Stringer (versions), method of developing stringer model, aerospace device (versions), aircraft (versions) and computer

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stringer, method of developing stringer model with the help of computer, aerospace device and aircraft. Said stringer comprises base with first surface and second surface located opposite the first one, and rib with third and fourth surfaces. Stringer has L-like cross-section over its length and geometry varying along the part of its length with distance increasing along its length. Geometry variation represents a shift of said first surface toward second surface and fourth and third surfaces. Cross-section features, in fact, constant distance measured over cross-section surface between the points whereat cross-section intersects with first and second lines for all cross-sections along the part of its length. Proposed method of developing stringer model with the help of computer comprises preparing first data whereat stringer model base geometry is defined and distance from the base to imaginary plane varying along stringer length. Besides it comprises generation of second data whereat stringer model rib is defined including generation of local changes in rib geometry. Said first and second data are used for generation of stringer model. Method of making said elongated comprises making mould, placing composite material layers therein, and curing said layers.

EFFECT: decreased strains in spar.

25 cl, 24 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to structures made of composite materials intended for use in the aerospace industry. In particular, though not only, the present invention relates to a stiffening panel plating, made of composite material, for example, in the form of a stringer of a composite material. The invention also relates to a method for creating and method of manufacturing such stringers made of composite materials, for example, using a suitably programmed computer.

The level of technology

The stringers are usually used as elements of rigidity. Examples of such applications stringers is the increase in the rigidity of the shell or covering of the framework for the design of the wing, fuselage section or other similar designs. The stringers may be of cross-section T-shaped, L-shaped or other suitable shapes. As a rule, stringers has a base with a shape adapted for a tight fit to the surface of the structure, the rigidity of which must increase, and a rib extending from the base away from the surface of the structure, and the rib increases the stiffness of the stringer. Sometimes the edge is also called a crest stringer.

The thickness or geometry of the surface of the structure, which is necessary to impart rigidity may vary, resulting in local features on the surface of the structure adjacent to the stringer. Thus, you may need corresponding changes of the geometry of the stringer. Local changes in the geometry of the structural element can, however, create difficulties in the manufacture of stringers made of composite materials. For example, to locally increase the strength or rigidity of the panel wing aircraft typically use a local increase in the thickness of the panel where additional rigidity or strength. As a result, in the profile panel, facing the stringer, appear thickening. Thus, the thickness of the panel may, at the direction of increasing along the length of the respective stringers, gradually increase to a locally thicker portion, and then subside to a more delicate parts. To match the change in the thickness of the panel base associated stringer must be properly gradually rising and gradually lower. In the form of stringers may have local changes in geometry of cross section, which is a function of the distance along the length of the stringer.

The required form of the stringer is used to make the panel ill the bone, can in this case be difficult, and its geometry may deviate from the linear and symmetric. Manufacturing stringers made of composite materials with complex geometry, can cause difficulties. If you require local changes in geometry of cross section, the manufacturer may have defects. These defects usually occur from compression and bending of the layers of fibrous material in areas where due to local changes in the geometry appear excess material. This can cause creases in the finished product, usually in the form of transverse folds. Defects can also occur due to stretching and / or appearance of stresses in the zones where the local features of the geometry appears the lack of material. It can also cause wrinkles in the finished product, usually in the form of longitudinal folds. Any of the defects specified types (too much material or too much material) can lead to undesirable weakening and(or) the emergence of local internal stresses of composite material in these zones. Such defects are usually provided, and introduce the necessary reserves by adding material in these areas to compensate for the defects, reducing the strength. While the strength of the resulting component may or may not be affected, this approach leads to an increase in ve is a and the excessive volume of the element.

The present invention seeks to ameliorate the above problems. Alternatively or additionally, in the present invention the task of creating stringers made of composite materials advanced forms, and(or) an improved method for the creation and(or) manufacturing such element.

Disclosure of inventions

In accordance with the first aspect of the present invention it is proposed stringer for use in aerospace device, in which the stringer is made of laminated composite material, the stringer comprises a base and a rib protruding from the substrate so that the stringer has an essentially L-shaped cross-section along its length, while stringer contains the first surface of the substrate, is made with the possibility of its adhesion to the design of aerospace devices, which should be given stiffness, the second surface located opposite the first surface, the third surface is located on or at the edge, on one layer of composite material with a first surface and a fourth surface located on the edge on the same side as the second surface, and in which the geometry of the stringer varies along at least part of its length so that with increasing distance in directed and along the length of the stringer, the first surface is shifted to the second surface as the offset of the fourth surface toward the third surface.

Thus, the stringer in accordance with the embodiment in the first aspect of the present invention, designed for use on the upper surface of the bottom panel covering the wing, may contain the ground rising up (moving in the direction from the first surface to the second surface), while the edge is shifted out (moves in the direction from the fourth surface to the third surface). Approval base-lift with a corresponding offset of the ribs allows the manufacturer to stack layers of a composite material that form the stringer so that decreased the risk of formation of local folds, local stresses and(or) local sprains, as changes in the geometry of the base (for example, deviation from a simple linear geometry), which otherwise could lead to defects that are offset by changes in the geometry of the ribs.

