Method of producing humic preparations and ultra-humate substance obtained using said method
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing humic preparations involves ultrasonic dispersion of humate-containing substances. At least one jet or vortex flow of humate-containing substances is created, which is treated with an air or steam stream using a jet-edge generator with ultrasonic radiation intensity greater than 10 W/cm2.
EFFECT: invention provides an efficient technique of processing humate-containing substances, which enables to obtain water-soluble organic substances with high content of fulvic and humic acids with a simple process for production thereof, low labour input and material consumption of the process.
2 cl, 1 tbl
The technical field
The group of inventions relates to a process for the production of humic substances and can be used in agriculture, particularly in crop and livestock production, as well as in medicine.
Technology of production of humic substances known today mainly based on alkaline extraction of humic substances from soil, followed by purification.
In particular, the prior art method of preparation of liquid feed and installation for its implementation, in which the preparation of humic acids and humates from peat or brown coal is carried out by cavitation dispersion peat or brown coal in an aqueous solution of alkali to the full yield of humic acids with subsequent receipt of humates (patent RU 2316227 published 10.02.2008). The use of cavitation in the technology of producing humic substances gives the opportunity to achieve their high physiological activity, a large release of water-soluble organic substances, reactions of hydrothermal synthesis. In the cavitator synchronously processes of dispersion, extraction, dissolution, disintegration of cellular structures, the degradation of cellulose. The physiological activity of humic substances with disordered polymeric structures of humic the slot and their salts, obtained using cavitation increases as disordered polymeric structure of such substances with the conventional concept of molecular weight, the smaller, the better absorbed by the membranes of the cell structure of plants. The main disadvantage of this method is extremely complex technology to the final product - organic fertilizer. This technology does not provide the ability to control the resulting product of specified chemical and quantitative content of nutrients, such technology does not allow to obtain a final product with a stable quality consumer properties. In addition, this method requires a lot of energy and economic costs for equipment such sophisticated technology.
Closest to the claimed invention is a method of obtaining organic-mineral fertilizer based on cavitation dispersion hematodermic substances in an aqueous solution of alkali, followed by additional logging of trace elements (patent RU No. 2350587 published 27.03.2009).
The lack of cavitation methods is the inability to achieve high intensity of sound energy that is required in most part of technologies of transformation products.
Given that organic matter of peat comp is drawn from humic and fulvic acids, bitumen, cellulose, lignin, and the mineral part mainly consists of silicon, calcium, iron, aluminum, and trace elements, as fertilizer peat ineffective, because the bulk of the nitrogen is in an inaccessible form, in the composition of humic substances. Using alkaline extraction of peat, achieve availability of a number of substances to food plants. However, the chemical method of separation of humic substances are not effective enough, because it destroys the natural structure of humic substances obtained by chemical extraction. In addition, this method has such disadvantages as the complexity of the technological process of obtaining the final product, causing in turn a significant energy and economic costs, as well as the inability to obtain the final product with the set of stable characteristics.
In the prior art there are known various organic-mineral fertilizer based on peat. In particular, the patent RU 2203255 published 27.04.2003, known organic liquid humic fertilizer, which contains 2.0 to 4.0 g/l of humic acid, 0,92-1.8 g/l fulvic 8,0-10,0 g/l of phosphorus (in terms of P2O5), to 14.4-16.0 g/l potassium (in terms of K2O) and to 0.32 g/l of nitrogen, the main disadvantage is the low content of humic and fulvic acids.
Revelation is their inventions
Technical result achieved in the implementation of the claimed group of inventions is to create effective processing technologies hematodermic substances (peat, brown coal, black earth), which allows to obtain a water-soluble organic substances with a high content of fulvic and humic acids by simplifying the process of their production, reducing labor and material process, which consequently leads to the reduction of the cost of the final product.
This technical result is achieved due to the fact that during production of humic substances by ultrasonic dispersion hematodermic substances, and create at least one jet or vortex flow hematodermic substances that handle air or steam flow using a gas-jet generator with the intensity of ultrasonic radiation more than 10 W/cm2. The input gas component due to the large acoustic power gas-jet generators leads to intense acoustic cavitation of the liquid component of the product. In the gas and liquid phases of the product arise pulsating pressure, leading to dispersion, emulsification, and other processes. Due to the large area of contact and justicesee wave gas stream with the liquid and solid components of the processed product, it is possible to transfer the energy of high intensity.
