Soil slurry-ground mixture (versions) for remediation of disturbed lands and method of remediation of borrow pits and disturbed lands

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The soil slurry-ground mixture for remediation of borrow pits and disturbed lands is proposed, which consists of two mixtures. At that the mixture used as a lower remediation layer comprises, volume percent: drill cuttings - 50-65, sand or sandy-loam soil - 16-25, peat - 15-23, the rest - active neutralising and ameliorating supplements, including gypsum or phosphogypsum in an amount of 2-3% of its volume. The mixture used as the upper remediation layer comprises, volume percent: drill cuttings - 35-50%, sand or sandy-loam soil - 20-30%, peat - 27-32.5%, the rest - active neutralising and ameliorating supplements, including gypsum or phosphogypsum in an amount of 1.5-2% of its volume. Also a method of remediation of borrow pits and disturbed lands is proposed.

EFFECT: group of inventions enables to improve fertility of disturbed lands and use more effectively the natural resources in Western Siberia.

10 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of construction, remediation and land reclamation in the oil producing areas by restoring topography and soil fertility with simultaneous utilization of industrial waste - cuttings. The application describes a method of revegetation and composition used for these purposes, compositions, mixtures of soil slurry-ground (SPSG).

Technology of preparation and application SPSG for revegetation provides processing (used in) drill cuttings (consisting of drilled rocks and waste drilling mud) in artificial Pochvovedenie fertile soil with subsequent use of the obtained material for revegetation of different origin: anthropogenic disturbed soil and vegetation, contaminated employed kostovite platforms, pits, tailings ponds, exploration wells, corridors communications, dry digging quarries etc.

A prototype for an object both of the declared objects (a mixture of soil (options) and method of reclamation) has known (RU, patent No. 2293103 C2, IPC C09K 17/00, A01B 79/02, published 10.04.2006 g) composition for remediation of pits and disturbed lands, including tortoisehg mixture, the drilling sludge, as well as the active neutralizing melioribus supplements and method of reclamation of open pits and disturbed lands, comprising preparing two mixtures, their patience for the passage of physico-chemical reactions, adsorption and neutralization of toxins, transport to place of installation and layered them laying.

The disadvantages of the known compositions are:

- bistructures entered into the composition of clay slams, clay-colloid phase which when waterlogging significantly swells, loses strength, can move in a fluid state and be flushed out of the composition, causing the migration of toxic components of waste, environmental pollution, leading to a sharp decline filtering moisture, aeration, fertility mixture, survival rate and growth of the plants on biological reclamation;

- the use of significant quantities of peat, which is a valuable and limited natural resource, and quality construction sand, suggesting the development of additional quarries of peat and sand, which requires the allocation and withdrawal of land plots, resulting in an additional negative impact on nature;

- lack of communication between the degree of salinity or contamination of drill cuttings and quantity of ameliorants;

- increase the cost of the composition due to the use of scarce additives (SOILEX, Degradates, UNI-REM and others), part of the to the which are not issued or denied (the prototype is provided by the use of sorbent "Unipolar" - urea-formaldehyde of poroplast - toxic, produce phenol).

The disadvantages of this method of reclamation include:

1) unsatisfactory performance from the point of view of resistance to erosion, moisture retention and growth of plants in dry periods when used as a top layer reclamation 100% peat-sand mixtures;

2) use as reclamation lower layer of the composition with excessive content (49-69%) tortoishell mixture; at depth, under anaerobic conditions is not effective in a process of destruction and disposal of oil and other pollutants;

3) a significant change in the pH of the soil as depth change from slightly acidic environment (pH 4-5) in the upper layer to slightly alkaline in the lower layer (through the use of quicklime), which often prevents the restoration of the remediated areas native plant species.

The task, which directed the claimed group of inventions is to improve the effectiveness of revegetation associated with the disposal of drilling wastes.

