Method of producing humic preparations and ultra-humate substance obtained using said method

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing humic preparations involves ultrasonic dispersion of humate-containing substances. At least one jet or vortex flow of humate-containing substances is created, which is treated with an air or steam stream using a jet-edge generator with ultrasonic radiation intensity greater than 10 W/cm2.

EFFECT: invention provides an efficient technique of processing humate-containing substances, which enables to obtain water-soluble organic substances with high content of fulvic and humic acids with a simple process for production thereof, low labour input and material consumption of the process.

2 cl, 1 tbl

 

The technical field

The group of inventions relates to a process for the production of humic substances and can be used in agriculture, particularly in crop and livestock production, as well as in medicine.

Prior art

Technology of production of humic substances known today mainly based on alkaline extraction of humic substances from soil, followed by purification.

In particular, the prior art method of preparation of liquid feed and installation for its implementation, in which the preparation of humic acids and humates from peat or brown coal is carried out by cavitation dispersion peat or brown coal in an aqueous solution of alkali to the full yield of humic acids with subsequent receipt of humates (patent RU 2316227 published 10.02.2008). The use of cavitation in the technology of producing humic substances gives the opportunity to achieve their high physiological activity, a large release of water-soluble organic substances, reactions of hydrothermal synthesis. In the cavitator synchronously processes of dispersion, extraction, dissolution, disintegration of cellular structures, the degradation of cellulose. The physiological activity of humic substances with disordered polymeric structures of humic the slot and their salts, obtained using cavitation increases as disordered polymeric structure of such substances with the conventional concept of molecular weight, the smaller, the better absorbed by the membranes of the cell structure of plants. The main disadvantage of this method is extremely complex technology to the final product - organic fertilizer. This technology does not provide the ability to control the resulting product of specified chemical and quantitative content of nutrients, such technology does not allow to obtain a final product with a stable quality consumer properties. In addition, this method requires a lot of energy and economic costs for equipment such sophisticated technology.

Closest to the claimed invention is a method of obtaining organic-mineral fertilizer based on cavitation dispersion hematodermic substances in an aqueous solution of alkali, followed by additional logging of trace elements (patent RU No. 2350587 published 27.03.2009).

The lack of cavitation methods is the inability to achieve high intensity of sound energy that is required in most part of technologies of transformation products.

Given that organic matter of peat comp is drawn from humic and fulvic acids, bitumen, cellulose, lignin, and the mineral part mainly consists of silicon, calcium, iron, aluminum, and trace elements, as fertilizer peat ineffective, because the bulk of the nitrogen is in an inaccessible form, in the composition of humic substances. Using alkaline extraction of peat, achieve availability of a number of substances to food plants. However, the chemical method of separation of humic substances are not effective enough, because it destroys the natural structure of humic substances obtained by chemical extraction. In addition, this method has such disadvantages as the complexity of the technological process of obtaining the final product, causing in turn a significant energy and economic costs, as well as the inability to obtain the final product with the set of stable characteristics.

In the prior art there are known various organic-mineral fertilizer based on peat. In particular, the patent RU 2203255 published 27.04.2003, known organic liquid humic fertilizer, which contains 2.0 to 4.0 g/l of humic acid, 0,92-1.8 g/l fulvic 8,0-10,0 g/l of phosphorus (in terms of P2O5), to 14.4-16.0 g/l potassium (in terms of K2O) and to 0.32 g/l of nitrogen, the main disadvantage is the low content of humic and fulvic acids.

Revelation is their inventions

Technical result achieved in the implementation of the claimed group of inventions is to create effective processing technologies hematodermic substances (peat, brown coal, black earth), which allows to obtain a water-soluble organic substances with a high content of fulvic and humic acids by simplifying the process of their production, reducing labor and material process, which consequently leads to the reduction of the cost of the final product.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that during production of humic substances by ultrasonic dispersion hematodermic substances, and create at least one jet or vortex flow hematodermic substances that handle air or steam flow using a gas-jet generator with the intensity of ultrasonic radiation more than 10 W/cm2. The input gas component due to the large acoustic power gas-jet generators leads to intense acoustic cavitation of the liquid component of the product. In the gas and liquid phases of the product arise pulsating pressure, leading to dispersion, emulsification, and other processes. Due to the large area of contact and justicesee wave gas stream with the liquid and solid components of the processed product, it is possible to transfer the energy of high intensity.