In accordance with the second aspect of the present invention it is proposed stringer for use in aerospace device, in which the stringer is made of laminated composite material, the stringer comprises a base and a rib protruding from the base, while stringer contains the first surface of the substrate, made with the possibility of its adhesion to the design of aerospace devices, which should be given stiffness, the second surface located opposite the first surface, the third surface is located on or at the edge, on one layer of composite material with a first surface and a fourth surface located on the edge on the same side as the second surface, and the stringer in its cross section in the above geometry changes along at least part of its length is essentially constant distance, measured along the surface of the cross-section between the points of intersection of the first and second imaginary lines for all cross-sections along mentioned at least part of its length, with each cross section is a plane, the normal to which is parallel to the local direction along its length, the first imaginary line is located on the first surface perpendicular to the direction in which the base of the leaves from the ribs, and the second imaginary line is located on the third surface perpendicular to the direction in which the edge moves away from the base.

Thus, the stringer in accordance with an example implementation of the second aspect of the present invention, intended for when the change on the upper surface of the bottom panel covering the wing and passing in the direction of the wing span (i.e. across the direction of the chord), you may have a geometry characterized by constant formed by the transverse width (in the direction along the chord). In this example, formed by the transverse width is the distance in the direction along the chord, along the first and third surfaces from a point at the far end of the stringer to the point at the far end of the ribs. The existence of such a constant width formed allows the manufacturer to stack layers of composite material forming the stringer so as to reduce the risk of formation of local folds or bundles of fibers in the composite material and(or) local strain.

Creating stringer, characterized by a specified constant width of the chord, it is possible to carry out effectively by aligning the offset base offset ribs, as described with reference to the first aspect of the present invention. Alternatively or additionally, the creation of a stringer, which is characterized by a specified constant width of the chord, it is possible to effectively exercise by doing the fillet surface/curved part between the rib and the base, the size of which varies as the displacement of the base up and down along the length of the stringer. Such technique is described below with reference to the drawings and described and claimed in simultaneously the time considered British patent application of the Applicant, entitled "Improvement of elongated structural elements made of composite materials", room HE with this one application filing date. The contents of this application are fully incorporated into the present application by reference. The formula of this application may include any of the features disclosed in this patent application. In particular, the formula of this application can be clarified by the inclusion of features related to the introduction of a trait, as the presence of the fillet surface/ curved part between the rib and the base of the stringer, the size of which varies as the displacement of the base up and down along the length of the stringer. Stringer in accordance with the present invention can also be determined with reference to the characteristics of the elongated structural member described or claimed in the aforementioned related patent application.

Stringer, in accordance with the present invention, can form part of the design of the aircraft. For example, the stringer can be installed on the sheathing panels of the aircraft.

In the proposed invention aerospace device (e.g., the fuselage frame aerodynamic surfaces or sections), the outer surface of which is formed by plating, the rigidity of which is provided inside design aerospace device through a group of stringers mounted on the casing, each of which corresponds to l is the Bohm aspect of the present invention, described or claimed in this application.

The invention also proposed aircraft, the outer surface of which is formed by plating, the rigidity of which is provided on the inside of the aircraft through a group of stringers mounted on the casing, each of which corresponds to any of the aspects of the present invention described or claimed in this application.

The invention is also a method of creating computational models of the stringer is made of composite material, wherein said stringer matches any one of the aspects of the present invention described or claimed in this application. The method may include the following stages in the preparation of the first data defining the desired geometry of the base model of the stringer, the distance from the base to the base plane, changing along the length of the stringer, generating second data defining the geometry of the ribs model stringers, including the generation of local changes in the geometry of the stringer in areas where the first data point to changes in the distance separating the base from the base plane, and the use of these data to first and second specified data to generate a model of the structural element that includes a base and a rib.

The first data may form on cu is ina least part of the data array, determining the model structure, which is necessary to impart rigidity to the seal which must be adapted stringer. Therefore, the required geometry of the base model of the stringer can be indirectly deduced from this data array.

In embodiments implementing the present invention can be obtained from local changes in the geometry of the ribs to reduce the risk of defects in the stringer, made of laminated composite material, in accordance with the model of the stringer. For example, in the geometry of the ribs may be changes to correct or compensate for changes in the geometry of the base. Alternatively or additionally, the geometry of the ribs can ensure the reduction of any changes in the distance, measured along the surface of the model stringer, from the first base line on the surface of the base to the second base line on the surface of the ribs. The first base line may, for example, be located on the outer surface, based on the model of the stringer, and its shape is such that at each position along its length it is perpendicular to the direction in which the base of the leaves from the ribs model stringers. The second baseline can be located on the surface of (b) edge, and the surface is on the same side of the stringer, where the surface is to be the base, which is the second baseline, the shape of the second base line is that, at each position along its length it is perpendicular to the direction in which the base of the leaves from the ribs model stringer.

In a preferred embodiment, the creation model is made electronically, for example, using a suitably programmed computer. After the generated model stringers, making this design element can be carried out in accordance with the thus generated by the model. Model development stringer can be made in one country, with the transfer of electronic data representing a model of the stringer, in another country for use in the manufacture of this item in this way.

The present invention also features a method of manufacturing a stringer, comprising the following stages of the preparation of the mold, the profile of which is determined by the model of the stringer is generated by means of the establishment in accordance with any aspect of the present invention described or claimed in this application, the stacking of layers of composite material in the mold, and the subsequent hardening of the layers of composite material.

Of course one should bear in mind that the symptoms described in connection with one aspect of this is bretania, can be put into other aspects of the present invention. For example, the proposed invention the method may include any of the features described in connection with the stringer proposed in the invention, and Vice versa. Also, the stringer in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention may include any of the features described in connection with the stringer in accordance with the second aspect of the present invention, and Vice versa.

