walls had different dimensions, and the wall with a smaller overall size, had a second additional portion of the first frame, placed on the outside of the wall and fastened to the first frame wall with a large overall size jumpers made from the parts of the valve.

To enhance the spatial reinforcing frame unit when connecting the blocks at an angle appropriate to the external and internal walls have corresponding second additional part of the first part, placed on the outside of the respective walls and bonded bridges, made of parts of the valve.

For uniform connection blocks in a checkerboard pattern, it is desirable that the second additional part of the relevant part had a length essentially equal to half the length of this framework.

For connection to the construction site of the inner walls and bearing partitions is favored, so that the inner wall was made at length the e of the two located at a distance of panels, each of which is placed the first frame, the first frame of the two panels fastened placed outside panels additional reinforcement elements.

To improve the mounting block properties is possible that the parts of the valve and the additional valve represented the elements selected from the group of: rods, tubes, profiles.

To extend the range of hollow blocks useful to the valve and the additional valve were made from a material selected from the group of: metal, polymer material, the material of wood origin.

To facilitate transportation and storage blocks preferably, the valve and the additional valve were made removable.

To facilitate installation of the reinforcement cage construction site is possible that the parts of the valve and the additional valve were made teams.

To increase the strength and stiffness of the object of construction is preferable that the valve and the additional valve had rebar reinforcement.

For the construction of arched, radial, spherical and other monolithic construction of objects with curved surfaces, it is desirable that the outer peripheral surface of the external and internal walls were made is convex or concave.

For insulation, sound insulation, or decoration of a building object favorably to the outer peripheral surface of the outer and/or inner walls were floor.

Thus the use of the invention allows to create a universal reinforcing frame unit having different spatial form and providing for the establishment of various forms of construction of objects that have a monolithic homogeneous, strong and rigid structure. Due to the universality of the reinforcement cage faces of the block may have a different shape in the plane, resulting in a block can have different shapes in space. This allows you to create arched (vertically arranged), radial (horizontal), spherical and other solid objects with, including concave or convex surface.

Moreover, due to the fact that the spatial reinforcing cages blocks bonded reinforcing ridges, these blocks to the construction site to form a single force reinforced structure formed with outer and inner walls having a single cavity, designed for simultaneous backfill or fill construction mixtures or solutions. This, in turn, allows you to mount and fill construction mater what Alami construction project no rows, and in much larger quantities, for example, in the floor, which provides a monolithic uniformity and strength of the construction object in General, excludes its aseistant and lamination, and also greatly increases the speed of construction.

In addition, these design features of the proposed unit increase seismic resistance of building object in General, which allows the use of the proposed blocks for construction in earthquake-prone areas.

For a better understanding of the invention the following are specific examples of its implementation with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 depicts the construction of hollow block made according to the invention, isometric;

figure 2 - part construction of the object is made of several building hollow blocks made according to the invention, isometric;

figure 3 - Fig - ways construction of hollow block made according to the invention, isometric;

Fig - part construction of the object is made of several building hollow blocks made according to the invention, isometric;

Fig - variant construction of hollow block made according to the invention, the isometric view.

Offer, according to the invention, the construction of hollow block 1 (figure 1) contains the external and internal is tenki 2, 3, connected by bridges 4.

Block 1 is made with the possibility of the formation of the construction of the object (not shown) by placing the multitude of hollow blocks 1, the outer peripheral surfaces 5, 6 of the outer and inner walls 2, 3 are placed in contact with the same surfaces of the adjacent blocks (as shown in figure 2).

The outer and inner walls 2, 3 are made of the construction, for example, self-hardening material. As a construction material of the walls 2, 3 can be used the following materials: concrete, foam concrete, crushed concrete with concrete, claydite-concrete, concrete aggregates, cement-bonded mixture, fiber-reinforced concrete, polymer materials, metal, wood, clay and similar materials.

Since the proposed block 1 in the space can be placed in different positions, to facilitate understanding of the present invention further we will consider the proposed block 1 in the position shown in the accompanying drawings, which defines the position of the top and bottom of the block 1. While we accept that the wall 2 is an external wall, the wall 3 is an inner wall, and the proposed block 1 has a length L, a width N and height N.

Inside the outer and inner walls 2, 3 are placed reinforcement elements 7, which are formed in each p is pout frame 8.

Each first frame 8, mainly, is rectangular in shape and arranged along the respective walls 2, 3, i.e. along its length L.

This shape and arrangement of the first frame 8 gives a uniform stiffness and strength of corresponding walls 2, 3.

The first frame 8 has two essentially horizontal portion 9 and two essentially vertical part 10.

The horizontal part 9 are longitudinal reinforcement that takes tensile stress. The vertical part 10 are transverse reinforcement that prevents the formation of cracks from occurring shear stresses near the supports.

However, the first frame 8 may have a different shape, e.g. the shape of a truncated trapezoid or triangle or any other shape which provides the desired rigidity and strength required to create a building object.

Jumper 4 is made of elements 7 of the valve, fastening the first frame 8 of the outer and inner walls 2, 3 and in combination with reinforcement elements 7 of the first part 8 forming a spatial reinforcing frame 11 of the block 1.

The frame 11 has a reinforcing tabs 12, made with the possibility of spatial connection of rebar cages 11 adjacent blocks to form a unified reinforced structure 13 of the construction object, having a single cavity DS simultaneous filling of the construction material (as shown in figure 2).

The elements 7 of the valve can be hard (profiles of any shape cross-section, for example, rolling Taurus, beams, channels, angles and plates with ribs) or flexible (individual rods are smooth and periodic profile, pipes of any shape cross-section, the bars of any shape cross-section, a flat plate or strip, and welded or knitted meshes and skeletons). Reinforcing bars can be made of metal, such as steel, plastic, such as fiberglass or material wood, such as bamboo or any other material capable of imparting rigidity and strength of hollow blocks 1.

In construction sites that use of the proposed building blocks 1, as elements 7 of the valve, mainly used interconnected rods of reinforcing steel. Essential ways of connecting rods are welding, binding wire. Instead of tying wire can be used special valve retainers made of steel.