Method of producing humic substances using acoustic impact on the flow of multiphase product is characterized by the fact that:
- create the intensity of wave energy (>10 W/cm2)sufficient to achieve the destruction of dispersion-the physical state of the product and the necessary transformation of chemical bonds;
- used acoustic cavitation in the vortex or the jet stream due to the energy of the gas-jet generators;
- used Telemanagement the process flow for the transformation of the product.
Obtained by the method described above humic preparation (ultragumat) is characterized by the following contents of fulvic and humic acids:
Fulvic acids (calculated on dry substance) - 48,78%;
Humic acid (calculated on dry substance) - 16,34%.
An implementation option inventions
Between the liquid phase flow and gas, especially with the vortex motion, creates a large contact area, increasing in the process of interaction due to dispersion in emerging overpressure wave cluster cavitation process. Solid phase product in the same way due to overpressure is subjected to dispersion and different transformations of the original is about substance. This is achieved through the use of telemessaging process, consisting in an acoustic resonant excitation of one or more threads created in the jet chamber or vortex tubes, gas or the injection of steam which is carried out by gas-jet generators.
The main objective of the implementation of the method of processing multi-phase product is the maximum intensity of ultrasound in the working chambers, sufficient for the destruction of the processed product.
Experimentally proved that the treatment of the swirling water and peat flow, activated output air or steam flow gas-jet generator with intensity ultrasound more than 10 W/cm2turns out valuable substance with a high content of fulvic and humic acids (more than 65% in dry matter), as well as other organic and mineral components available for plant nutrition.
The proposed method input gas component due to the large acoustic power gas-jet generators leads to intense acoustic cavitation of the liquid component of the product. In the gas and liquid phases of the product arise pulsating excess pressure, resulting in dispersion, emulsification, and other physico-chemical processes. Due to the large area sapric is Slovenia acoustic wave gas stream with the liquid and solid components of the processed product,
it is possible to transfer the energy of high-intensity, it is not possible in energy transfer from a solid surface generators (piezoceramics, magnetostrictive) in the liquid product. The main problem of transmission of wave energy high-intensity (10 W/cm2and more) from the radiating surface to the fluid is the effect of the appearance of cavitation clouds" on the border environments, preventing energy transfer. So you need a way to transfer in the liquid and the dispersed solid energy product of great intensity, that is, the proposed method using a gas-jet generators. When turbulent motion in the cells of the product stream in the liquid occur cavitation processes, which are enhanced by acoustic cavitation due to the energy of the gas-jet generators. Acoustic power gas-jet generator Hartman
P=3 ATM of formal transformations:
The ratio deduced from the conditions of irradiation areas is equal to the area of the nozzle. In the working cylinders ultrasound intensity due to the scattering effect will be below this value. The geometry of the working chambers and axial plungers can create zones of different intensity. Thus ultrasound intensity at the output of the gas-jet generator is much more attainable intensity in hydrodynamic cavitator, which, on average, I=2 W/cm2. Therefore, the processing efficiency of the multi-phase product in this way is much higher. Power (squared amplitude) gas-jet process exceeds the similar characteristics of the hydrodynamic process. When this intensity gives rise to large local pressure (of the order of thousands of atmospheres), resulting in the destruction of the treated substance, as a liquid during the collapse of the gas bubbles formed spherical shock waves is. It is established that increased TVersity occurs when increasing the intensity of an acoustic wave, when the use of steam is minimized when the brake fluid is large kinetic energy of the liquid, and bubble cluster process. Versata increases in liquids with heavy molecules (organic matter) and at low temperatures.
The method of obtaining ultramate as follows.