Brief description of drawings

Next, to illustrate the present invention describes variants of its implementation with reference to the attached schematic drawings, on which:

Figure 1 represents a perspective image of the L-shaped stringer, in accordance with the first embodiment of the invention installed on the panel of the wing, only part of which is shown on the drawing;

Figure 2 represents in perspective only part of the stringer and wing panel, shown in figure 1;

Figure 3 is a sectional view of the stringer and the panel of the wing on the plane a-a shown in figure 2;

Figure 4 is a sectional view of the stringer and wing panel line-In, shown in Figure 3;

Figure 5 is a sectional view of the stringer and the panel of the wing on the plane C-C shown in Fig 3;

6 is a sectional view of the stringer and the panel of the wing on the plane D-D shown in Fig 3;

Fights combined form, showing superimposed on each of the cross-section of the stringer shown in Figure 5 and 6, to facilitate comparison of the relative sizes and shapes of these cross-sections;

Fig is a perspective image of the Y-shaped stringers, in accordance with a second embodiment of the invention, installed on a panel of the wing, only part of which is shown on the drawing;

Fig.9 is a perspective image of only part of the stringer and wing panel, shown in Fig;

Figure 10 is a sectional view of the stringer and the panel of the wing on the plane F-F shown in Fig.9;

11 is a sectional view of the stringer and the panel of the wing along the line G-G shown in Figure 10;

Fig is a sectional view of the stringer and the panel of the wing on the plane N-N, shown in Figure 10;

Fig is a sectional view of the stringer and the panel of the wing on the plane J-J shown in Figure 10;

Fig represents a cross-section of the stringer and wing panel, shown in Fig indicating various sizes;

Fig represents a cross-section of the stringer, in accordance with the third embodiment of the invention;

Fig and 17 represent the stringer, in accordance with the fourth embodiment of the invention;

Fig and 19 represent the stringer, in accordance with a second embodiment domestic the invention;

Fig and 21 represent the stringer, in accordance with the fifth embodiment of the invention;

Fig and 23 represent the stringer, in accordance with the first embodiment of the invention; and

Fig is a flowchart illustrating a method of creating, in accordance with the sixth embodiment of the invention.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 presents an image of the stringer 2, mounted on the panel 4 of the wing, and figure 1 shows only part of the panel 4 of the wing. The stringer 2 is used to provide stiffness to the panel 4 of the wing. And stringer 2, and the wing panel 4 is made of a multilayer composite material. Stringer 2 in accordance with this embodiment of the invention has an L-shaped cross-section. While specified L-shaped channel defined by a base 6, which is mounted on the panel 4 of the wing and parallel to it, and rib 8, which passes perpendicularly from one edge of the base 6 (it Should be borne in mind that the rib may extend from the base and at different angles). The layers of composite material (not shown in the figures of the drawings separately) stringers 2 are essentially L-shaped cross-section, repeating the cross-sectional profile of the stringer in volume.

Accordingly, the stringer 2 has a first surface 10 n the lower side of the base, adjacent to the panel 4 of the wing. Opposite the first surface 10 is the second surface 12 of the base 6. The first surface 10 of the base corresponds to the third surface 14 of the ribs, while the first and third surfaces are on the same side of the stringer 2, and therefore each of them belongs to the same layer structure of a composite material. Also has a fourth surface 16 opposite to the third surface 14. Accordingly, the fourth surface 16 is located on the edge and on the same side of the stringer, and the second surface 12, and in the same layer in the structure of the composite material and the second surface 12.

As can be seen from the edge 18 of the panel 4 of the wing, shown in figure 1, panel thickness 4 wing varies along the length L of the stringer. While on the wing panel 4, there are areas, such as area 4A, the thickness of which is greater than the thickness of adjacent sections, for example section 4b. If you trace along the length of the stringer 2 in the direction indicated by the arrow L, the thickness of the wing panel 4 increases over the segment 4C from more thin section 4d to the thicker 4A, and then decreases for area 4E to more subtle plot 4b. Base 6 stringer similarly raised and lowered so that the first surface 10 of the stringer adjacent to the wing panel 4) repeats the profile of the top p of the surface(as shown in figure 1) panel 4 of the wing.

In figure 2, 3 and 4 show part of the stringer 2 and panel 4 of the wing, are in the scope of sections 4d, 4A and 4A mentioned above, and also illustrates the change in the shape of the stringer genuine transitions from a thinner section 4d of the wing panel 2A to the thicker section of panel 4A through the transition section 4C. Figure 2 is a perspective image of the stringer.

Figure 3 shows the cross-section of the stringer 2 and panel 4 of the wing in the vertical plane, represented by line a-a in figure 2. Figure 4 shows a cross-section of the stringer 2 and panel 4 of the wing in the horizontal plane represented by the line b-b In Figure 3.

Figure 3 shows that in the field of gradual changes in thickness, shown as area 4C, with increasing distance along the length of the stringer in the direction L) of the first surface 10 is shifted in the direction shown by the arrow T in Fig 3. Direction T perpendicular to the length L of the stringer and passes from the first surface 10 and second surface 12 of the base 6 stringer. Figure 4 shows that as the offset of the first surface 10 of the base 6 in the direction of T with increasing length L of the stringer fourth surface 16 of the rib 8 is shifted in the direction shown by the arrow W in figure 4. The direction of W is also perpendicular to the length L of the stringer and extends from the fourth surface 16 to the third surface 14 of the stringer 2.