Thus spatial reinforcing frame 11 of the block 1 represents a set of interconnected reinforcement elements 7, which when combined with concrete in reinforced concrete construction sites perceive tensile stresses or used to strengthen concrete in compression AOR is E.

Figure 1 shows the block 1, in which the spatial reinforcing frame 11 has two pairs of 15 jumpers 7. Each pair 15 is composed of upper and lower crosspieces 7, which are fixed in the respective corners of the first part 8. Each pair 15 jumpers 7 with the respective two vertical parts of the first 10 frames of 8 form two second frame 16, and the two upper or two lower jumper 7 with the respective two horizontal portions 11 of the first part 8 form two third frame 17.

Jumper 7 can be connected with the first part 8 Rethimno or narashima by any known method suitable for similar purposes. For example, using welding, riveting, screw connection, screw connection, tying, gluing, compression, soldering and the like.

At high altitude construction of the spatial object reinforcing frame 11 (Fig 3) block 1 has an additional pair 15 jumpers 7, made of elements 7 of the valve and connecting the horizontal portion 9 of the first part 8.

Additional jumpers 7 can be performed similarly to the crosspieces 7, fastening the first frame 8 and can structurally different from them. It depends on the size, shape and weight of the block 1. The first frame 8 may have additional vertical portion 10 connecting an additional pair 15 jumpers 7 and forming additional the data of the second frame 16.

All of the above frame 8, 16, 17 may have a reinforcing tabs 12, made with the possibility of spatial connection of rebar cages 9 of the adjacent blocks 1.

Each valve retainer 12 may contain a reinforcing member of a different shape, such as tubular, rod, triangular, tape, in the form of rods of different cross-section, in the form of plates of various shapes (square, rhombus, and the like), in the form of various profile forms (area, channels, brands, tee), in the form of tubes with different cross-sections (circle, rectangle, square), in the form of a strip. The reinforcing elements of the clamps 12 may be made of a material selected from the group of: metal, polymer material, the material is wood and similar materials.

Depending on the specified form, the object of construction of the reinforcing elements of the clamps 12 can be secured to the part 8, jumpers 4 or 8 and jumpers 4 blocks 1. Connectivity spatial reinforcement cages 9 of the adjacent blocks 1 through reinforcing clamps 12 can be performed by means of a connecting means (e.g., in the form of threaded rods, and nuts, or in the form of wire)connecting the reinforcing elements of the reinforcing tabs 12 of the adjacent blocks 1 (not shown). In addition, can be used rebar retainers 12, having the e any known construction, designed to connect adjacent blocks 1. When this valve element retainer 12 may be used as horizontal or vertical parts 9, 10 of the first frame 8.

Depending on the form of the first frame 8 of the upper and lower crosspieces 7 in each pair 15 can have a different spatial location. For example, they may be essentially parallel, and may not be parallel to each other. When the plane in which lies the first pair 15 jumpers 7, may be essentially parallel to the plane in which lies the second pair 15 jumper 7 (as shown in figure 1, 2), or the plane in which lies the first pair 15 jumpers 7, may be placed at an angle to the plane in which lies the second pair 15 jumper 7 (as shown in figure 4).

To improve docking and alignment of the blocks 1 in the installation of building object each wall 2, 3, at least one face has a lock connection 18, made with the possibility of connection with the respective wall 2, 3 of the adjacent block 1. These locking connection can be performed by any known construction suitable for similar purposes. For example, figure 5 shows the block 1, which is on two side faces has a locking connection type 18 "ledge 19 is a depression 20 for connection with a corresponding wall 2, 3 of the adjacent block 1 having the CTE is Noah lock connection 18. At the same time similar locking connection 18 may have a top and bottom faces of the walls 2, 3.

In addition, the walls 2, 3 can additionally be placed tube to connect adjacent blocks 1 with rods placed in these tubes (not shown).

To facilitate mounting frame 8 within the respective walls 2, 3, the wall 2, 3 consists of two interconnected adjacent surfaces of the panels 21, is shifted one with respect to another with the formation, at least on one face of the wall 2, 3 locking connection type 18 "ledge 19 is a depression 20 for connection with a corresponding wall 2, 3 of the adjacent block 1 having a reciprocal locking connection 18. Figure 6 shows the block 1, which is on two side faces, the top face and the bottom face has a locking connection type 18 "ledge 19 is a depression 20 for connection with a corresponding wall 2, 3 of the adjacent block 1 having a reciprocal interlocking connection 18.

To create the different parts of the object of construction of the outer and inner walls 2, 3 can have different dimensions. That is, the height H and/or width N, and/or the length L of the outer wall 2 can be in different combinations more or less similar parameters of the inner wall 3. Figure 7 shows the block 1, in which the outer wall 2 has a height H1 that is greater than height H2 of the inner degree of the key 3. This variant of the block 1 is designed to improve the waterproofing of Foundation with a pillow when using such blocks 1 in the bottom row of the construction object.

To create the closed ends of the construction object hollow block 1 has at least one additional wall 22. Additional wall 22 is a side wall 23 or the upper wall or lower wall or another, at least one additional wall (not shown). If necessary, the block 1 may be simultaneously sides, top, and bottom wall 22, as well as several additional side walls, forming a block having the shape of a polyhedron (not shown). On Fig shows the block 1, which has one side wall 23.

If necessary, additional side wall 22 can be made in one piece with the outer and inner walls 2, 3 of the block 1. Figure 9 shows a block 1 having a side wall 23, made in one piece with the outer and inner walls 2, 3. This unit can be used, for example, when assembling the side of the monolith columns.

To create beams, at least one additional wall 22 has at least one dimension, than the corresponding dimensions of the block size. For example, figure 10 shows the block 1, which has an additional degree is 22 ka (in this case - the bottom wall has a width N2, is larger than the width N1 of the unit 1. Additional wall 22 made in one piece with the outer and inner walls 2, 3 of the block 1.