Intensification of Telemanagement in mechanical-physical-chemical process of transformations by means of acoustic impact on the flow of multiphase product is carried out in a reactor with an ultrasonic gas-jet generators. Gas is supplied under pressure from an external source, such as a pump, compressor, initially in the gas-jet generator and then through the nozzle in a vortex chamber. Dispersed solid product, such as peat, comes either in a mixture with the liquid phase - water or gas - steam. In the case of the liquid phase in the vortex tube is wet grinding (size reduction of the particles of the solid phase). In the absence of a liquid phase in the vortex tube is dry grinding the solid component of the product, which may be injected through the nozzle and through the gas-jet generator. When turbulent motion in the cells of the product stream in the liquid occur CAVI which include processes, which are amplified acoustic cavitation due to the energy of the gas-jet generators. In the process, thickening ultramate to the desired consistency.
Given that peat has a complex chemical composition, which is determined by the conditions of Genesis, chemical composition of plants peat formation and decomposition degree, its composition can speak only in General terms, based on the so-called elemental composition of peat: carbon 50-60%, hydrogen 5-6,5%, oxygen 30-40%, nitrogen 1-3%, sulfur 0.1 to 1.5% (sometimes 2,5) fuel mass. In the component composition of the organic matter content of water-soluble substances 1-5%, bitumen 2-10%, easy-hydrolyzed compounds 20-40%, cellulose 4-10%, humic acid 15-50%, leasing 5-20%.
The above-described processing method of peat in the reactor with the intensity of ultrasound in the working chambers 50 W/cm2allows you to get substance - ultrafine emulsion peat (UDAT) - ultragumat, in which the soluble organic matter is 87%, the expectation of the distribution of particle size is 1 micron.
Large capacity industrial plants based on the flow diagram with continuous mixing and processing podocarpaceae flow in the reactor.
Below is a table of quantitative chemical indicators ultramate obtained when printing handling the ke of the original transitional peat, made in a test centre for soil and environmental research Moscow agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev (test report No. 108/10 from 27.12.2010).
|Defined indicators||Ed. MEAs.||Results studies||Description of error||Compliance documentation||Test method|
|pH||units pH||of 5.4||±0,2||line.||GOST 26423-85|
|Ash content (calculated on dry substance)||%||28,4||±2,8||line.||GOST 27784-88|
|Ash||%||RS 9.69||±0,96||line.||GOST 27784-88|
|Fulvic acids (calculated on dry substance)||%||48,78||±4,88||line.||According to Kononova-Belchikov|
|Humic acid (calculated on dry substance)||%||16,34||±1,63||line.||According to Kononova-Belchikov|
|Fulvic acids||%||16,65||±1,67||line.||According to Kononova-Belchikov|
|Humic acid||%||5,58||±0,83||line.||According to Kononova-Belchikov|
|The total phosphorus (calculated on dry substance)||%||2,69||±0,27||line.||GOST 26717-85|
|Potassium total (calculated on dry substance)||%||2,08||±0,21||line.||GOST 26717-85|
|Phosphorus total||%||0,92||±0,09||line.||GOST 26717-85|
|Potassium total||%||0,71||±0,07||line.||GOST 26717-85|
|Organic matter (calculated on dry substance)||%||71,6||±0,8||line.||GOST 27784-88|
|Organic matter||%||24,44||±0,8||line.||GOST 27784-88|
As can be seen from the table, the content of fulvic and humic acids in ultramate high. By separating the inorganic part of ADAT that easy to implement mechanically, the content of humates will obviously increase, and ultragumat obtained without any treatment and can be the t can be directly used as a growth regulator and fertilizer and as a feed additive for poultry.
The insoluble part of UDET consists mainly of silicon dioxide is sand. Ultragumat during electrolysis is deposited on the electrode, after drying, is a water-soluble solid substance ("Ultragumat e) containing humates more than 90%. This ultragumat can be used as growth regulators and fertilizers seed treatment, root and foliar feeding of plants, drip irrigation systems, as well as feed Supplement in animal husbandry. Dried "Ultragumat e" as well as the original substance can be in the form of granules or powder. Granulated ultragumat useful for root feeding, since a high content of fulvic acids in ultramate contributes to their rapid washout.
Ultragumat has a high biological activity and can be used not only in crop and livestock production, but also in medicine. Not available for absorption by plants of peat is in the form of ultramate not only absorbed by the plant substance, but also becomes an effective fertilizer and growth regulator. Combined organo-mineral fertilizer is most effective in crop production and its application helps to restore humus layer of the soil.