Figure 3 also shows the thickness of the stringer in the base 6 and the ribs 8 remains almost constant along the length of the stringer 2. Therefore, with increasing distance along the length L, the second surface 12 also moves in the direction T, the third surface 14 also moves in the direction W, and the second and third surfaces 12, 14 repeat the offset of the first and fourth surfaces 10, 16, respectively.

If you trace along the length L of the stringer 2 from the site, adjacent to the thicker portion 4A of the panel 4 of the wing, to the transition area to a smaller thickness 4E, panel thickness 4 of the wing decreases. Decreasing the thickness of the panel of the wing by increasing the length L of the stringer 2 to the first and second surfaces 10, 12 of the base 6 are shifted in the opposite direction T, and the third and fourth surfaces 14, 16 are shifted in the opposite direction W.

Figure 5 and 6 shows the cross-section of the stringer 2 and panel 4 of the wing in the vertical planes represented by the lines C-C and D-D in figure 3. Figure 5 and 6 shows that the formed width (the value of this concept will be explained in more detail below) stringer, measured between two imaginary lines is almost constant along the length L of the stringer. The existence of such a constant width formed, despite the changes in the geometry of the cross-section of the stringer 2, helps smart is to sew the likelihood of defects, for example folds, which otherwise can be formed by stacking layers of composite material forming the stringer 2. Dimensions, presents formed a wide, explained later with reference to Figure 3-6.

Figure 3 and 4 shows the first imaginary line 20 and the second imaginary line 22, while both of these lines are generally in the same direction, but not always strictly parallel to the length L of the stringer. The first imaginary line 20 is located on the first surface 10 of the stringer 2 and is of such form that in any position along the length of it is perpendicular to the direction in which the base 6 departs from the ribs 8 (in this embodiment of the invention is the direction parallel to the direction T shown in Figure 3). In that case, when the length L of the stringer 2 is located mainly along a straight axis, the first imaginary line 20 is in a plane parallel to the length L of the stringer, and the normal axis of the plane goes in the same direction, in which the base extends from the ribs, and the direction parallel to the direction W shown in Figure 4 (it Should be borne in mind that in figure 4 the first surface 10 is hidden behind the second surface 12).

The second imaginary line 22 is located on the third surface 14, and line 22 has such a shape that in any position along the length of it is perpendicular to the direction in to the m edge 8 extends from the base 6 (in this embodiment of the invention is the direction parallel to the direction W, shown in Figure 4). In that case, when the length L of the stringer 2 is located predominantly along a straight axis, the second imaginary line 22 is in a plane parallel to the length L of the stringer, and the normal axis of the plane goes in the same direction in which the rib extends from the base, and the direction parallel to the direction T shown in Figure 3 (it Should be borne in mind that in figure 3 the third surface 14 is hidden behind the fourth surface 16).

It is obvious from Figure 3 and 4 that the first and second imaginary lines 20, 22, following the first and third surfaces 10, 14, respectively, and include ramps, to adapt to the inclined passages in section 4C.

The cross-section depicted in Figure 5, shows the dimensions of the formed width, i.e. the distance between the first and second imaginary lines 20, 22, as measured along the surface of the stringer 2 in cross section. This size shows the double-arrow 24, the first end 24A which is located on the first imaginary line 20 (not shown in Figure 5), and the second end 24b is located on the second imaginary line 22 (not shown in Figure 5). Similarly, figure 6 shows a cross-section of the stringer D-D, where the double-arrow 26 specified distance from a point 26a on the first imaginary line 20 (not shown in Fig.6) to the point 26b on the second woopra the emnd line 22 (not shown in Fig.6).

Formed by the width shown bilateral arrows 24, 26 figure 5 and 6, almost the same (i.e. the same within acceptable tolerances). To achieve this, the amount by which the first surface 10 is shifted in the direction T, is compensated by the displacement of the fourth surface 16 in the direction W. Thus, as shown in figure 1, as the deflection of the base 6 stringer 2 up in the transition from section 4d of a section 4A through plot 4C, the edge 8 of the stringer 2 is deflected outward (to the left as shown in figure 1).

Figure 7 presents the combined image of the cross section of the 2nd stringers, depicted in Figure 5, and the cross-section 2f of the stringer shown in Fig.6, superimposed on each other. The horizontal position of the first imaginary line 20 on each cross-section is shown in Fig.7. the dotted line 20'. The vertical position of the second imaginary line 22 on each cross-section is shown in Fig.7. the dotted line 22'. The distance shown double-arrow 24 to the cross-section of the stringer 2nd in the plane C-C (this section is shown on Figure 5), is equal to the distance shown double-arrow 26 to the cross-section of the stringer 2f in the plane D-D (this section is shown on Fig.6). In this case, it is seen that the horizontal distance Z between the provisions of the ribs 8 in each Popper is cnom section stringer is equal to the vertical offset Y between the height of the base above the imaginary base surface 28.

On Fig shows a perspective representation of the stringer 102 in accordance with a second embodiment of the invention. Stringer 102 generally has a Y-shaped cross-section. Y-shaped cross-sectional shape of an inverted (in the orientation shown in Fig) to ensure the fit of parts shelves Y-shaped section of the stringer to the panel 104 of the wing, thereby forming the base 106 of the stringer 102. The vertical part of the Y-shaped forms part of the ribs 108 (also sometimes referred to crest) of the stringer 102. Figure 9 shows a portion of a stringer panel 102 and 104 of the wing in the part indicated by the arrow E in Fig. By analogy with the first embodiment of the invention, the panel 104 of the wing is a sequence of plots of varying thickness in the longitudinal direction L, Respectively, the panel has a thin portion (a), which is a plot of variable thickness (104b) becomes thicker plot (s).