In various embodiments of the present invention described above structural features can be used in various combinations. For example, when creating openings for installing Windows and doors, as shown in figure 11, the length L1 of the outer wall 2 is greater than the length L2 of the inner wall 3 and at the same time, there is an additional side wall 23, the length L3 which is less than the width N of the block 1.

To create a curved parts of the construction sites or construction sites spherical faces, at least one wall is made oblique. In different variants of execution of the present invention at the outer or inner wall can be made one beveled face (sides, top, or bottom)can be performed two beveled side faces 24 (as shown in Fig), can be beveled all the edges (not shown).

Inside additional wall 22 (Fig) (similarly for external and internal walls 2, 3) placed additional elements 7 of the valve, forming a fourth frame 25. When the fourth frame 25 has a valve retainers 12, designed for fastening the frame 25 with spatial reinforcing frame 11 of the block 1.

Inside, by at least one of the walls 2, 3, 22 can be placed additional elements 7 of the valve, forming at least one first additional portion 26 of the corresponding frame 8, 25, located outside, i.e. from the side, top, or bottom of the respective frame 8, 25. The first additional portion 26 of the first frame 8, 25 can be made of any known form, which can be formed from additional elements 7 of the valve. For example, figure 11 shows the block 1, in which the first additional part 26 represent the elongation of the two horizontal portions 9 of the first part 8, while the outer wall 2 of the extension located on two sides of the first frame 8 and the inner wall 3 of the extension is placed on one side of the first frame 8. On Fig shows the block 1, in which the first additional part 26 represent the elongation of the two horizontal portions 9 of the first part 8, located on two lateral sides of the first frame 8, with the free ends of each pair of bonded extensions additional element 7 of the valve.

For uniform placement of blocks 1 to the construction site in a checkerboard pattern, the first extended portion 26 of the corresponding frame 8, 25 has a length essentially equal to half the length of the frame 8, 25.

The first additional portion 26 opposite part 8 of the respective walls 2, 3 are fastened is between a jumper 4, made from elements 7 of the valve. These jumpers 4 can be performed similarly to the above jumpers 4, fastening the first frame 8, and can be performed any other above-described structure.

On Fig depicted embodiment of the proposed unit 1, whose outer and inner walls 2, 3 have different dimensions. In this embodiment, the outer wall 2 has a length L1 that is greater than the length L2 of the inner wall 3. This inner wall 3 (i.e. the wall with smaller overall size) has a second additional portion 27 of the first frame 8, is placed on the outside of the wall 3 and is bonded with the first frame 8 of the outer wall 2 (i.e. wall with a large overall size) jumpers 4, made of the elements 7 of the valve. The first frame 8 of the outer wall 2 (i.e. wall with a large overall size) may have a first additional portion 26 of the first frame 8, is placed opposite the second side 27 of the first frame 8. In this case, the second portion 27 of the first frame 8 is bonded bridges 4 with the first additional part 26 of the first frame 8.

A possible embodiment of the proposed unit 1 depicted in Fig (to simplify the drawing does not depict the latches 12), in which the outer and inner walls 2, 3 have respective second additional portion 27 of the first part 8 is placed on the side of the first part 8 on the outside of the respective walls 2, 3 and bonded bridges 4, made of the elements 7 of the valve.

The second additional portion 27 of the first part 8 can be placed in the side, top, bottom, these frames 8 on the outside of the respective walls 2, 3 in various combinations. For example, figure 7 depicts the second portion 27 of the first frame 8, below the outside of the first frame 8.

Similar structural features relating to the first additional parts 26 and second additional parts 27, also inherent in the fourth framework 25 additional walls 22.

The second additional part 27 of the respective frames 8, 25 may have a length essentially equal to half the length of this framework 8, 25.

A possible embodiment of the proposed unit 1 depicted in Fig, in which the inner wall 3 is made along the length of the two located on the distance of the panels 28. Within each panel 28 is placed first frame 8 with the first additional part 26 and the first additional portion 26 of the first part 8 of the two panels 28 is bonded is placed on the outside of the panels 28 additional elements 7 of the valve. A possible variant, in which the first frame 8 is placed inside each panel 28 without first additional portion 26 (not shown). In this case, the first frame 8 of the two panels 28 is bonded is placed on the outside of the panels 28 additional element of the AMI 7 fittings.

All that was described above with respect to the elements 7 of the valve, also applies to additional elements 7 of the valve. Moreover, the elements 7 of the valve and additional elements 7 of the valve can be made removable or teams, or removable and teams simultaneously. For example, on Fig. shows the jumpers 4, made of a removable valve 7, made of ribbon. On the first frame 8 is fixed to the means for fastening the removable parts of the valve 7.

In different variants of implementation of the present invention, the reinforcement elements 7 and additional elements 7 valves have a valve amplification, which may be a longitudinal, transverse, angled wire ties or wire mesh, such as is shown in Fig 17. Wire ties can be made of the above-described reinforcing elements 7, and the wire mesh is made of metal, polymer, fabric, and the like.

To create a building object having a curved surface, the outer peripheral surfaces 5, 6 of the outer and inner walls 2, 3 can be made convex or concave, as shown, for example, on Fig.

This convex or concave can be performed on the outer peripheral surface 5, 6 only one of the walls 2, 3 (not shown).

If you want to create the Foundation is slab construction material of the inner wall of the block 1 may be removed and the function of this wall will follow the first frame 8, for example, the first additional part 26 (as shown in Fig).

If necessary, a significant reduction in the height of the block of the first frame 8 may be so small height, which essentially represent the elements 7 of the valve, forming a horizontal portion 9 of the frame 8.

On the outer peripheral surface 5 of the outer wall 2 can be made decorative or insulating or protective coating 31 and the like. When this coating can perform several functions simultaneously. Decorative coating may be a coating of paint of different colors or at least one decorative element mounted on the outer peripheral surface of the outer wall 2 or made it in one piece, and the like. With the inside surfaces of the walls 2, 3 can be executed cover 32, for example, protective (soundproofing, waterproofing, insulation or any other.