The technology can Prince the PIAL change the role of peat. Firstly, obtaining humates with a high content of fulvic and humic acids also becomes possible without using chemicals. In this organic component of the peat as a result of physical-chemical reactions becomes mostly water-soluble. Secondly, the performance of the production installations ultramate can be achieved almost as broad.
Production technology ultraluminous in ultrasonic reactors with gas-jet generators fundamentally changes the value of peat and provides an opportunity to significantly improve the efficiency of the use of peat in agriculture and medicine.
1. Method of producing humic substances, including ultrasonic dispersion hematodermic substances, wherein creating at least one jet or vortex flow hematodermic substances that handle air or steam flow using a gas-jet generator with the intensity of ultrasonic radiation more than 10 W/cm2.
2. Humic drug - ultragumat obtained by the method described in claim 1.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. Organomineral complex fertiliser contains peat, mineral components and nutritional microelements as humate-containing substances, with nitrogen-ammonia constituent in form of urea and water, processed with UV-irradiation, being introduced into complex composition. All components are taken in specified ratio.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of complex fertiliser action on crop yield due to application of high and balanced content of quickly-soluble potassium humates and elements of mineral nutrition in fertiliser.
2 cl, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of decontaminating oil-contaminated soil involves preparation of a treatment area, collecting, excavating and delivering oil-contaminated soil to the treatment area, preparing the oil-contaminated soil, adding a humic-mineral complex and providing processes for biological decomposition of the oil-contaminated soil. The method of decontaminating spent drilling mud involves lime treatment, reagent coagulation, adding flocculants and a humic-mineral complex, step-by-step cutting of the drilling mud into a buffer layer while laying the mud in a layer of not more than 8-10 cm, drying the drilling mud and stacking into piles for subsequent recycling. The humic-mineral complex is obtained by low-temperature mechanochemical extraction of humic acids with by crushing brown coal in a dispersion machine while mixing the crushed brown coal with an alkali.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of methods in which a humic-mineral complex is used.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing humic fertiliser for organic farming, meant for treating soil and vegetative plants, wherein said fertiliser is obtained in two steps: at the first step, natural humic acids contained in brown coal are transferred into an aqueous solution in form of ammonium humate by treating with 1.5-2.0% aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution to pH 6.9-7.1 with the ratio of the liquid component to the solid component of 7-7.5:1, and the obtained solution is separated from the mineral ballast which is not chemically bonded to the humic acids; and at the second step, metal cations chemically bonded to the ammonium humate are removed from the ammonium humate solution by treating with a cationite to pH 4.0-4.2.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain water-soluble humic acids which do not container both the mineral ballast and metal cations.
2 cl, 4 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of production of the concentrate of humic acid from brown coal, including its crushing to obtain microparticles, preparing the suspension in the diluted solution of alkali, and extraction, with mechanical stirring of the suspension in the reactor-mixer from the microparticles of humic acid coal. The coal is subjected to two-stage crushing, and at the second stage of crushing the microparticles with ragged surface are formed, and in stirring the suspension in the reactor-mixer it is simultaneously affected with ultrasound for 7-15 min., then the solid phase is separated from the liquid phase by precipitation of insoluble coal-ash in the sediment basin for 15-20 min., and the liquid phase is fed in the cracking reactor, the catalyst-hydrochloric acid is added, the liquid phase is resolved to water and humic acid of 90%, 70% and 40% concentration after sedimentation for at least 24 hours.
EFFECT: invention enables to create a complete cycle of industrial production of humic acids, to improve the performance and efficiency of their extraction of brown coal, to extend the scope by improving the quality of the finished product.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining the biologically active humic product that includes crushing and screening of organic materials, as which peat is used with a moisture content close to the natural, and the peat processing is performed by the preliminary granulation with the subsequent holding the granules in closed containers for cooling for 12 hours, and then the cooled granules are repeatedly granulated to produce granules with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the granules obtained during the preliminary granulation, then hot granules obtained during the second granulation are poured into water to form an aqueous solution, the resulting mixture is subjected to stirring by the submerged mixer to form a homogeneous viscous flowable paste, alkali is added to the resulting paste to the pH of 10-10.5, and the resulting product is obtained after cooling of the resulting paste to the ambient temperature.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the concentration of biologically active humic substances in the finished product, and to simplify the technology of its production.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils. Proposed method comprises reclamation leveling and introducing nitrogen, phosphoric and potassium mineral salts. To process seeds and vegetating plants before sowing, biologically active product of peat peroxidate-ammoniac hydrolysis containing humic acids in concentration of 0.0025-0.005% is used. Note here that plowing and seeds sowing are performed. Is necessary, additionally sown are seeds and introduced are nitrogen, phosphoric and potassium mineral salts.