By analogy with the first embodiment of the invention, the base 106 of the stringer 102 in accordance with the second embodiment of the invention forms a first, second, third and fourth surfaces 110, 112, 114 and 116. For each side (left and right, as shown in figure 1) has one base on each side, with the stringer 102 has a first surface 110 (on the outer side of the stringer) n the lower side of the base 106, adjacent to the panel 104 of the wing. Opposite the first surface 110 has a second surface 112 (also on the outer side of the stringer) of the base 106.

The upper part of the ribs forms a third surface 114 inside the ribs 108, and the specified third surface is on the same layer of composite material, the first surface 110. In addition, there is a fourth surface 116 (outside stringers)on the same layer of composite material and the second surface 112. Thus, the fourth surface 116 is located on the edge and on the same side of the stringer, and the surface 112. Formed by the width of this cross-section of the stringer from a point on the first surface 110, coinciding with the first imaginary line to a point on the third surface 114, coinciding with the second imaginary line (the first and the second imaginary line is formed in a similar manner as described above with reference to the first variant embodiment of the invention) remains largely constant for all cross-sections of the stringer.

In the second embodiment of the invention, the constant width formed is provided not by moving the edges of the stringer to the left or right when moving its base up or down, and with the introduction of the mating surface 107 between the core is of 106 and the edge 108 of the stringer 102. The width of the mating surface 107 (measured across the width of the stringer) varies depending on the height of the base 106 over an imaginary base surface 128. This mating surface 107 is clearly visible in the perspective image presented on Fig.9.

The beveled portion of the mating surface 107 that connects the base 106 and the edge 108, forms a fifth and a sixth surface (130 and 132), and the fifth surface is located between the first and third surfaces (110 and 114), connecting them, and the sixth surface 132 is located between the second and fourth surfaces 112, 116, ensuring their connection. Mating surface 107, in accordance with this embodiment of the invention, is held at an angle of about 45° from the base 106 and at an angle of about 45° from edge 108 that is perpendicular to the base 106. Naturally, the angles between the interfacing surface and the substrate and between the interfacing surface and the edge may vary in other embodiments of the invention. Thus, the fifth and the sixth surface (130 and 132) will not be parallel to neither the first nor the second, nor the third, nor fourth surfaces(110, 112, 114, 116). Mating surface 107 can be regarded as forming part of the ribs 108.

Figure 10 and 11 shows a cross-section of the stringer 102 along the plane F-F (display the and Fig) and the plane G-G (shown in Figure 10), respectively. As can be seen from Figure 10 and 11, if you trace along the length of the stringer from left to right (arrow L), the beveled portion 107 decreases with increasing the height of the base 106 of the stringer 102 over an imaginary base surface. Thus, the beveled portion 107 is reduced, while the base 106 is moved in an upward direction (arrow T figure 10). Figure 10 and 11 also depicts the first and second imaginary line(120 and 122), between which is measured formed by the width of the cross-section of the stringer.

On Fig and 13 shows a cross-section along the planes represented by the lines H-H and J-J figure 10. From consideration of the data of cross-sections it is obvious that formed by the width DW between the first and second imaginary lines remains constant from one cross section to another. This is achieved by shortening beveled portion 107 by moving the base 106 of the stringer 102 up. It should be noted that unlike stringer in the first embodiment of the invention, the horizontal position(as shown in Fig and 13) ribs 108 stringers 102 does not change when increasing the length L of the stringer. Thus, as shown in Fig, the base 106 and the rib 108 on one side of the stringer 102 can be symmetrical with the base 106 and the rib 108 on the other side of the stringer, and the edge 108 runs along the center of the through line of the stringer, not deviating to the left or to the right.

On Fig shows how to calculate the width of the interfacing surfaces, necessary to maintain a constant width formed between two imaginary lines in any given cross section. Formed by the width DW1for stringer without interfacing surface is shown next to the cross-section of the stringer 102 containing the mating surface 107, and the stringer is formed by the width DW2. It is seen that the horizontal position of the first imaginary line presented on Fig by dashed lines 120'and the vertical position of the second imaginary line is represented by the dotted line 122'. The edge 108 of the stringer 102 is offset from the line DW1corresponding to the absence of mating surfaces on the value of Z. the First surface 110 on the opposite side of the base 106 is separated from the line DW1corresponding to the absence of mating surfaces, vertical interval Y. Mating surface 107 passes from the base 106 at an angle θ and ends at a distance X vertically above the first surface 110. Given the displacements Y and Z, it is necessary to determine at what distance the fillet surface should begin and end, and is designed it may be, using the following formula (assuming that the edge perpendicular to the base is a cation, as it takes place in this embodiment of the invention):

X=Y+Z1+1tanθ-1sinθ

If θ=45°, the formula is simpler:

X=1,707×(Y+Z)

In the present (second) embodiment, the horizontal distance Z constant and can be taken equal to zero so that the edge 108 of the stringer 102 is not shifted to the left or right. Therefore, the above formula still is simplified to X+1,707Y. Of course, that a similar formula can be easily derived to calculate various geometric shapes, including those in which the base does not depart from the ribs (excluding corner radii, curves and other local features) at a 90°angle.