On Fig shows the proposed block 1 having a triangular walls 2, 3, and placed them in the triangular first frame 8. On Fig shows part of the construction object, built from the proposed units 1 having the shape of a truncated trapezoid. Everything that was described for a rectangular proposed unit 1, also applies to triangular, trapezoidal or any other the forms proposed units 1.

All of the elements 7 of the valve and additional elements 7 of the valve in different variants of execution of the present invention, form a frame, placed in different planes (horizontal, vertical, angled) and making high rigidity and strength of the proposed construction of a hollow block. Thus one and the same element 7 can execute the function of the horizontal part 9 or the vertical part 10 (Fig) frame 8 and at the same time perform the function of reinforcing element (e.g., tubular) armature retainer 12. The block 1 may contain only two jumpers 4, for example, the top.

The above-described embodiments of the present invention are not exhaustive and is provided only as examples, describing the present invention. All described embodiments of the present invention can be used separately or in combination.

Proposed units 1 gather the following way.

Of the elements of the valve 7 to form the first frame 8 of the outer and inner walls 2, 3 of the block 1. This bond between a horizontal and vertical elements of the valve 7. Then the first frame 8 is placed opposite one another and are connected with jumpers 4. If necessary, the first frame 8 and jumpers connect 4 in addition the use of tie-rods 29. In the spatial form of the reinforcing frame 11 of the block 1. On the specified frame 11 depending on the set of the construction object fix the reinforcing elements rebar retainers 12, made with the possibility of spatial connection of rebar cages 11 adjacent blocks 1 (for example, by means of a connecting means) to form a unified reinforced structure of a building object, having a single cavity for simultaneously filling a building material. Frame 8 spatial ready reinforcing frame 11 in turn is placed in a mold filled with construction material for making the outer and inner walls 2, 3. This is performed so that the frame 8 of the outer and inner walls 2, 3 are placed inside a building material after its solidification and create a reinforced walls 2, 3 of the block 1. Similarly form any additional wall 22 of the block 1.

Construction project, for example, the wall of the building are assembled as follows.

Set above the blocks 1 having outer and inner walls 2, 3, for example, in a checkerboard pattern and sostakovic adjacent (side, top, and bottom) blocks 1. Spatial reinforcing cages 11 neighboring blocks 1 connect using rebar retainers 12 to form a unified reinforced the first wall structure of a building, having a single cavity 14 for simultaneously filling a building material. The extreme ends of the blocks 1 is closed with the appropriate additional walls 22 with the formation of the closed volume of a single cavity 14, which simultaneously fill a given building material. For the formation of door and window openings, as well as various forms of construction projects use appropriate above the blocks 1.

Construction project, for example, a column mounted as follows.

Set above the blocks 1 having outer and inner walls 2, 3, one upon the other and sostakovic adjacent (side, top, and bottom) blocks 1. Spatial reinforcing cages 11 neighboring blocks 1 connect using rebar retainers 12 to form a unified reinforced structure columns that have a single cavity 14 for simultaneously filling a building material. The extreme ends of the blocks 1 is closed with the appropriate additional walls 22 with the formation of the closed volume of a single cavity 14, which simultaneously fill a given building material.

As the material for the simultaneous filling of the cavity 14 a single reinforced structure 13 of the construction object can be used in concrete, foam concrete, claydite-concrete, concrete aggregates, cement-bonded CME and, fiber-reinforced concrete, polymer materials, foams, granular fillers and similar materials.

Thus, the invention provides the creation of a universal spatial reinforcing frame 11 of the block 1 having different spatial form and providing for the establishment of various forms of construction of objects that have a monolithic homogeneous, strong and rigid structure. Due to the universality of the reinforcing frame 11 face 24 of the block 1 may have different shapes in the plane, resulting in block 1 may have different shapes in space. This allows you to create arched (vertically arranged), radial (horizontal), spherical and other solid objects with, including concave or convex surface.

Moreover, due to the fact that the spatial reinforcing cages 11 blocks 1 bonded reinforcing crosspieces 4, made of the elements 7 of the valve, these blocks 1 to the construction site to form a single force reinforced structure formed with outer and inner walls having a single cavity 14, which is designed for simultaneous backfill or fill construction mixtures or solutions. This, in turn, allows you to mount and fill construction materials construction the object is not a number is mi, and in much larger quantities, for example, in the floor, which provides a monolithic uniformity, strength and rigidity of the construction object in General, excludes its aseistant and lamination, and also reduces the number of seams, this prevents the formation of "cold joints", which reduces thermal conductivity of the construction site and increases its insulating properties of the object, and also greatly increases the speed of construction.

In addition, these design features of the proposed unit 1 increase the seismic resistance of building object in General, which allows the use of the proposed units 1 for construction in earthquake-prone areas.

1. Construction hollow block containing the external and internal walls, connected by bridges, and the parts of the valve, with walls made of a building material, and the hollow block made with the possibility of forming a construction site by placing a variety of hollow blocks, the outer peripheral surface of the outer and inner walls which are placed in contact with the same surfaces of the adjacent blocks, characterized in that the valve placed inside the outer and inner walls to form each of the first frame, and the jumper is made of elements of reinforcement, bonding the x first frame of external and internal walls and in combination with elements of the valve the first part, forming a spatial reinforcing frame unit having a valve retainers made with the possibility of spatial connection of rebar cages adjacent blocks to form a unified reinforced structure of a building object, having a single cavity for simultaneously filling a building material.

2. Construction hollow block according to claim 1, characterized in that each first frame is rectangular in shape and arranged along the respective wall.

3. Construction hollow block according to claim 2, characterized in that the spatial reinforcing frame unit has two pairs of upper and lower crosspieces, which are fixed in the respective corners of the first frame, each pair of these jumpers with the respective two vertical parts of the first part to form two second frame, and the two upper or two lower jumper with the respective two horizontal parts, the first part of the form two third of the frame.

4. Construction hollow block according to claim 3, characterized in that the spatial reinforcing frame unit has an additional jumper, made from parts of the valve and connecting part of the specified framework.

5. Construction hollow block according to claim 1, characterized in that each valve retainer comprises a tubular or rod, or triangular, Il the belt reinforcing element and the connecting means, made with the possibility of connection of reinforcement bars reinforcement clamps neighboring blocks.

