Method of heating reaction mix in production of metal salts and device to this end
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises heating the reaction mix in assembly consisting of two units composed of heaters and bubblers. Every of said unit is heated in turns to boil the solution and to direct live steam to bubbler of another unit. Proposed device represents the assembly consisting of two units composed of heaters and bubblers and integrated in a system by steam-gas pipelines. Note here that one pipeline is connected with bubblers while another one is connected with atmosphere. Shutoff valves and auxiliaries are fitted between units and pipelines. Proposed device may comprise shutoff valves automatic changer-over devices and their control unit.
EFFECT: maximum application of live steam heat, optimised thermal and hydrodynamic conditions, lower costs.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
The invention relates to a method of heating the working masses in the process of obtaining metal compounds, and device for its implementation.
Obtaining metal compounds (salts, acids, basic salts) as a rule, is carried out by chemical dissolution (etching) of metals in solutions of acids or salts. Chemical etching of metals in acids is carried out, for example:
- obtaining of copper sulfate from copper and sulfuric acid;
- obtaining of silver nitrate of silver and nitric acid;
- obtaining of hexachloroplatinic acid by dissolving platinum in Aqua Regia;
Basic salts in some cases is produced by the interaction of metals with solutions of salts. So, getting oxychloride carried out by reacting aluminum metal with a solution of aluminium chloride.
All these processes are characterized by long duration (from several hours to several days), accompanied by the release of gases and, as a rule, require heating up to the maximum possible in betablocking the conditions of a temperature of the boiling point of the solution. Economic and technological efficiency of the processes of obtaining compounds of metals is largely determined by the method of heating the working masses.
As direct sources of heat for nahrawan the solutions in the processes and apparatuses of chemical technology use flue gases, or electrical energy. The most common heating electric resistance /Kasatkin A.G. Basic processes and apparatus of chemical technology M: Alliance, 2009,, s/. The disadvantage of the use of electricity for heating is the relative high cost of electricity.
To transfer heat to the heated medium is widely used intermediate fluids are water vapour, hot water, high temperature heat transfer fluids (mineral oils, organic liquids, molten salts and other). Most commonly used heating agent is water vapor. Common hollow steam heated, transferring heat through the wall of the heat exchanger /A. Kasatkin, the Basic processes and apparatus of chemical technology M: Alliance, 2009, s/. The disadvantage is unproductive consumption of steam associated with the departure of part of the steam condensate (so-called span pairs).
The known method of heating solutions with live steam, which is injected directly into the heated liquid /Kasatkin A.G. Basic processes and apparatus of chemical technology M: Alliance, 2009, s/. Enter direct steam through the bubblers - pipes located at the bottom of the device. This method of heating allows better use of the heat of the steam, as steam condensate is mixed with the heated fluid and temperature virainia the tsya. The disadvantage is the dilution of the heated medium steam condensate.
The closest analogue is the method of heating the reaction mixture in the process of obtaining metals by dissolution of metals at the boiling temperature with the formation of steam. (F. Habashi, fundamentals of applied metallurgy, Vol.2, M., metallurgy, 1975, p.23-43). It is impossible to regulate the heating process, high energy consumption and loss solution.
The objective of the invention is to develop a method of heating the working masses, to ensure maximum use of the heat of steam without dilution of the heated medium, and device for its implementation.
The problem is solved by the proposed method of heating the reaction mixture in the process of obtaining metal compounds by dissolving metals to the boiling temperature with the formation of steam, the difference is that heat when dissolving is carried out in a system of two devices equipped with heaters and bubblers, each of the two devices alternately heated by the heaters to heat the reaction mixture, bring the solution to kiberia and the resulting steam is directed into the bubbler other apparatus with stopping any heating of the reaction mixture heater.
The discharge of exhaust steam is carried out on the apparatus heated by direct steam.
Periodically switch: in odd-numbered cycles of the first device is heated by the heater, and the second live steam coming from the first apparatus; in even-numbered cycles, on the contrary, the second device is heated by the heater, and the first acute ferry.
Switching is carried out at set intervals, or upon reaching a given level of solution in one of the units or upon reaching a predetermined temperature of the solution. It is preferable to perform switching in automatic mode using a time relay or automatic level control or temperature solutions.