It should be clear that formed by the width DW of the distance between two imaginary lines can be maintained constant at any cross section along the length of the stringer through the introduction of other elements. For example, instead of using interfacing surface at the junction of the base and edges of the stringer can be used a smooth transition, for example, by a curved surface. On Fig shown a third option Khujand is the implementation of the invention, to illustrate such an alternative method. In this case, formed by an imaginary width DW1defined at the position where the base 206 stringers 202 has a maximum height. Formed by the width DW1also measured along the surface of the stringer cross-section, and passes through the first, third and fifth surfaces of the stringer (the first, third and fifth surfaces of the stringers are of the same surface (in) the stringer, as described above with respect to the second variant of implementation). Thus, the first surface 210 is located on the opposite side of the base 206, a third surface 214 is located on the edge 208, and a fifth surface 230 connects the first and third surfaces. In this second embodiment, the fifth surface 230 is characterized by a smooth curve with a constant radius of curvature. The radius of curvature of the fifth surface, the corresponding imaginary formed by the width DW1equal to R1. To maintain a constant width formed DW, the radius of curvature of the fifth surface can be changed to match the displacements in the vertical direction of the base 206 and(or) to match the displacements in the horizontal direction of the ribs 208, depicted on Fig distances Y and Z respectively. For these displacements Y and Z and to maintain constant the authorized formed by the width DW=DW 1=DW2the radius of curvature of the fifth surface 230 stringers 202, characterized by the radius R2must satisfy the following formula:

On Fig and 17 show the stringer 302, in accordance with the fourth

R2=R1+Y+Z2-π2

the embodiment of the present invention. On Fig stringer 302 is shown with one direction, and Fig stringer 302 shown from the opposite direction. The cross-section of the stringer 302 generally has the form of an inverted Y, and stringer 302 includes portions 306 of the base and part 308 of the ribs. Each part 306 of the base is connected with a part 308 edges by a curved section 307. Curved section 307 has a radius of curvature and a width that varies along the length of the stringer 302, when the base 306 of the stringer is raised and lowered in order to adapt to changes in the thickness of the panel 304 of the wing. Edge 308 stringer runs along essentially a straight line, when viewed from above, and is not experiencing so no transverse oscillations. The radius of curvature of the curved section 307 is determined by the formula:

R2=R1+Y/mi> 2-π2,

where Y represents the value of the vertical offset of the base of the stringer over an imaginary reference plane, a R1is adopted by a constant.

On Fig and 19 shows the opposite ends of the stringer in accordance with the second embodiment, which is shown for comparison with the stringers shown in Fig and 23.

On Fig and 21 shows the stringer 402 in accordance with the fifth embodiment and using the principles as the first variant and second variant embodiment of the invention. Thus, as shown in Fig, the left part 402L stringer is characterized by an L-shaped form in which the rib is deflected to the right and to the left, while the base stringer 406 402 is deflected up and down in order to reflect changes in the thickness of the panel 404 of the wing. The left part 402L stringers, thus, similar L-shaped stringer in accordance with the first embodiment of the present invention. The right part 402R stringer on Fig right) includes a beveled portion (best visible on Fig where the stringer is shown from the opposite end, and the right part 402R is to the left). The width of the beveled portion is changed in accordance with a deviation up and down the Foundation of PR is changing the thickness of the wing panel, and also changed to be consistent with disabilities ribs left side 402L stringer. Thus, the right side 402R stringer similar half stringer of the first variant implementation of the present invention that it includes a beveled portion for approval of deviations in the geometry of the stringer, and, at the same time, maintains essentially constant width formed, which provides the advantage of reducing defects in the manufacture of laminated stringers made of composite materials. It should be noted that the stringer according to the fifth variant of implementation differs from the stringer according to the second variant of implementation that includes deviations to the left and to the right (in the location shown on Fig and 21).

On Fig and 23 depict the opposite ends of the stringer in accordance with the first embodiment of the invention. These images are necessary for a complete picture of the stringer and compare stringers shown on Fig-23.

Next will be described a sixth variant embodiment of the invention relating to the method of creating a computer model of the stringer. A computer model is then used to fabricate stringers of a composite material. On Fig presents a block diagram, schematically illustrating the computer 502 with a set of machine-readable media informatsii, allowing the computer 502 to perform the method in accordance with the sixth embodiment of the invention.

Prepared first nabetani that defines the geometry of the model 508 panel of the wing. Model panel 508 wing includes data that define the geometry of the upper surface 510 (shown in Fig) panel 508 of the wing. Model stringer is created so that its lower surface is closely attached to the upper surface 510 of the wing panel. Thus, the data 506 determines the distance mentioned surface 510 panel 508 of the wing from the base plane 512. This distance is measured in the direction shown by the arrow V in Fig. The new model stringer includes the base, the geometry of which corresponds to the mentioned surface 510 panel 508 of the wing, and the exhaust from said base edge.

The method according to the sixth variant implementation includes a stage on which the computer 502 receives input 506. These data 506 in fact define the desired geometry of the base model stringer, providing information about the distance of the base from the base plane 512, and the distance varies along the length of the stringer (the length of the stringer shown in Fig arrow L). Machine-readable media 504, installed on your computer 502 includes a module for processing the input data 506 to generate output data 514 defining the geometry of the model 512 stringer. The computer 502, managed by computer-readable media 504, generates the geometry of the base model of the stringer and the geometry of the ribs model 512 stringer. The geometry of the ribs model 512 stringer is generated by the computer, as a function of local changes in the geometry of the base model of the stringer. The way that generates the geometry of the ribs model stringers may correspond to any of the above embodiments of the invention, or their variants. For example, you might deviation ribs left and right across the stringer (see double-headed arrow W in Fig). Alternatively or additionally, the edge can be entered interfacing surface or radius (possibly reducing the width of the base in certain areas), in accordance with the second and third variant embodiment of the invention. Such local changes in the geometry of the ribs model stringer reduce the risk of defects in the stringer, made of laminated composite material, in accordance with the model of the stringer. Then, the computer 502 generates data 514, which includes data representing the geometry of the model 512 model stringer.