6. Construction hollow block according to claim 3, characterized in that the upper and lower bar in each pair of essentially parallel to each other.

7. Construction hollow block according to claim 6, characterized in that the plane in which lies the first pair of jumpers, essentially parallel to the plane in which lies the second pair of jumpers.

8. Construction hollow block according to claim 6, characterized in that the plane in which lies the first pair of jumpers, placed at an angle to the plane in which lies the second pair of jumpers.

9. Construction hollow block according to claim 1, characterized in that each wall, at least one face has a locking connection is made with the possibility of connection with the corresponding wall of the adjacent block.

10. Construction hollow block according to claim 9, characterized in that each wall consists of two interconnected adjacent surfaces of the panels that are offset one with respect to another with the formation, at least on one face of the wall locking connection.

11. Construction hollow block according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer and inner walls have different dimensions.

12. Construction hollow block according to claim 1, characterized in that pustomelya has at least one additional wall.

13. Construction hollow block 12, characterized in that at least one additional wall has at least one dimension, than the corresponding dimensions of the block size.

14. Construction hollow block 12, characterized in that face, at least one wall is made oblique.

15. Construction hollow block 12, characterized in that inside additional wall placed additional elements of the valve, forming a fourth frame.

16. Construction hollow block 15, wherein the fourth frame has a reinforcing clamps, fastening this frame with spatial reinforcing cage block.

17. Construction hollow block 12, characterized in that the inside of at least one wall an additional reinforcement elements forming at least one first additional portion of the corresponding frame that is located outside.

18. Construction hollow block 17, characterized in that the first additional portion of the corresponding frame has a length essentially equal to half the length of the frame.

19. Construction hollow block 17, characterized in that the first additional portion opposite the respective walls of the crypt is received together with jumpers, made of reinforcement elements.

20. Construction hollow block 17, characterized in that the outer and inner walls have different dimensions, and the wall with a smaller overall size, has a second additional portion of the first frame, placed on the outside of the wall and fastened to the first frame wall with a large overall size jumpers made from the parts of the valve.

21. Construction hollow block 17, characterized in that the outer and inner walls have respective second additional part of the first part, placed on the outside of the respective walls and bonded bridges, made of parts of the valve.

22. Construction of a hollow block of item 21, wherein the second additional parts of the respective frames have a length essentially equal to half the length of this framework.

23. Construction hollow block according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner wall is made along the length of the two located at a distance of panels, each of which is placed the first frame, the first frame of the two panels fastened placed outside panels additional reinforcement elements.

24. Construction hollow block according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the valve and the additional valve pre what are the elements selected from the group of rods, tubes, profiles.

25. Construction hollow block according to any one of preceding claims 1 to 23, characterized in that the valve and the additional valve is made from a material selected from the group of: metal, polymer material, the material of wood origin.

26. Construction hollow block according to any one of preceding claims 1 to 23, characterized in that the reinforcement elements and the additional elements of the valve are removable.

27. Construction hollow block according to any one of preceding claims 1 to 23, characterized in that the valve and the additional valve is made teams.

28. Construction hollow block according to any one of preceding claims 1 to 23, characterized in that the reinforcement elements and additional elements valves have a valve amplification.

29. Construction hollow block according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer peripheral surface of the external and internal walls are made convex or concave.

30. Construction hollow block according to claim 1 or 29, characterized in that on the outer peripheral surface of the outer and/or inner walls of the completed floor.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: structural block comprises the first and second element, identical to the above first element, at the same time each of the above elements has, in general, a parallelogram shape with a central hole and a cut in one angle and inner walls formed at least in the above central hole, at the same time the above element rotates relative to the other element approximately at the angle of 180°, and each element has a truncated inner surface, partially formed by the above inner hole; each element is connected with the other element by means of stretching via the central hole of the other element and substantially closing this central hole, and each element has a face surface directed towards the appropriate face surface of the other element; above cuts are arranged along a diagonal axis stretching via the above elements and via the above windows; the above elements may turn along the above diagonal axis between the closed position, in which face surfaces contact with each other, and the open position, in which the above face surfaces are separated, and truncated inner surfaces of elements rest against each other and act as stops to limit movement of the above elements. Also a wall, a window for a building and an architectural structure using the above block are described.

EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.

20 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: glass element for creation of walls from building glass stones comprises two glass concave halves of shells, connected together along edges of concave sections and creating a form of a whole parallelepiped with two open faces and with side walls, having the shape providing for insertion-assembly with adjacent elements. Along two adjacent side walls of each open face there is an external first ledge, and accordingly, an internal second ledge, which protrudes less than the external first ledge, simultaneously along two other adjacent side walls of the same open face there is an external third ledge, and accordingly, an internal fourth ledge, which protrudes more than the external third ledge, and accordingly, the internal fourth ledge protruding more than the external third ledge, besides, each external first ledge that protrudes more has the height that is less than each internal fourth ledge that protrudes more. Also the method is described for creation of walls of building glass stones.

EFFECT: prevention of mortar leakage from a stone-to-stone space, provision of high accuracy of arrangement of adjacent elements of stones, increased speed of wall erection.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: heat-insulation building brick comprises a structural body with at least one cavity and an insulation filler arranged in the cavity. Besides, the insulating filler comprises an insulating material arranged in a filling shell, and the insulating filler may have the first size when installed into an insulating building brick and the second size after installation into an insulating building brick, at the same time the above dimensions are substantially permanent, and the first size is smaller than the second size. Also the method of such brick production is described.

EFFECT: simplified manufacturing of a brick, higher heat insulation properties.