Also proposed a device for heating the reaction mixture in the process of obtaining metal salts, including apparatus with a heater, the difference of which is that it contains two apparatus, equipped with heaters and bubblers, and the devices connected to the system piping for steam and exhaust steam, and piping for sharp pair connected with bubblers, piping for exhaust steam from the atmosphere, and between the apparatus and piping, install isolation valves for controlling the release of steam.
Preferably, the device may contain elements of automatic switching valves, and a control unit for the automatic switched the I valves.
Can be used any known method of heating apparatus - an electric current, a hollow steam and other
Figure 1 presents the scheme of the device.
The device contains two devices 1 and 2, provided with a heater 3 and 4 and bubblers 5 and 6. The pipeline sharp pair 7 with installed valves 10 and 11 is connected to the bubblers, the exhaust vapor 8 with installed valves 9 and 12 with the atmosphere.
The device operates as follows.
When closed and valves 9 and 11 and open the valves 10 and 12 include a heater 3 heater 4 is turned off). Heat the solution in the apparatus 1 to the boiling point. Formed in the unit 1 steam through the pipe 7 enters the bubbler 6 heating apparatus 2. Proven gas-vapor mixture is removed from the apparatus 2 to line 8.
Then make the switch. Turn off the heater 3, a heater 4, open the valves 9 and 11, close the valves 10 and 12, heat the solution in the apparatus 2 to the boiling point. Formed in the unit 2 steam through the pipe 7 enters the bubbler 5 on the heating apparatus 1. Proven gas-vapor mixture is removed from the apparatus 1 via line 8.
This process periodically (cyclically) repeat. In odd-numbered cycles of steam from the apparatus 1 enters the apparatus 2, in even-numbered cycles of steam and the apparatus 2 enters the apparatus 1. The steam evaporates and condenses mainly within the system of the two devices, moving from device to device and back. The total number of circulating water in the device remains almost unchanged. If necessary, resulting in a small number of migrating vapor can condense and return the water into the machine.
Figure 2 shows the option of using steam heaters (heating of hollow steam through the jacket of the device), providing for automatic adjustment by transmitting signals from the level sensors of the reaction mixture on the control unit valves (lines transmitting signals from the control unit to the actuator is not specified).
The list of positions of figure 2
1, 2 - devices
3, 4 - bubblers,
5 is a control block
LI-1, LI-1 - level sensors,
XV-1...XV-10 - valves.
The regulation algorithm: at the lower level of the reaction mixture in the apparatus 1 to the limit value, the signal from the sensor LI-1 is supplied to the control unit, where the actuator signal: valve XV-1, XV-5 XV-9 XV-4 XV-8 - close, XV-3, XV-7 XV-2, XV-6 XV-10 - open.
Similarly, by decreasing the level of the reaction mixture in the apparatus 2 to the limit value, the control unit receives the signal from the sensor, LI-2, after which the actuator signal: valve XV-1, XV-5 XV-9 XV-4 XV-8 - open, XV-3, XV-7 XV-2, XV-6 XV-10 - closing the ü.
The essence of the invention is illustrated by the following examples.
The process of obtaining silver nitrate from silver metal and nitric acid in the proposed system for heating the working masses.
Etching of silver in nitric acid proceeds according to the reaction:
Etching of silver is carried out in a system of two units with a capacity of 160 liters Apparatus provided with steam jackets, germetiziruyushchimi caps, bubblers and pipes for gas-vapor mixture, of One of the pipes (piping steam) is connected with bubblers, and the second exhaust pair) - with the atmosphere. Between the apparatus and piping, install isolation valves.
In the load devices over standard metal ingot silver GOST 28595 mass (30±2) kg, pour in 25 liters of distilled water and 25 l (35 kg) nitric acid (HC, density 1.4).
First, both apparatus a hollow steam heated, with exhaust steam is discharged. After reaching the boiling point stop the supply of steam to the jacket of the second apparatus, direct steam, generated in the first device, the second bubbler apparatus and lead the process of etching silver on the proposed method.