Method of producing humic substances using acoustic impact on the flow of multiphase product is characterized by the fact that:

- create the intensity of wave energy (>10 W/cm2)sufficient to achieve the destruction of dispersion-the physical state of the product and the necessary transformation of chemical bonds;

- used acoustic cavitation in the vortex or the jet stream due to the energy of the gas-jet generators;

- used Telemanagement the process flow for the transformation of the product.

Obtained by the method described above humic preparation (ultragumat) is characterized by the following contents of fulvic and humic acids:

Fulvic acids (calculated on dry substance) - 48,78%;

Humic acid (calculated on dry substance) - 16,34%.

An implementation option inventions

Between the liquid phase flow and gas, especially with the vortex motion, creates a large contact area, increasing in the process of interaction due to dispersion in emerging overpressure wave cluster cavitation process. Solid phase product in the same way due to overpressure is subjected to dispersion and different transformations of the original is about substance. This is achieved through the use of telemessaging process, consisting in an acoustic resonant excitation of one or more threads created in the jet chamber or vortex tubes, gas or the injection of steam which is carried out by gas-jet generators.

The main objective of the implementation of the method of processing multi-phase product is the maximum intensity of ultrasound in the working chambers, sufficient for the destruction of the processed product.

Experimentally proved that the treatment of the swirling water and peat flow, activated output air or steam flow gas-jet generator with intensity ultrasound more than 10 W/cm2turns out valuable substance with a high content of fulvic and humic acids (more than 65% in dry matter), as well as other organic and mineral components available for plant nutrition.

The proposed method input gas component due to the large acoustic power gas-jet generators leads to intense acoustic cavitation of the liquid component of the product. In the gas and liquid phases of the product arise pulsating excess pressure, resulting in dispersion, emulsification, and other physico-chemical processes. Due to the large area sapric is Slovenia acoustic wave gas stream with the liquid and solid components of the processed product, it is possible to transfer the energy of high-intensity, it is not possible in energy transfer from a solid surface generators (piezoceramics, magnetostrictive) in the liquid product. The main problem of transmission of wave energy high-intensity (10 W/cm2and more) from the radiating surface to the fluid is the effect of the appearance of cavitation clouds" on the border environments, preventing energy transfer. So you need a way to transfer in the liquid and the dispersed solid energy product of great intensity, that is, the proposed method using a gas-jet generators. When turbulent motion in the cells of the product stream in the liquid occur cavitation processes, which are enhanced by acoustic cavitation due to the energy of the gas-jet generators. Acoustic power gas-jet generator HartmanNa=295dc2P-0,9where dcthe nozzle diameter in centimeters, P is the gas pressure in kilograms of force per centimeter squared at an operating pressure

P=3 ATM of formal transformations:

I=Na/S=mn> 295dc2P-0,9/(πdc2/4)=376P-0,9=544[Int/with am2].

The ratio deduced from the conditions of irradiation areas is equal to the area of the nozzle. In the working cylinders ultrasound intensity due to the scattering effect will be below this value. The geometry of the working chambers and axial plungers can create zones of different intensity. Thus ultrasound intensity at the output of the gas-jet generator is much more attainable intensity in hydrodynamic cavitator, which, on average, I=2 W/cm2. Therefore, the processing efficiency of the multi-phase product in this way is much higher. Power (squared amplitude) gas-jet process exceeds the similar characteristics of the hydrodynamic process. When this intensity gives rise to large local pressure (of the order of thousands of atmospheres), resulting in the destruction of the treated substance, as a liquid during the collapse of the gas bubbles formed spherical shock waves is. It is established that increased TVersity occurs when increasing the intensity of an acoustic wave, when the use of steam is minimized when the brake fluid is large kinetic energy of the liquid, and bubble cluster process. Versata increases in liquids with heavy molecules (organic matter) and at low temperatures.

The method of obtaining ultramate as follows.

Intensification of Telemanagement in mechanical-physical-chemical process of transformations by means of acoustic impact on the flow of multiphase product is carried out in a reactor with an ultrasonic gas-jet generators. Gas is supplied under pressure from an external source, such as a pump, compressor, initially in the gas-jet generator and then through the nozzle in a vortex chamber. Dispersed solid product, such as peat, comes either in a mixture with the liquid phase - water or gas - steam. In the case of the liquid phase in the vortex tube is wet grinding (size reduction of the particles of the solid phase). In the absence of a liquid phase in the vortex tube is dry grinding the solid component of the product, which may be injected through the nozzle and through the gas-jet generator. When turbulent motion in the cells of the product stream in the liquid occur CAVI which include processes, which are amplified acoustic cavitation due to the energy of the gas-jet generators. In the process, thickening ultramate to the desired consistency.