Thus, compared to conventional standard geometry of the stringer, in which the edge just stands vertically from the edge of the Foundation, without which tkaniny, chamfered, rounded, or other characteristics that affect the formed width of the line extending from the point on the edge across the surface of the stringer to the point on the base of the stringer, when observed in cross section, the method effectively generates changes in the geometry of the edge stringers to compensate for the changes in geometry of the base of the ribs. For example, the geometry of the ribs model stringers can be generated so as to reduce any variation in the distance measured along the surface model of the stringer from the first base line on the surface of the base along the length of the stringer to the second reference line on the surface of the ribs along the length of the stringer (see, for example, imaginary lines 120 and 122, shown in Figure 10 and 11 for the stringer according to the second variant of implementation). In a preferred embodiment, the edge of the model stringer is generated in such a way that changes the distance measured between the first baseline and this second baseline (distance is essentially constant for each cross-sectional models stringer, its dimension along the length of the stringer). The management and(or) development of model geometry of the stringer as described above enables the production of composite stringers of layers of composite material, which are given pre-specified number of DNA form, different from the planar geometry, but without clots or stretching of the fibers in the layers of material that may cause creases or defects in manufactured so the stringer.

After creating the model 512 stringer can be performed various tests on calculation and simulation to assess the strength and other mechanical characteristics of the model stringers to check how the stringer being made, and meets the various criteria necessary to perform its functions as a stringer in wing d or similar structures manufactured in series aircraft. Data 514 model stringers can then be used in the method of manufacturing a stringer. The stringer may be fabricated using well-known standard techniques. For example, to build layers of composite material on the mold having a profile in accordance with the previously created geometry model 512 stringer may be used in the technology of hot vacuum molding of the prepreg. The layers of composite material laid in the mold, polymerizers in the autoclave, in accordance with known technology.

While the present invention has been described and illustrated specific embodiments, the specialists should be obvious that the invention provides a variety of changes, the illustration in which the present description is not given. Below are described some of these possible changes.

The above embodiments of the present invention relate to the shape and geometry of the stringer is attached to the wing panel. It should be clear that the principles of the above-described embodiments of the invention can be used for other parts of the aircraft where a panel or part of the skin of the aircraft, the rigidity of which is provided by stringer. Thus, the application of the presented variants of implementation of the present invention can be widely distributed in the aerospace industry and include any options for where you want to install stringer composite panel cladding of variable thickness.

End surface shown in the drawings, the edges of the stringer top edges, as shown in the drawings) is essentially a flat surface. Stringer made of composite material may be subjected to machining after hardening, so that the top edge of the stringer is not passed along a substantially straight line. For example, the rib may include one or more grooves to accommodate other components of the aircraft. Similarly, the end surface of the ü the base of the stringer (for example, the far right edge of the stringer shown in Fig.9) does not necessarily have to reside on the essentially flat surface. The basis of, for example, may include one or more grooves to accommodate other components of the aircraft or changes in the geometry of the panel, which adjoins the stringer.

In the drawings, the stringer is shown passing through the length along essentially a straight line. Panel wing and other aerodynamic surfaces of the aircraft are usually curved and are not flat. In this case, most likely, the stringer will have a shape that is elongated in one main direction, but will deviate from the linear geometry of the characteristic is given as an example of the stringers, as shown on the attached drawings. Specialists should be clear that changes in slope along the surface of the stringer will be gradual, because the use of composite materials is difficult to perform the abrupt change in the slope without additional mechanical processing.

The first and second imaginary lines, such as lines 20 and 22, can be represented in the form of geodesic lines. The geodesic distance between the first and second imaginary lines, measured across the first and third surfaces, can be constant at least over part of the length of the stringer in which opalanie or alternatively the distance between imaginary lines, the measured cross-sections, can be constant in successive cross sections of the stringer).

The scope of the claims of the present invention includes stringers, some sections of which correspond to the above-described variants of the invention, and other sections which do not meet any of the above embodiments.

If the description above referred to whole objects or elements having a known, obvious, or predictable equivalents, these equivalents are included in the present description, as if they were offered separately. To determine the true scope of the claims of the present invention, refer to the formula and it should be interpreted as covering all such equivalents. You should also understand that whole objects or features of the invention described herein as the preferred, advantaged, more convenient, or others, are not mandatory and do not limit the scope of the claims, the independent claims.

1. Stringer aerospace devices, characterized by the execution of a multilayer composite material having an essentially L-shaped cross-section along its length and geometry, varying along at least part of its length with increasing be the ing in the direction along its length, and containing a base and a rib extending from the base, the first base surface made with the possibility of its adhesion to the design of aerospace devices, a second surface located opposite the first surface, the third surface is located on or in the edge on one layer of composite material with a first surface and a fourth surface located on the edge on the same side as the second surface, and the above geometry changes made in the form of displacement of the first surface toward the second surface, the displacement of the fourth surface towards the third surface, and with the possibility of thereby reduce the risk of undesirable wrinkles, strains or sprains of layers of composite material in the zone of the foregoing geometry in the manufacture.