12 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flaky items used in construction for heat insulation of buildings and premises in it. The heat and sound insulation unit comprises filler webs laid one onto another, every of which comprises a corrugated sheet with corrugations of zigzag shape and a flat sheet connected to it. In each filler web, at least at one longitudinal side of the filler web, the flat sheet is arranged with a transverse size below the corrugated sheet by value of at least half of a pitch of a zigzag-shaped corrugation, thus producing a compensator from corrugations protruding beyond the flat sheet, capable of being compressed in transverse direction for gapless laying of the filler web into a building structure. A serrated line of corrugated sheet bend matches the edge of the flat sheet of the web. In the first version of block laying into a building structure the block is pressed with its longitudinal side with a compensator to the element of the building structure, and in this condition it is installed into the filled space of the building structure. The block compensator due to action of springing forces fills a gap produced between the block and the element of the building structure. In the second version, in case of layer-by-layer installation of block filler webs into a building structure, block filler webs that are adjacent along the height of the building structure are laid with a rotation relative to each other by 180°, and thus the compensator of the below block filler web is covered with a flat sheet of the filler web sheet. In the third version, in case of layer-by-layer installation of block filler webs into a building structure with equal longitudinal and transverse dimensions, block filler webs that are adjacent along the height of the building structure are laid with a rotation relative to each other by 90°, and thus gapless laying of the block is provided at all sides of the building structure.

EFFECT: invention provides for higher heat and sound insulation properties of blocks due to elimination of gaps between elements of building structures and fillers.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block consists of a decorative face layer, a bearing layer and a heat insulating layer provided in between, which are fixed to each other with polymer rods. The block is arranged in the form of a prism, trapezoid bases of which are ends of the block, and non-parallel prism faces of identical area are upper and lower bases of the block. The parallel side face of the prism of larger area is an outer side of the decorative layer of the block, the parallel side face of the prism of smaller area is an inner side of the bearing layer of the block, besides, the angle between planes of prism bases and the outer side of the face decorative layer makes 89 and less degrees, on one of bases in the decorative and bearing layers there are slots, axes of which are in planes parallel to the face side of the decorative layer, with the area of section of each slot of more than 5 sq. cm., on the other base there are ledges arranged as complying with slots. The method of construction of the multilayer construction blocks is also described.

EFFECT: higher labour efficiency in erection of a building, elimination of damages on a decorative layer when erecting a building, compensation of uneven subsidence of a block during laying, strict dosing of mortar, reduced flow of concrete mortar in laying and reduced costs for erection of a building.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: cellular-porous ceramic block for erection of single-layer and multi-layer walls represents a rectangular parallelepiped comprising outer side stretcher and header faces and an inner structural-insulation structure made of rows of through cavities separated from each other with ceramic partitions and links and parallel to header faces of the block. Through cavities are arranged with displacement relative to each other in neighbouring rows for half of their width, besides, the block has vertical and horizontal slots, which protrude beyond the limits of the stretcher and bed faces by width of one cavity and thickness of a side face, and also a vertical mark at the centre of the stretcher side of the face.

EFFECT: improved physical and technical parameters of a block and method to lay a building wall, increased accuracy of laying in erection of a wall, reduced deviations from horizontal and vertical planes, higher resistance of work to shifting.

1 ex, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: wall unit is arranged in the form of a faceted structure from a hardened material, having a face surface arranged on the outer face side of the unit, an inner surface arranged on the inner side of the unit, lower, upper and side surfaces, at the same time the unit comprises a face layer, an intermediate layer and an inner layer arranged serially along its width, besides, the face layer has thickness of s1, which is less than the thickness s2 of the intermediate layer, and the thickness s3 of the inner layer is less than the thickness s1 of the face layer, the latter contains cement, a plasticiser and ground haydite with fractions within 1 to 5 mm, the intermediate layer of the unit contains cement, a plasticiser and haydite with fractions within 5 to 20 mm, the inner layer of the unit contains sand, cement and a plasticiser, the specified thicknesses of the unit layers are selected depending on the width S of the unit and are in the ratio of s1:s2:s3=(0.10-0.17)S:(0.89-0.79)S:(0.007-0.037)S, the unit comprises a L-shaped crest made in the face layer and covering it at two adjacent lateral and lower sides, and also a L-shaped groove made in the face layer and covering at two other adjacent lateral and upper sides of the unit, the crest and the groove are installed in a single plane, parallel to the face surface of the unit, the surface of the crest and the groove, the face and inner surfaces are arranged as solid and smooth, and the lower, upper and lateral sides of the unit arranged between the face and inner layers are made as rough with grooves stretching inside the unit from 0.1 mm to 20 mm between fractions, at the same time the length of the unit L at its face side is selected depending on the width S of the unit within the limits of L=(0.99-1.01)S, the length Lin of the unit at its inner side is selected as equal to the length of the unit at its face side, the face surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s4 from the crest axis, the inner surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s5 from the crest axis, which is more than the distance s4, besides, s4 and s5 are in the ratio s4=(0.08-0.16)s5. Also the versions of units design are described, as well as a material for manufacturing of a unit, versions of molds for manufacturing of a unit, the method to manufacture the unit and a line for unit manufacturing.

EFFECT: reduced weight of units, its higher strength, provision of possibility to increase strength of units connection in a wall, simplified technology of production by usage of moulds from unified elements, using a simplified method for manufacturing of units and a line for method implementation.

41 cl, 61 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: set of a leave-in-place form comprises a main wall block, an universal clip to fix wall blocks to each other, an above-opening link and a cover roof block. Blocks of a leave-in-place form are made of a hard polyurethane foam having high heat insulation and noise-absorbing properties with higher chemical resistance to exposure to salts available in concretes (aerated concretes), and also have a fabricated decorative finish of an outer surface on the face side made as a whole with the block, and at the inner side the block has a melted-in sheet profiled in accordance with the surface geometry on its surface, and/or an expanded steel sheet, and/or a close-meshed net.

EFFECT: higher efficiency in production of civil and installation works, higher extent of adhesive engagement between finishing lining and a block of a leave-in-place form and higher adhesion of blocks with monolithic concrete, universality of elements.

5 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: hollow building block, which has two side and two end walls, and at least one link parallel to end walls, which separates the block cavity. Its hollowness makes from 20% to 60%, and it is made of a mixture, which contains cement, swollen perlite sand, a solid filler with hardness of at least 1.25 and water with the following content of components, wt %: cement of grade 400 or 500 - 38-42%; swollen perlite sand of fraction 0.63…5 - 12-15%; solid filler of fraction 0…5 or 0…10 - 32-38%, water - 14-17%.