Periodically (1 every 30 min) switch: the odd cycles of the first device is heated hollow steam, and the second live steam coming from the first apparatus; in even-numbered cycles, on the contrary, the second device is a hollow steam heated, and the first acute ferry. Switching is carried out in automatic mode by means of valves.
The discharge gas mixture is carried out of the apparatus, heated with live steam. Gas-vapor mixture for neutralization of the emitted oxides of nitrogen is passed through the adsorption column with a solution of urea.
After complete dissolution of silver resulting solution was diluted with distilled water and filtered on a vacuum filter. The filtrate is evaporated to form a crystalline film and cool. The precipitated crystals of silver nitrate sucked off on a vacuum filter, the mother liquor together with the washing water evaporated and crystallized as described above. Both factions crystals are mixed and dried at 110°C in the drying oven. The finished product is Packed for shipment to consumers.
The main technological parameters of the etching process:
duration - 4 hours
- the consumption of nitric acid - 35 kg
- loss of silver with ventilation emissions - 0.3 g
- the emission of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere - 0.25 kg
Example 2 (comparative)
The process of obtaining silver nitrate from silver metal and nitric acid is when you go to traditional hardware design.
Etching of silver is carried out in two bowls with a capacity of 160 liters, provided with steam jackets, caps and exhaust ventilation.
To each Cup download one standard metal ingot silver GOST 28595 mass (30±2) kg, pour 50 l of distilled water, include steam heating. Then poured nitric acid-the first portion 15 l, the subsequent 5 l (every 1.5 hours). Just download 40 l (56 kg) nitric acid. The process is continued until complete dissolution of silver.
The process is conducted at operating local exhaust ventilation for removing the released nitrogen oxides. Air emissions are passed through an adsorption column with a solution of urea.
After dissolving the silver solution is filtered, the filtrate is returned to the bowl and are crystallization and drying of the product, as in example 1.
The main technological parameters of the process:
- the duration of the etching - 9 h
- the consumption of nitric acid is 56 kg
- loss of silver with ventilation emissions of 1.5,
- the emission of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere - 3 kg
The process of obtaining high-base oxychloride from aluminum metal and a solution of aluminium chloride in the proposed system for heating the working masses.
Obtaining high-base oxychloride, aluminium metal is lifescope and a solution of aluminium chloride is carried out in a total reaction: 10Al+2AlCl 3+30H2O=6Al2(OH)5Cl+15 NM2↑
The process is conducted in the system of the two devices with a volume of 6 m3. The apparatus is equipped with a steam jacket, bubblers and pipes for gas-vapor mixture, of One of the pipes (piping steam) is connected with bubblers, and the second exhaust pair) - with the atmosphere. Between the apparatus and piping, install isolation valves.
In each process cycle in both devices download metal aluminium, aluminium chloride and water in predetermined proportions. Aluminum load in the form of standard bars (ingots) of primary aluminum by weight (15±1,5) kg according to GOST 11070-74.
Each device is loaded:
- aluminum metal - 180 kg (in the first cycle is 1800 kg);
a solution of aluminum chloride aluminum chloride - 82,7 kg; water - 1500 DM3).
The amount of aluminum metal loaded in each unit at the start of the technological process (in the first cycle, 10 times more than required by the equation of the chemical reaction and is 1800 kg In each subsequent cycle consumes about 10% aluminum (180 kg), 90% of the metal remains in the apparatus as carryover. At the beginning of each cycle in the machine load bars aluminum metal in an amount corresponding to the weight of the metal used in the previous cycle. So about what atom, is maintained at a constant amount of metal in the device.
First, both apparatus a hollow steam heated, with exhaust steam is discharged. After reaching the boiling point stop the supply of steam to the jacket of the second apparatus, direct steam, generated in the first device, the second bubbler apparatus and lead the process of etching aluminum on the proposed method.
Periodically (1 x 60 min) switch: in odd-numbered cycles of the first device a hollow steam heated, and the second live steam coming from the first apparatus; in even-numbered cycles, on the contrary, the second device is a hollow steam heated, and the first acute ferry. Switching is carried out in automatic mode by means of valves.