2. Stringer according to claim 1, in which the above geometry changes along at least part of its length with increasing distance in the specified direction is made in the form of displacement of the second surface in the direction from the second surface to the first surface and the displacement of the third surface in the direction from the third surface to the fourth surface.

3. Stringer according to claim 1 or 2, which in its cross section when the above change is eometrie along at least part of its length has a generally constant distance, measured on the surface of the cross-section between the points where the cross-section intersects with the first and second imaginary lines, for all cross-sections along mentioned at least part of its length, with each cross section is a plane, the normal to which is parallel to the local direction along its length, the first imaginary line is located on the first surface perpendicular to the direction in which the base of the leaves from the ribs, and the second imaginary line is located on the third surface perpendicular to the direction in which the edge moves away from the base.

4. Stringer according to claim 1, in which indicated at least a portion of the length of the stringer is the greater part of its length.

5. Stringer according to claim 1, in which the thickness of the base along the specified at least part of the length of the stringer is essentially constant.

6. Stringer according to claim 1, in which the thickness of the ribs along the specified at least part of the length of the stringer is essentially constant.

7. The aerospace unit comprising a casing containing the outer surface and inner surface, a group of stringers, each stringer which is executed according to claim 1, mounted on the inner surface and installed with the possibility of increasing the rigidity of the device.

8. Aircraft, VK is uchumi lining, containing the outer surface and inner surface, a group of stringers, each stringer which is executed according to claim 1, mounted on the inner surface and installed with the possibility of increasing the rigidity of the device.

9. Stringer aerospace devices, characterized by the execution of a multilayer composite material, having a cross-section along its length and geometry, varying along at least part of its length, and containing a base and a rib extending from the base, the first base surface made with the possibility of its adhesion to the design of aerospace devices, a second surface located opposite the first surface, the third surface is located on or in the edge on one layer of composite material with a first surface and a fourth surface located on the edge on the same side as the second surface, and a transverse the section under the above change of geometry is essentially constant distance measured on the surface of the cross-section between the points where the cross-section intersects with the first and second imaginary lines, for all cross-sections along mentioned at least part of its length, with each cross section is a plane is, the normal to which is parallel to the local direction along its length, the first imaginary line is located on the first surface perpendicular to the direction in which the base of the leaves from the ribs, and the second imaginary line is located on the third surface perpendicular to the direction in which the edge moves away from the base, and with the possibility thereby reducing the risk of undesirable wrinkles, strains or sprains of layers of composite material in the zone of the foregoing geometry in the manufacture.

10. Stringer according to claim 9, in which the cross-section of the stringer is essentially T-shaped.

11. Stringer according to claim 9, in which the cross-section of the stringer is essentially Y-shaped.

12. Stringer according to claim 9, in which the cross-section of the stringer is essentially L-shaped.

13. Stringer according to claim 9, in which the edge of the stringer is located mainly in one plane along the specified at least part of its length.

14. Stringer according to claim 9, in which indicated at least a portion of the length of the stringer is the greater part of its length.

15. Stringer according to claim 9, in which the thickness of the base along the specified at least part of the length of the stringer is essentially constant.

16. Stringer according to claim 9, in which the thickness of the ribs along the specified at least part of the length of the stringer is essentially constant.

17. The aerospace unit comprising a casing containing the outer surface and inner surface, a group of stringers, each stringer which is executed according to claim 9, fixed on the inner surface and installed with the possibility of increasing the rigidity of the device.

18. Aircraft, comprising a casing containing the outer surface and inner surface, a group of stringers, each stringer which is executed according to claim 9, fixed on the inner surface and installed with the possibility of increasing the rigidity of the device.

19. A method of creating a model of the stringer having a base and a rib, for the manufacture of a composite material, including the preparation of the first data, which define the desired geometry of the base model of the stringer, the distance from the base to the imaginary plane, varying along the length of the element, generating a second data, which define the geometry of the ribs model stringers, including the generation of local changes in the geometry of the ribs in the zones in which the first data point to changes in the distance of the base from the imaginary plane, and the use of these data to first and second specified data to generate a model of the stringer, while local changes in geometry ribs to generate humaniseerida of defects in the stringer, made of laminated composite material according to the model,

20. The method according to claim 19, in which the risk of defects in the stringer, made of laminated composite material through the model stringer, reduce generating second data defining the geometry of the ribs model stringer, by generating changes in the geometry of the ribs to compensate for changes in the geometry of the base.

21. The method according to claim 20, in which generating the second data defining the geometry of the ribs model stringer, determines the amount of displacement of the base and provide the appropriate amount of displacement of the edge.

22. The method according to claim 19, in which the risk of defects in the stringer, made of laminated composite material through the model stringer, reduce generating second data defining the geometry of the ribs model stringer, by generating the geometry of the ribs reduce any variation in the distance measured along the surface model of the stringer from the first imaginary line on the surface of the base along the length of the stringer to the second imaginary line on the surface of the ribs along the length of the stringer.

23. The method according to item 22, in which generating the second data defining the geometry of the ribs model stringer, the distance, measured along the surface of the MTM is Inger from the first imaginary line to the second imaginary line, remains essentially constant.

24. A method of manufacturing a stringer, including the preparation of the mold, the profile of which is determined by the model stringer generated by the method according to claim 19 or 21, the stacking of layers of composite material in the mold and the solidified layers of a composite material.

25. Computer made for the implementation of the method according to claim 19 or 21, comprising a data processing extension that defines the desired geometry of the base model stringers and generating data defining the geometry of the ribs model stringers.



 

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