EFFECT: stimulated seeds germination, intensified photosynthesis, activation of native microflora.
2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of production of water-soluble humic acids which includes drying of brown coal with a content of humic acids of at least 50%, crushing the brown coal, processing the crushed coal with the alkaline reagent, and brown coal before crushing is dried to a residual moisture content of no more than 20%, after crushing it is divided into fractions : more than 10 mm, 4-10 mm, 2-4 mm, 0.5-2.0 mm and less than 0.5 mm; fractions of more than 10 mm and 4-10 mm are returned for recrushing, fractions of 2-4 mm or less than 0.5 mm in the solid phase are processed with dry alkaline reagent with intensive stirring while maintaining the temperature in a range 40-80° C; the fraction of 0.5-2.0 mm is dispersed with intensive stirring in softened water and processed with an aqueous solution of an alkaline reagent while maintaining the pH of the reaction mixture in the range of 10.0-10.5 and the temperature in the range of 40-80° C, the solution obtained as a result of the reaction is purified from water-insoluble substances by centrifugation, the solution is concentrated by vaporisation under discharging with the residual pressure of 5000-6000 Pa and the temperature of 50-60° C, and then dried in a fluidised bed at the temperature of 130-140° C.
EFFECT: waste-free production of water-soluble salts of humic acids.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: granular fertiliser based on peat containing granules, and the granules are made using peat, binder. The binder is made in the form of a mixture of water and peat, with the mixture of water and peat is at least once passed through the dispersing agent at a differential pressure on the dispersing agent from 0.1·105 Pa to 25·105 Pa.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase significantly the hardness of granules, to increase significantly the resistance of granules to moisture exposure.
2 cl, 17 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: cobalt-containing peat-zeolitic fertiliser of prolonged action which comprises lowland peat and natural zeolite modified by trace element cobalt in the ratio 2.1:1-2.6:2. Natural zeolite which is crushed to the grain size of 0.5-0.7 mm, is saturated with the 0.009-0.011% solution of cobalt sulfate CoSO4 for 5-7 hours at a weight ratio of natural zeolite and solution of cobalt sulfate 1:8-1:9.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the biological productivity of low-productive cryoarid and cryomorphic soils, crop yield, and to improve their quality composition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing water-soluble humic acids from caustobioliths of the coal family, which involves exposing caustobioliths to a potassium or sodium hydroxide solution with concentration of 2.0-4.0 wt %, separating the liquid phase, treating the liquid phase with acid, followed by separation in a centrifugal force field and separating the heavy phase, treating the obtained heavy phase with a hydroxide of alkali or alkali-earth metals until obtaining a ready product, wherein the caustobioliths are subjected to attrition with a potassium or sodium hydroxide solution to obtain particles with size of 250-5 mcm in amount of not less than 90 wt %, wherein the heavy phase is also subjected to attrition with a hydroxide of an alkali or alkali-earth metal until achieving pH 3.5-5.0.
EFFECT: invention increases output of humic acids while maintaining their natural state and cutting the duration of the process.
5 cl, 6 dwg, 5 tbl, 18 ex
FIELD: mixed fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises mixing peat, household sewage sediments, manure, and marble filings (0.5 to 10%) followed by composting in storage piles.
EFFECT: improved consumer's properties.
FIELD: biologically active substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to isolation of humus acids (humin acids and fulvene acids) from natural-origin humate-containing substances, in particular from sapropel, to use them in manufacture of organomineral fertilizers, biologically active additives used in manufacture of therapeutic preparations and pharmaceutical products. Method comprises treating wet sapropel with potassium pyrophosphate solution and simultaneously affecting sapropel with ultrasound with frequency 22-23 kHz and emission power 50-160 W/dm3 for at least 90 min. Weight ratio of wet sapropel to potassium pyrophosphate does not exceed 100:1.