The discharge gas mixture is carried out of the apparatus, heated with live steam. Waste gas-vapor mixture is directed into the tank for condensate through the heat exchanger, cooled by circulating water. The steam condenses in the tank, the hydrogen is discharged into the atmosphere by means of local exhaust ventilation. The condensate accumulating, return pump in the apparatus.
Upon receipt of the product, the relevant technical conditions, disable steam heating apparatus, after which the solution pump pump of the apparatus in the intermediate tank, cooled, filtrowa and pumped to the warehouse for subsequent shipment to consumers.
In the apparatus of the newly loaded aluminum metal and an aqueous solution of aluminium chloride, begin the next cycle of obtaining high-base oxychloride.
In each cycle produces about 1743 kg of highly basic solution of oxychloride of the following composition: oxide of aluminum (Al2O3) - 22,8-24,0%, chlorine (Cl) - a 7.9-8.4%, the density 1,325...1,345 g/cm3. The main technological parameters of the process:
Duration - 40 hours;
Steam consumption per 1 ton of product - 1,0 Gcal;
The flow of circulating water per 1 ton of product - 2.5 m3;
Loss of aluminum with air emissions - 0.2 kg per 1 ton of the product.
Example 4 (comparative)
The process of obtaining high-base oxychloride from aluminum metal and a solution of aluminium chloride with traditional hardware design.
The process is conducted in two units with a volume of 6 m3. Apparatus provided with steam jackets and pipelines for the discharge of exhaust steam to the atmosphere.
In each process cycle in both devices download metal aluminium, aluminium chloride and water. The number of downloaded reagents is the same as in example 3.
Both devices are hollow steam heated, with proven gas-vapor mixture is directed into the tank for condensate through the heat exchanger, cooled by circulating water. Steam cond is siruela in the vessel, the hydrogen is discharged into the atmosphere by means of local exhaust ventilation. The condensate accumulating, return pump in the apparatus, thus carry out periodic recharge condensate tap water.
The process requires a systematic monitoring and regulation, since the disturbance of the water balance of the product may crystallize on the surface of ingots of aluminum, which will lead to the termination of the etching.
Upon receipt of the product, the relevant technical conditions, disable steam heating apparatus, after which the solution pump pump of the apparatus in the intermediate tank, cooled, filtered and pumped to the warehouse. In the apparatus of the newly loaded aluminum metal and an aqueous solution of aluminium chloride, begin the next cycle of obtaining high-base oxychloride.
The result is about 1743 kg of product, which is similar to the composition of the product obtained in example 3 according to the proposed method.
The main technological parameters of the process:
Duration - 50 h;
Steam consumption per 1 ton of product - 2,0 Gcal;
The flow of circulating water per 1 ton of the product - 5 m3;
Additional consumption of tap water per 1 ton of product - 1 m3.;
Loss of aluminum with air emissions - 0.5 kg per 1 ton of the product.
The list of positions on IG
1, 2 - devices
3, 4 - heaters
5, 6 - bubblers,
7 - pipeline sharp pair
8 - exhaust vapor
9, 10, 11, 12 - valves
The proposed method of implementation of such processes has a number of significant advantages. With the alternation of modes of heating process becomes oscillatory in nature, due to this it becomes adjustable.
1) Automatically maintain constant the maximum temperature close to the boiling point. In the apparatus, which is currently heated by the heater, it slightly exceeds the boiling point of the solution at atmospheric pressure due to the fact that the pressure in the apparatus above atmospheric at the height of the water column corresponding to the height of the bubbler; the temperature in the second apparatus is approximately equal to the condensation temperature of steam.
2) Reduced energy consumption, since the heat of evaporation of a solution in one device automatically utilized through the use of the heat of condensation of steam in another device.
3) Dramatically reduces loss solution, since steam is not lost, only transferred from device to device and back, the total amount of solution in the two devices remains approximately constant. In contrast to the usual options of heating with live steam (in which the solution is highly diluted with condensate) and unlike the normal boiling temperature (at which the solution is subjected to evaporation) process can be maintained indefinitely, it is particularly important when carrying out long-term heterogeneous chemical processes.
4) is Reduced to a minimum loss of the target product with ventilation emissions, which is very important when we are dealing with expensive raw materials - metals, including precious (platinum, gold, silver).