Given that peat has a complex chemical composition, which is determined by the conditions of Genesis, chemical composition of plants peat formation and decomposition degree, its composition can speak only in General terms, based on the so-called elemental composition of peat: carbon 50-60%, hydrogen 5-6,5%, oxygen 30-40%, nitrogen 1-3%, sulfur 0.1 to 1.5% (sometimes 2,5) fuel mass. In the component composition of the organic matter content of water-soluble substances 1-5%, bitumen 2-10%, easy-hydrolyzed compounds 20-40%, cellulose 4-10%, humic acid 15-50%, leasing 5-20%.

The above-described processing method of peat in the reactor with the intensity of ultrasound in the working chambers 50 W/cm2allows you to get substance - ultrafine emulsion peat (UDAT) - ultragumat, in which the soluble organic matter is 87%, the expectation of the distribution of particle size is 1 micron.

Large capacity industrial plants based on the flow diagram with continuous mixing and processing podocarpaceae flow in the reactor.

Below is a table of quantitative chemical indicators ultramate obtained when printing handling the ke of the original transitional peat, made in a test centre for soil and environmental research Moscow agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev (test report No. 108/10 from 27.12.2010).

Defined indicatorsEd. MEAs.Results studiesDescription of errorCompliance documentationTest method
123467
pHunits pHof 5.4±0,2line.GOST 26423-85
Ash content (calculated on dry substance)%28,4±2,8line.GOST 27784-88
Ash%RS 9.69±0,96line.GOST 27784-88
Fulvic acids (calculated on dry substance)%48,78±4,88line.According to Kononova-Belchikov
Humic acid (calculated on dry substance)%16,34±1,63line.According to Kononova-Belchikov
Fulvic acids%16,65±1,67line.According to Kononova-Belchikov
Humic acid%5,58±0,83line.According to Kononova-Belchikov
The total phosphorus (calculated on dry substance)%2,69±0,27line.GOST 26717-85
Potassium total (calculated on dry substance) %2,08±0,21line.GOST 26717-85
Phosphorus total%0,92±0,09line.GOST 26717-85
Potassium total%0,71±0,07line.GOST 26717-85
Organic matter (calculated on dry substance)%71,6±0,8line.GOST 27784-88
Organic matter%24,44±0,8line.GOST 27784-88

As can be seen from the table, the content of fulvic and humic acids in ultramate high. By separating the inorganic part of ADAT that easy to implement mechanically, the content of humates will obviously increase, and ultragumat obtained without any treatment and can be the t can be directly used as a growth regulator and fertilizer and as a feed additive for poultry.

The insoluble part of UDET consists mainly of silicon dioxide is sand. Ultragumat during electrolysis is deposited on the electrode, after drying, is a water-soluble solid substance ("Ultragumat e) containing humates more than 90%. This ultragumat can be used as growth regulators and fertilizers seed treatment, root and foliar feeding of plants, drip irrigation systems, as well as feed Supplement in animal husbandry. Dried "Ultragumat e" as well as the original substance can be in the form of granules or powder. Granulated ultragumat useful for root feeding, since a high content of fulvic acids in ultramate contributes to their rapid washout.

Ultragumat has a high biological activity and can be used not only in crop and livestock production, but also in medicine. Not available for absorption by plants of peat is in the form of ultramate not only absorbed by the plant substance, but also becomes an effective fertilizer and growth regulator. Combined organo-mineral fertilizer is most effective in crop production and its application helps to restore humus layer of the soil.

The technology can Prince the PIAL change the role of peat. Firstly, obtaining humates with a high content of fulvic and humic acids also becomes possible without using chemicals. In this organic component of the peat as a result of physical-chemical reactions becomes mostly water-soluble. Secondly, the performance of the production installations ultramate can be achieved almost as broad.

Production technology ultraluminous in ultrasonic reactors with gas-jet generators fundamentally changes the value of peat and provides an opportunity to significantly improve the efficiency of the use of peat in agriculture and medicine.

1. Method of producing humic substances, including ultrasonic dispersion hematodermic substances, wherein creating at least one jet or vortex flow hematodermic substances that handle air or steam flow using a gas-jet generator with the intensity of ultrasonic radiation more than 10 W/cm2.

2. Humic drug - ultragumat obtained by the method described in claim 1.



 

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