EFFECT: simplified process and increased productivity.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: mixed fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: fertilizer contains brown coal with particle size 0.001 to 5 mm and additive, in particular biological humus, at weight ratio 1:(0.001-0.05). Prior to be mixed with additive, brown coal is ground to required particle size. Mixing is carried out until homogenous free flowing product is obtained. Fertilizer can be used to raise fertility as product accessible for any user from individual summer residents to large agricultural economies.
EFFECT: reduced cost of product.
7 cl, 3 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, methods for obtaining of organic fertilizers and growth promoters from natural humate-containing substances, such as peat.
SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing peat suspension to electric current; preparing peat suspension by mixing peat with solution of salts of weak acids of potassium, and/or sodium, and/or ammonium in various ratios and combinations; placing into vessel equipped with N-pairs of opposite-polarity electrodes; exposing liquid phase of suspension to electric current of density sufficient to provide for alkaline reaction of cathodes and acidic reaction of anodes, with current being supplied in the form of sequence of rectangular pulses of duration sufficient for alteration of partial pressure of gases generated in suspension volume and interval between pulses being sufficient for relaxing of said pressure; while acting upon suspension with electric current, mixing suspension and continuously controlling pH value of its liquid phase; stopping said action, when acidity reaches predetermined value; separating suspension into liquid and solid products. Weak acid salts used are salts of carbonic acid and phosphoric acid. Method allows mineral and organic peat components to be more completely converted into mobile chemical compounds.
EFFECT: provision for keeping of agrophysical and agrochemical properties of peat solid phase, full-value utilization of liquid and solid products and increased effectiveness of process.
FIELD: coal-chemical products.
SUBSTANCE: weathered vitrinite brown coals from Baga-Nursk coal field having ash level 36-48% and moisture 20% are ground to granule size 0.5-0.9 mm. Resulting powder us sulfurized for 6-8 h with 98% sulfuric acid at 60-80°С and coal-to-acid weight ratio from 1:3 to 2:3. Sulfurized coal is neutralized and treated with 10-15% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution at weight ratio of alkali solution to initial coal (10-15):1 to form water-soluble sodium sulfohumate, after which water-soluble residual coal is separated by centrifugation. Centrifugate is mixed with 10-15% aqueous hydrochloric acid at volume ratio (10-15):6 to form precipitate, which is allowed to settle into compact form during 40-60 min. After decantation of liquid phase, solid residue is partially dried at 40-60°С until pasty mass is obtained.
EFFECT: increased content of tanning substances in humate-containing compounds and enabled utilization of oxidized brown coal in open-cut production of brown coals.
4 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: peat industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with peat industry, in particular, with production of nutrient mediums on the basis of peat for growing of seedlings of forest cultures and garden species and bushes with the closed root systems and a non-polluting vegetable production in a glass-covered ground. The method of preparation of the peat substrate provides for clearing of the peat raw material from large remains of wood and other impurities, introduction of a bio-activator, commixing, fermentation, gauging, packing. In the capacity of peat raw material a weakly decomposed high sphagnum peat or a mossy waste are used and in the capacity of the bio-activator they use a nutrient yeast or a compost ferment in amount of 0.9-1.1 kg per 1 m3 of peat with a density of 0.02-0.1 g / cm3. Fermentation is conducted at the temperature of 10-36°C and moistures of 50-60 %, and gauging after fermentation - up to the particle size of no more than 24 mm. The method ensures production of a product of a loose fibrous structure with the optimal hygroscopic properties, optimal concentration of the nutrient substances and a low toxicity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a product with a loose fibrous structure, optimal hygroscopic properties, optimal concentration of the nutrient substances and a low toxicity.