5) In some cases, the reagents being used more weight. So, when dissolved precious metals (gold, platinum) in Aqua Regia process proceeds through the stage of formation of gaseous chlorine, which is the cascade of two devices fully "digested", i.e. dissolves more gold or platinum. Accordingly, fewer toxic gas enters the ventilation.
Improved hydrodynamic regime of the process: in one of the devices of the mixing occurs due to bubbles generated steam (and dissolved gas)in the other jet of steam applied (as well as gas received from the first device and emitted from the second device). Alternating modes ensures optimal hydrodynamics.
1. The method of heating the reaction mixture in the process of obtaining metal salts by dissolving metals to the boiling temperature with the formation of steam, characterized in that the heating when the dissolution is carried out in a system of two devices equipped with heaters and barbeau the apostrophes, each of the two devices alternately heated by the heaters to heat the reaction mixture, bring the solution to boil and the resulting steam is directed into the bubbler other apparatus with stopping any heating of the reaction mixture heater.
2. Device for heating the reaction mixture in the process of obtaining metal salts, characterized in that it is made in the form of a system of two devices equipped with heaters and bubblers, and the devices connected to the system piping for steam and exhaust steam, and piping for sharp pair connected with bubblers, and the exhaust steam from the atmosphere, and between the apparatus and piping, install isolation valves for controlling the release of steam.
3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that it contains elements of automatic switching valves.
4. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that it comprises a control unit for automatic switching of valves.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce metals from storages of stale wastes of polymetal ore dressing consists in trench opening of the storage, detection of layers containing easily dissolved forms of non-ferrous metals and layers containing noble metals, bulk extraction of stale wastes from the storage, fraction separation of stale wastes into a finer sulfide fraction dressed with noble metals and coarser fraction dressed with non-ferrous metals, and their separate leaching.
EFFECT: complete processing of storages of stale dressing wastes, release of areas occupied by them, complex usage of mineral materials and high environmental and economic effect.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metallurgy of precious metals, and namely to processing of slurries and concentrates containing elementary silicon, carbon and platinum. Similar slurries are formed namely at dilution of platinum-containing cast-iron in sulphuric acid. Slurries are mixed with sodium carbonate at consumption of 120-150% of the weight of silicon and carbon in initial material and sintered at the temperature of 500-650°C during 1-2 hours. Sintered material is leached in water so that insoluble residue containing precious metals and being a concentrate of precious metals is obtained.
EFFECT: simpler technology and higher quality of concentrate.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of lead extraction from lead wastes containing one or more of Pb, PbO, PbO2 and PbSO4 includes treatment with aqueous solution of citric acid with production of lead citrate. Then lead citrate is extracted from the aqeuous solution, and the extracted lead citrate is converted into Pb and/or PbO. The method for processing of lead accumulator batteries, containing or more of Pb, PbO, PbO2 and PbSO4 includes mixing of a paste of lead plates of accumulator batteries with the aqueous solution of citric acid for production of lead citrate. Then lead citrate is extracted from the aqueous solution, and lead citrate is converted into lead and/or lead oxide. Further Pb and/or PbO are included into a plate of an accumulator battery.
EFFECT: simplified process and its improved cost-effectiveness.
17 cl, 7 dwg, 8 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves crushing chemical cells, leaching, magnetic separation and electrolysis. The cells are crushed and leached with water in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide gas without access to oxygen. Light fractions are then removed from the scrap by floatation. Filtration is then carried out. The filtrate is treated with sorbents. After filtration, the scrap is washed with water, dried and fragments of ferrous and nonferrous metals are removed by electromagnetic separation, and then leached with sulphuric acid solution. Sulphuric acid pulp is filtered through a filter with an inert material, a filter with a coal medium and a filter with a cation-exchange medium. Ions of row d and row p metals sorbed by a cation-exchange resin are selectively desorbed with sulphuric acid solutions. Solutions containing ions of row d metals are subjected to electrolysis, and solutions containing ions of row p metals are neutralised to pH 3-4 and treated with clay mineral sorbents. The precipitate after sulphuric acid leaching is leached with nitric acid solution; the undissolved manganese dioxide precipitate is removed and the filtrate is neutralised and acidified to pH 3. The precipitate is filtered off. The filtrate containing mercury ions is subjected to cathode reduction and the precipitate containing lead and silver chlorides is dissolved in nitric acid and subjected to cathode reduction in an electrolysis cell with separate deposition of metals on electrodes.