EFFECT: invention provides for strength without loss of heat insulation and weight characteristics of perlite concrete, reduced load at structures during cast-in-place concrete house building.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: duplicating material to make tiled building blocks comprises webs of cellular and porous layers, which are thermally fixed to resist flaking from 0.01 to 0.19 kN/m, the cellular layer has surface density from 40 to 168 g/cm2 and comprises smooth anti-sorption threadlike elements, the porous material has apparent density from 10 to 50 kg/m3, and the duplicated material has thickness from 1.0 to 3.0 mm.

EFFECT: higher quality of produced blocks due to prevention of mortar leakage to visible surface of blocks.

8 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for concreting structures with application of a non-detachable reinforced concrete and (or) reinforced cement formwork, including treatment of the active surface of the formwork with application of vertical chases and laying with vibration of a concrete mix into the formwork, prior to laying of the concrete mix into a non-detachable reinforced concrete and (or) reinforced cement formwork, the concrete mix is exposed to preliminary electric heating with alternating current to temperatures exceeding by 25-45° the formwork active surface temperature, besides, treatment of the formwork active surface is carried out with a water jet of high pressure 8-16 atm. in 4-8 hours after formwork moulding, at the same time application of additional inclined chases onto the active surface of the formwork is carried out at the angle of 45±15° relative to vertical chases, and vertical and inclined chases are applied by means of mechanical cutting.

EFFECT: higher strength characteristics of a joint between old and new concretes, increased durability of a structure and intensification of concrete works.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: external multilayer cast-in-place wall of a multistory building comprises cast-in-place concrete layers, a heat insulation layer with air holes and separated with a flat slot, connecting concrete layers of connection arranged in holes, besides, holes for arrangement of connections are arranged in the form of vertical air channels, at the same time connections are arranged in pairs at the distance from each other equal to the thickness of the vertical air channel, and each connection comprises at least four serially connected elements, besides, spatial arrangement of appropriate elements in each of pairwise arranged connections is accordingly made in the form of a narrowing and expanding figure. On the inner surface of the heat insulation layer at the side of the air hole there are curvilinear grooves, besides, on one part of the insulation layer separated with the flat slot, the tangent of curvilinear grooves have direction along with the motion of an hour hand, and on the second part of the heat insulation layer the tangent of curvilinear grooves has a direction opposite to the travel of the hour hand.

EFFECT: maintenance of normalised heat insulation parameters of external multilayer cast-in-place wall under changing weather-climate conditions of operation, especially under negative temperatures of ambient air, higher efficiency of operation.

3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: set of a leave-in-place form comprises a main wall block, an universal clip to fix wall blocks to each other, an above-opening link and a cover roof block. Blocks of a leave-in-place form are made of a hard polyurethane foam having high heat insulation and noise-absorbing properties with higher chemical resistance to exposure to salts available in concretes (aerated concretes), and also have a fabricated decorative finish of an outer surface on the face side made as a whole with the block, and at the inner side the block has a melted-in sheet profiled in accordance with the surface geometry on its surface, and/or an expanded steel sheet, and/or a close-meshed net.

EFFECT: higher efficiency in production of civil and installation works, higher extent of adhesive engagement between finishing lining and a block of a leave-in-place form and higher adhesion of blocks with monolithic concrete, universality of elements.

5 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: frame is manufactured, onto which different covers are attached by different methods. At the same time a grilled frame of a structure is made from a rebar, the frame bottom is poured into a foundation or a prepared base, openings are made in it for windows, doors, manholes, jambs of windows, doors, manholds are mounted into them, pipes are fixed to the frame for installation of utilities, the grilled frame is filled with facing tiles from inside and outside the structure, the facing tiles are coated with insulant, soundproof, solar-control or decorative tiles of a cover in compliance with the selected relief and pattern, gaps between tiles are sealed by mutual collapsing of cover tiles sealers, the space between facing tiles is filled in layers with a filler that is solid after hardening and not dismountable. If it is required to replace the cover tiles, they are removed from a dovetail fixture and are replaced with new ones. Also a device is proposed that realises the method.

EFFECT: improved technology of construction.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect a site-cast skeleton building with decorative outer finish includes casting of foundation, tying of a reinforcement structure of the ground floor, casting walls of the ground floor with the help of removable curbs, installation of crossbar reinforcement and casting ceiling slabs and crossbars, tying a reinforcement structure of the first and subsequent floors with casting of walls, installation of crossbars reinforcement and casting ceiling slabs and crossbars of subsequent floors and erection of a roof, at the same time, when the foundation is cast, it is previously filled with vertical reinforcement fills and fastening supports for removable wall curbs, and when ceiling slabs are cast, reinforcement fills are tied to reinforcement of the lower floor walls, and fastening supports are laid for removable wall curbs, besides, the reinforcement structure of walls is tied to reinforcement fills, leaving vertical openings for windows and doors, then removable wall curbs are vertically lowered on top of the reinforcement structure of the walls, and curbs comprise a hollow cover and a tray with a wall stock fabricated at a plant and including at least one decorative and at least one heat-insulating layers, joined to each other by means of reinforcement elements, arranged with the decorative layer outside, and the hollow cover of the removable wall curb the reinforcement structure of the wall bearing layer is arranged, then removable wall curbs are fixed in the fastening supports of the foundation with fastening ties, and gaps around the reinforcement inside hollow covers of the removable wall curbs are filled with concrete, forming a bearing concrete layer of the building wall and leaving the upper area of the removable wall curb free of concrete, adjacent to the heat-insulating layer of the wall stock, besides, after removal of the removable wall curbs on the bearing concrete layer of the wall, in the upper area free of concrete there are crossbar curbs arranged as adjacent to the wall stock, at the same time prior to filling of the last floor slab it is filled with fastening elements for the roof frame.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensity and time required to erect a building, improved universality of the building frame structure with site-cast walls and improvement of its operational characteristics, simplified process of concrete mix pouring in erection of the building wall, increased reliability, strength and seismic stability of a facility.