FIELD: plant growing.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in manufacture of plant growth stimulator and liquid complex organomineral fertilizers from humus-containing substrates comprising living soil microorganisms, in particular from vermicompost (biohumus), zoocompost, other composts, brown coal, peat, and sapropel. Method comprises preliminarily watering of humus-containing substances and subsequent alkali extraction, separation of alkaline extract, and neutralization thereof. According to invention, after preliminary watering of humus-containing substances and stirring, material is subjected to microbiological fermentation for 3-24 h at 20-35°C and continuous aeration increasing biomass of soil microorganisms. Thereafter, suspension is settled to give enriched aqueous extract. Extract is separated from humus-containing substance and added to neutralized alkali extract of humus-containing precipitate. Alkali extraction is effected with 0.02-0.23 N alkali solution at 60-100°C and separated alkali extract is then neutralized to pH 8.0-9.5. Resulting enriched aqueous extract is stirred and settled to produce desired liquid product.
EFFECT: improved quality of product due to increased amount of humin substances, increased proportion of low-molecular fraction thereof, and enlarged biomass of useful soil microorganisms.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 13 ex
FIELD: agriculture, fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: method for preparing the complex microfertilizer involves stirring humin-containing components with alkali an aqueous solution. Sodium (potassium) hydroxide an aqueous solution is used as alkali. Method involves addition trace elements for plants nutrition to the solution, among them copper sulfate and accessory substances - elements for mineral nutrition, among them zinc sulfate or magnesium sulfate. Method involves additional using manganese sulfate, polyvinyl alcohol as a sticking agent and Trilon B as a chelating agent. Lignin is used as a humin-containing component that is added to alkali solution by portions at constant stirring, brought about to boiling, converted to the state of stable suspension and kept for 50-60 min. Then water is added, brought about to boiling and kept for 20 min followed by mixing the suspension with solution of zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, ammonium molybdate, copper sulfate, cobalt sulfate, Trilon B in water heated to 50°C. Stirring is carried out for 20 min followed by addition to microfertilizer organic sticking agent as solution of polyvinyl alcohol in water heated preliminary to 70°C being polyvinyl alcohol is kept to the complete dissolving. Prepared microfertilizer comprises polyvinyl alcohol as a sticking agent in 5% solution in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: zinc sulfate, 0.44; copper sulfate, 0.05; cobalt sulfate, 0.02; manganese sulfate, 0.05; ammonium molybdate, 0.04; Trilon B, 1.0; sticking agent, 5.0; humic acids, 93.0. Invention provides enhancing quality of microfertilizer, to reduce cost, to exclude evolving harmful substances to the environment and to increase the yield of the ready product. Invention can be used in manufacturing ecologically pure complex lignin-base microfertilizers.
EFFECT: improved method for preparing, improved and valuable properties of microfertilizer.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the natural catalyst of ecological equilibrium of agrocenosis that comprises the natural activating agent of soil formation prepared by mixing turf, solid alkali and cellulolytic enzyme. Catalyst comprises additionally biologically active mixture of triterpenic acids obtained from coniferous species trees and cellulose-containing substrate in the ratio = 1:0.5:0.5, respectively. Product provides enhancing the productivity of agricultural crops up to 25% by enhancing their resistance against diseases and different unfavorable physical-climatic factors and to reduce ripening time by 15-20 days. Also, the preparation intensifies formation of ecologically pure humus. Invention can be used in manufacturing fertilizers, agents for plants protection and preparations reducing negative results of technogenic effect on the nature.
EFFECT: valuable properties of natural catalyst.
3 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: ecology, agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to soil ecology, namely, to producing agents based on natural components used for elimination of technogenic pollutions of soils. The biopreparation based on humus substances is prepared by mixing and milling turf, avian dung and alkali with addition of water in disintegrating device. Turf, avian dung, alkali and water are taken in the ratio, mas. p. p. = (15-20):(11-16):(0.3-0.6):(0.3-0.6), respectively. Mixing and milling all components in disintegrating device can be carried out with addition of wood saw-dust taken in the amount 3 mas. p. p. per 1 mas. p. of mixture of other components. The biopreparation elicits the strongest reductive function with respect to heavy metal oxides and can be used for improvement of soil ecology after technogenic emergency and for prophylaxis aims for neutralization of oxides and enhancing the humus content in soils. Invention can be used in carrying out measures for reducing pollution degree and toxicity in forest, agricultural and other soils with recovery of biota.
EFFECT: valuable properties of biopreparation.
2 cl, 3 ex