Unified technical result to be obtained by carrying out the claimed group of inventions is to improve the fertility and ecological security of the mixture of soil and tailing soil (SPSG); more efficient IP is the use of local, typical oil-producing regions of Western Siberia, natural resources - soils (peat, natural Sands); neutralizing the effects of salts and other possible toxins in the plant ecosystem.

This technical result for the object SPSG on her first variant is due to the fact that the content of components in the volume of the mixture is: cuttings - 50-65%sand or sandy loam soil - 16-25%, peat - 15-23%, the rest - active neutralizing and reclaiming, at the same time as the main reclaiming additives used gypsum or phosphogypsum in the amount of 2-3% of the volume of the mixture.

This mixture of soil and tailing soil (SPSG I) is used as the lower most extensive reclamation layer when the liquidation and rehabilitation of sludge pits and quarries.

This technical result for the object SPSG the second option is due to the fact that the content of components in the volume of the mixture is: cuttings - 35-50%, sand or sandy loam soil - 20-30%, peat - 27-32,5%, and the rest - active neutralizing and reclaiming, at the same time as the main reclaiming additives used gypsum or phosphogypsum in the amount of 1,5-2% of the volume of the mixture. This mixture of soil and tailing soil (SPSG II) applies, as a rule, as the upper fertile layer for the biological stage d is ultimecia pits and disturbed lands.

The increase of soil fertility and environmental safety due to neutralise potential toxicants in the mixture of soil and tailing soil is achieved by using gypsum or phosphogypsum as a basic structure improver that provides irreversible coagulation of clay-colloid phase of the slurry, the improvement of filtration and air mixture, as well as due to:

a) use fiber (top) peat and sandy loam soil with high sorption capacity for neutralizing the effects of salts, hydrocarbons;

b) use the active dose of a neutralizing and reclaiming supplements, depending on availability and level of contamination of drill cuttings salts and hydrocarbons.

b) get close to neutral reaction SPSG due to the mutual neutralization of its components: the initial alkaline medium of the slurry is neutralized with the introduction of acidic peat or phosphogypsum to pH values of 6.0 and 7.5, if necessary, adjusts the response of the soil environment by the introduction of additional gypsum or phosphogypsum (to lower pH) to provide a pH 7,0-7,5 in the lower layers (the type of mixture (I) and (6,0-7,0 in the upper layer (the type of mixture (II).

One of the biggest differences is the fertile soil from the lifeless clay or other colloidal environment - the presence of the structure, i.e. aggregates Grun is and then between them, that provides movement of moisture and air. Drilling sludge contains significant amounts of clay and colloidal phase (about 50%) and have no structure. When drying the slurry turns into a large rocky lumps, and when the moisture goes in a plastic condition. Bistructures cuttings fields in Western Siberia increases with the saturation of the exchange complex of the clay particles (montmorillonite and other) ions of potassium and sodium that occurs in the case of the introduction of salts KCl, NaCl and/or by passing saline geological formations.

In the specified prototype no additives are used, causing a sharp coagulation, i.e. the aggregation of clay and colloidal particles into larger education. The introduction of SPSG gypsum (SO4as the main reclaiming additives, ensures saturation of the ion exchange complex of clay and colloidal particles of calcium release and leaching of excess salts of potassium and sodium in the underlying soil layers, irreversible coagulating clay phases of drill cuttings, structuring and improvement of soil fertility qualities SPSG.

The number of added gypsum or phosphogypsum is calculated based on the actual salinity of the drilling mud, and ranges from 1.5 to 3%. Maximum dosage of phosphogypsum - 45-50 kg per 1 m3sludge and pure gypsum requires the I 30% less. Taking into account the bulk density of gypsum (phosphogypsum) - 1300-1500 kg/ m3the upper boundary of its dosage is 3.8% of the volume of drill cuttings. Taking into account the share of the sludge in the volume of the final mixture of the following recommended doses of gypsum (phosphogypsum): 2-3% of the volume of the mixture for SPSG I and 1.5-2% for SPSG II. At these dosages the basis reclaiming supplements guaranteed processes of coagulation and improve properties SPSG. For a more detailed calculations need to take into account the density and the moisture content of the sludge, the degree of saturation of the sodium salts.