EFFECT: environmental safety of recycling any type of spent chemical cells.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises multistep leaching of red slag by the mix of sodium carbonate and bicarbonate on forcing annealing furnace flue gases containing carbon dioxide there through to obtained solution. Then, three-step holding of said solution at increased temperatures is performed along with selective separation of precipitates after every said step. At first step, said solution is heated to temperature not exceeding 80°C for, at least, 1 hour. Thereafter, it is settled for, at least, two hours at natural cooling. At second step, said solution is boiled and mixed for, at least, two hours. At third step, said solution is evaporated to 50% of initial volume to add 46%-solution of sodium hydroxide to concentration of Na2Ocaustic of 1.5-2.0 kg/m3. Now, it is boiled for, at least, 2 hours and precipitate containing scandium oxide is settled for 10-16 hours at natural cooling.
EFFECT: simplified process, higher yield of scandium oxide.
SUBSTANCE: method involves processing of base material during heating in water vapour atmosphere and further leaching of precious metals from processing product in solutions of reagents. Besides, processing of base material is performed in water vapour atmosphere, which is mixed with oxygen at the temperature of 300-500°C at oxygen content in gas mixture within 10-20%. Waste gases released during the processing are brought into contact with the solution that is combined with a leaching solution.
EFFECT: decrease of temperature and reduction of costs at preparation of refractory ores and concentrates to leaching.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves solid-phase roasting of wastes mixed with soda to fix arsenic to a water-soluble form of sodium arsenate. Then, water leaching and deposition from arsenic solution is performed. In order to obtained the product from water leaching with low residual arsenic content of 0.7%, solid-phase roasting is performed at 850°C so that a roasted product containing 2.9% of arsenic is obtained. Water leaching of the roasted product is performed with extraction degree of 84%. Deposition from arsenic solution is performed in the form of arsenic sulphide with sodium sulphide at pH=3 with deposition degree of 99.6%, and filtrate with arsenic content of 0.02 g/l for removal of residual amount of arsenic by neutralisation and deposition with iron compounds meets the requirements of sanitary norms.
EFFECT: obtaining low-toxicity commodity product of arsenic sulphide and product of water leaching with low residual content of arsenic.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves crushing of raw material, its heaping in the form of a pile, pre-treatment of raw material in the pile, treatment of the pile with a leaching solution, dilution of metals and obtaining of productive solution with removal of metals from it. At that, pre-treatment is performed by supplying separate solutions or mixture of solutions containing surface active substance and hypochlorite to the pile. Treatment with the leaching solution is performed by means of the solution obtained by mixing in the pile volume at supply to it of separate solutions or mixture of solutions containing hypochlorite, surface-active substance and/or mineral acid. In the leaching solution there used are mixtures of mineral acids or in-series introduced mineral acids. Supply points of the above solutions to the pile can be different.
EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of the process cycle at reduction of costs and emission of hazardous gases.
5 cl, 9 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of bath-well leaching of metals from ores includes treatment of mineral mass by solution of leaching in baths and metal winning from product solution. Baths are formed along leached mass, in the baths bottom a system of injection and extraction wells is built located above the level of bath with depth not less than the lower point of leached layer of mineral mass, and baths are filled with agglomerated mineral mass or pulp prepared in advance from extracted material, mineral mass in baths is treated by solution of leaching, and metal is extracted from product solution. Reusable solution obtained after metal extraction is strengthened or replaced with solution of another composition and is supplied to the system of injection wells for leaching of lower layers of material, then working solution is pumped off with leached metal through the system of extraction wells and metal is extracted from it; for leaching of lower layers of material solutions of environmentally safe chemicals, such as chlorides or thiosulfates, are used.