6 cl, 23 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device to erect building elements contains extruder to supply material, limiting plates intended to retain material against flowing until it hardens, and mechanism for horizontal displacement of extruder and limiting plates along contour of erected elements of buildings, arranged in the form of a carriage, where limiting plates and extruder are fixed, where extruder comprises nozzles arranged in a row between limiting plates when melts are used as supplied material or crystallisers, when hardening mixtures are used as supplied material. Method is also described to erect building elements with the help of specified device.

EFFECT: invention provides for minimum error of deviation from design dimensions of building, minimum quantity of working personnel on site, possibility to erect buildings of complex geometry using computer technologies, production of building materials in situ, directly on site, absence of curb, round-the-clock monitoring of works.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for erection of structures with application of plastic, porcelain, faience, wood, cardboard, paper, extracted from mechanisedly sorted domestic and industrial wastes, consists in assembly of reinforcement frame, manufacturing of curb, preparation of concrete mixture, filling of curb with concrete mix, further shift of curb for pouring of another layer and repeating of described operations until concrete frame of structure is completed with further performance of plastering and tiling works.

EFFECT: improved manufacturability and efficiency in process of finishing works performance during construction and in cosmetic routine repairs.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for erection of structures with application of crushed glass, porcelain, faience, wood, cardboard, paper, extracted from mechanisedly sorted domestic and industrial wastes, consists in assembly of reinforcement frame, manufacturing of curb, preparation of concrete mixture, filling of curb with concrete mix, further shift of curb for pouring of another layer and repeating of described operations until concrete frame of structure is completed with further performance of plastering and tiling works.

EFFECT: improved manufacturability and efficiency in process of finishing works performance during construction and in cosmetic routine repairs.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for erection of monolithic three-layered walls of building, containing facing, heat insulation and structural layers with the help of fence, heat insulation, structural and angle forms, vertically moved in stands, and equipped with mechanism of shields lifting, delivery and removal, related to installation of forms on horizontal platform, adjustment of form shields verticality, filling moulded mix layer into forms to a specified height, its compaction, reaching required strength, removal of curb shields from wall and their lifting to a new level, bringing curb shields to wall, repetition of described cycle until walls are erected to a floor height. Frames of fence and inner forms are rigidly joined with frames of angle forms into a single form system, lifting of which to a new level is done in stands by a series of synchronous little steps with the help of short-stroke step lifting mechanism; fence form is arranged as two-level. At the same time shields of upper form level make heat insulation layer of three-layered fence wall, and shields of lower form level make facing and structural layers, besides all three layers are formed simultaneously at two levels, moreover, heat insulation layer of upper level rises over facing and structural layers of lower level. Stands in process of form system lift from one level to another within the limits of erected floor rest on floor slab of previous floor, and when floor slab of this floor is formed, form system is lifted over plane of upper cut of structural layer of this floor wall and fixed in lifted position by means of braces rested against upper cut of structural layer and form system, then stands are pulled upwards to release space for formation of floor slab. Afterwards the floor slab itself is formed, being concreted by structural layer, stands are lowered onto surface of newly formed floor slab, and braces are removed, then walls of another floor are started. Form system is also described.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of labour due to application of universal method for erection of monolith frameless building with inner single-layered and fence multilayered walls with simultaneous formation of facade, insulation and bearing layers and with full automation of all accompanying processes.

8 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for erection of monolithic walls of residential buildings, housings and structures in combined curb includes installation of curb panels with fixation of distance between panels by means of yokes at the moment of its filling with concrete. At the same time at first external nondetachable facing panels are installed on technological horizon onto mortar by the level, made of reinforced concrete with edges of horizontal reinforcement that protrude into the wall, or from other smaller facing elements, in which reinforcement with bent edges is placed into grating between elements, then flexible insulator is suspended with its piercing through protruding reinforcement and pressing to inner side of facing panel, or insulator is installed inside the building after monolithic reinforced concrete walls, afterwards horizontal reinforcement is laid onto protruding ends of facing panels reinforcement, besides edges of horizontal reinforcement in walls are also bent, then panels of internal detachable curb of the first level from floor are installed on bays, and starting from the second level - onto supports mounted into liquid concrete, upper edge of internal curb is fixed with rigid yokes or hooks relative to facing panel. Internal curb space is poured with concrete, and supports are installed for the next layer of internal curb panels, at the same time concrete evenly presses insulator to facing panels, fixing protruding edges of facing panels reinforcement, and in case insulator is installed inside the building, concrete fixes facing panels as much as possible, inner resettable panels prior to installation are lubricated with used engine oil, selected material of resettable curb is slate with thickness of 8-12 mm, height of slate is cut by 2 cm more than height of external non-detachable curb, providing for overlap with lower concrete as it is shifted upwards, supports used are nails bent at the distance of 2 - 2.5 cm from head at the angle of 120 - 150 degrees and installed into concrete with pressing of end with head to internal panel (slate). As slate is shifted to another level, nails are either unbent or replaced for straight ones, if concrete has not gained sufficient strength for their straightening, and slate is lubricated with used engine oil at least once every two rearrangements.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness and cost for erection of building, housing and structure walls, making it possible to work in small brigades without application of large construction equipment, keeping construction speed high, wider selection of possible versions for external facing of walls and creation of unlimited versions for interior finishing of premises.

3 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect load-bearing building walls.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises frame structure composed of frame members connected one to another by cross-pieces. The frame structure is mare as three-dimensional grid defining cells. Each cell is formed of two frames with holes located at frame corners and connected one to another by cross-pieces arranged in frame corners. The cross-pieces are provided with locks. Each lock is made as angle member and plate bent in two steps. The angle member and the plate are connected by rectangular plate. Building erection method with the use of above device is also disclosed.

EFFECT: simplified method due to porous concrete usage and possibility to create all-purpose building frame, which provides necessary strength of load-bearing walls, increased reliability and reduced material consumption.

5 cl, 12 dwg, 1 ex

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