EFFECT: invention allows improving metal extraction efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the technology of obtaining the compounds of rare-earth metals at complex processing of apatites, and namely for obtaining of concentrate of rare-earth metals (REM) from phosphogypsum. Method involves sorption of rare-earth metals. At that, prior to sorption, phosphogypsum is crushed in water so that pulp is obtained in the ratio Solid : Liquid=1:(5-10). Sorption is performed by introducing to the obtained pulp of sorbent containing sulphate and phosphate functional groups, at the ratio of Solid : Sorbent=1:(5-10) and mixing during 3-6 h.
EFFECT: increasing REM extraction degree to finished product.
5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: reduction is performed with hydrogen generated in solution; at that, reduction is catalysed with reduced metal itself, which is contained in finely dispersed state. Reduction process is performed in multi-pass reactor at variable pressure that is changed with frequency of 1-5 Hz from maximum to minimum values of 8 kg/cm2 to 0.25 kg/cm2. Extraction plant of metals capable of hydrogen absorption from solutions includes dosing device, modified displacement pump, electrolyser for hydrogen generation and multi-pass reactor in the form of labyrinth.
EFFECT: simplifying the process and improving the purity of extracted metal.
10 cl, 9 dwg, 8 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic metallurgy and may find application in technology for extraction of non-ferrous, rare, precious and radioactive metals from ore stock using ions of trivalent iron as an oxidiser, and also for cleaning of acid solutions from iron in hydrometallurgical industry. The plant comprises a neutron accelerator and a reaction chamber with a return solution, a mixing device, a temperature sensor, an automatic control and monitoring system. The plant is also equipped with a heat exchanger with liquid cooling, a box to monitor concentration of a radiated solution, an accumulating tank with an overflow pipe, a circulating pump and a recirculation system joined with the reaction chamber into a closed circuit, along which the return solution circulates. The reaction chamber is equipped with an inlet window with a separating diaphragm and a cylindrical cartridge arranged with a nozzle for supply of return solution and installed coaxially in its active zone.
EFFECT: invention provides for continuous regeneration of an oxidiser in process of leaching, higher yield of metals, efficiency and productivity of metals extraction from ores.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nonferrous metallurgy and may be used for recovery of solutions resulted from mineral stock leaning, particularly, for iron ions oxidation. Said tower comprises cylindrical body with solution feed and discharge branch pipes, and process automatic control system (PACS). Tower body is filled with carrier whereon sorbed are iron-oxidising microorganisms made up of solid porous material with developed surface. Note here that tower bottom is furnished with tank to house PACS transducers and solution feed control device.
EFFECT: increase in rate of oxidation of iron (II) to iron (III) from 3 g/lh to 15 g/lh.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: said filling may be used in process of metallurgy and chemistry wherein heated aggressive acid is used. Said filling consists of horizontal plates arranged one above the other on rigid cylindrical spacers provided with flexible element. Said filling allows countercurrent of solid and liquid phases over column height. RH and LH version of alternating plates varies pulp flow direction in horizontal plane through 180° between two pairs. Filling allows adjusting the stay of solids in apparatus to provide for required extraction of solid components into solution.
EFFECT: high mechanical strength and antirust properties.
10 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes reactor and external assembly for forced circulation of reaction mixture. External assembly consists of circulation pump, connection pipe and mixing chamber located in the direction of mixture after circulation pump and equipped at least with two ejecting nozzles connected to the pump and outlet holes directed towards each other. At that, mixing chamber in lower part has the discharge tube submersed into the reactor.
EFFECT: increasing dissolution speed owing to increasing the mixing intensity; increasing the solution saturation with gaseous oxidiser at pressure increase in reaction chamber.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to method of metal extraction from ores and device for method implementation. Method involves leaching by leaching solution with oxidiser, along with radiation of leaching solution by accelerated electrons of 50 keV to 1.7 MeV energy with rate adjustment for flow fed to leaching. Further metal is extracted from solution, and oxidiser is recovered in solution and recycled in leaching process. Device for metal extraction from ore includes vessel with leaching solution, vessel for leaching, chute connecting vessel with leaching solution and vessel for leaching, height adjustment unit for vessel with leaching solution, solution feed and drainage systems, and electron accelerator. The chute is used for transportation of leaching solution through electron accelerator zone, and height adjustment unit for vessel with leaching solution is used for leaching solution flow rate control.
EFFECT: intensified metal leaching from ores, reduced amount of chemical reactants and power consumption.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to gold extraction from solutions with low concentration at presence of ions of other metals, for instance cleaning solutions of gold-extracting plants, brines of potassium manufacturing, geothermal water, water of brine lakes and salt water. Essence consists in that through powder of metal-restorative it is passed gold-containing solution with low concentration at presence of ions of other metals during 2-240 hours. In the capacity of metal-restorative it is used lead-plated zinc powder of grade +0.001 mm - 2 mm with lead content 1-90 wt %. or powders of metals, used at temperature of solution not less than 50°C and selected from the group: Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, of grade +0.1 mm - 5 mm. Additionally before cementation powders are placed in cartridge. Received after cementation gold-containing concentrate is separated by means of intensive mechanical agitation, it is treated by nitric or acetic acid. Gold sediment is separated by filtration, dried and molten with fluxing additives with receiving of crude metal.
EFFECT: increase of effectiveness and selectivity of gold extraction from solutions with low concentration.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to process engineering and can be used in gold cementation with rotary solution flow. Proposed device comprises metal cementing gadget, initial solution inlet branch pipe, solution outlet branch pipe, cementation product discharge branch pipe and vibrator with vibro drive. Device incorporates two tanks representing spiral of Archimedes and arranged one above the other around central common perforated pipe with rubber shock absorbers made on every tank. Aforesaid metal cementing gadget is arranged in baskets mounted inside said tanks. Solution discharge branch pipe is located at lower tank bottom. Basket accommodating said metal cementing gadget represents a vessel with walls perforated along solution flow, holes diameters varying from 2 mm to 3 mm. Vessels arrangement allows working solution to flow in opposite directions.
EFFECT: increased rate of cementation.
7 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to extraction of molybdenum from acid liquors, containing mixture of nitric and sulfur acid and molybdenum in wide range of concentration and also other admixtures and can be used at regeneration of molybdenum from waste colution for etching of molybdenum cores in manufacturing of electric bulbs and electronic devices and solutions of hydrometallurgy manufacturing. Extraction of molybdenum is implemented from solutions with diferent content in it of molybdenum. Acid solution is treated by electromagnetic field with frequency selected in the area of mid-range radio waves, formed water is driven off, laid-down sediment is filtered. Extracted acid is returned into etching process. Installation includes reactor block, filtration unit, tanks for solutions, pipelines, stop and variable valves. Reactor block includes reactor, electromagnetic field generator, inductor and matching device. Inductor is located inside or outside thru reactor. Installation additionally contains rectifying still for distillation of water, direct connected to reactor.
EFFECT: increasing of extraction ratio subject to circulation of colutions, process is ecologically safe, industrial sewages are not formed.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention elates to device for cyanic leaching of gold from gold-bearing materials. Device contains tank for leaching with located gold-bearing material, collapsible tank, branch pipe for discharge and withdrawal of efficient solution and branch pipe for feeding of cyanide. It is outfitted by filled by alkali reaction vessel-closed scrubber, allowing siphon pipe, gas disperser HCN D pipe for feeding of alkaline solution and branch pipe for feeding of cyanide. Device is outfitted by pipe for gas distillation HCN and its feeding into reaction vessel - closed scrubber and pipe for feeding of air oxygen into tank. Additionally tank for leaching is implemented with internal perforated wall. Into space between external and internal walls of tank it is mounted siphon pipe connected to collapsible tank. In collapsible tank it is located system for solution blending branch pipe for discharge and withdrawal of efficient solution and gage tank for feeding of inorganic acid.
EFFECT: increasing of leaching speed of gold and improvement of environmental protection.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes heating of kyanite to 1250-1350°C. At the same time kyanite prior to heating is mixed with solid carbon at the weight ratio from 1:0.37 to 1:1.85. Heating is carried out in atmosphere of halogen-containing gases. Produced halogenides are cooled and separated, afterwards a mixture is prepared from them with required content in the product of aluminium, silicon and other chemical elements available in kyanite. Then the mixture of halogenides is heated either in atmosphere of oxygen with production of complex oxides or in recovery atmosphere with production of alloys.
EFFECT: complex wasteless processing of kyanite concentrate.
5 cl, 4 ex