As enhancing and neutralizing additives in the mixture for remediation can enter the following types of substances in small doses:

- sorbents (for example, ODM-2F-based aluminosilicate opal-cristobalite, silica-alumina-based lost ash, coal Miu-C)linking contaminants, petroleum products, and eliminates the migration of pollutants;

drugs that accelerate degradation (destruction of the structure of petroleum products and other harmful nature of the substances for processing SPSG used for reclamation of disturbed and contaminated land, for example operating in aerobic conditions the strains of microorganisms (biological Petrodestructor", "Centrin");

- fertilizers (mineral, organic, humic acid)to neutralize the pH, fertility improving material is ri biological reclamation: complex drugs - gumina-mineral concentrate (MMC), peat-humic fertilizer "flora-S"; organic additive fertilizer - surface layer of organic soil, sawdust, sapropel, majoritively layer, and the like; local, organic soil, which brings active the indigenous microflora and is a catalyst of biological processes in artificial soil.

When carrying out experimental work established the efficacy of the active neutralizing additives/distributed. Except sorbents and gypsum, all additives are introduced into the mixture only of the second type (SPSG II), i.e. reclamation in the upper layer.

The dosage of the active distributed pre-assigned, and then experimentally specified within the following limits:

- consumption of basic types of sorbents, including aluminosilicate sorbent is produced at the rate of 0.2-0.5 kg per 1 kg of contained (residual) oil in the drilling mud; taking into account the actual composition of the sludge and oil of about 0.01-1%, maximum demand sorbents is about 7-8 kg per 1 m3cuttings;

- fertilizer consumption, initiating the process of reclamation of peat and its homocidomania that provides power plants and microorganisms, is administered in an amount to provide a nitrogen content of not less than 6 mg/100 g soil mixture, phosphorus not less than 12 is g/100 g, potassium 8 mg/100 g;

- recommended amount of humic preparations or natural humanitarias organic fertilizers is up to 1% of the volume of the mixture.

It should be noted that the application of phosphogypsum additional introduction of phosphate fertilizers in SPSG is not required, and if the drilling mud contains KCl (potassium chloride or other potassium salts, are not required to enter potash.

The recommended ratio of lowland and peat in SPSH (option 1) is 1:2. The increase in the share of fiber (top) peat in the composition of the lower layer SPSG provides sorption moving parts cuttings and reduce their impact on plant biocenosis.

The recommended ratio of lowland and peat in the upper layer SPSG (option 2) is from 1:1 to 2:1. The use of fine-grained decomposed and quasirandom (grassroots) peat more provides increased fertile properties, along with the sorption of the components of drill cuttings. Thus, the main task is solved over a thin layer SPSG - providing conditions for the growth of plants and the activity of aerobic microflora, contributing to the destruction and disposal of oil and other toxins, and nutrient availability.

More efficient use of materials and natural resources in R the cultivation is achieved through:

a) reducing the dosage of scarce sand and peat;

b) sandy soil instead of sand, as well as (when using filmed during the construction of the soil horizon) as a source of humus and organic matter in SPSG.

During the selection of the optimal composition of the mixtures used slurry of the Salym group of fields with the following properties.

BSH is a plastic (from semi-liquid to viscous consistency) pasty mass, according to the passport PG contains:

- the cuttings - 60-70%;

- waste drilling mud - 40-30%.

In the composition of the solid phase BSH includes particles for drilling different degrees of dispersion (colloidal 5-10 mm) and introduced into the washing liquid claypowders (bentonite, montmorillonite), as well as insoluble and soluble additives (calcium carbonate, barite, etc.).

Lithological characteristics of the geological section of the wells indicate the presence in the slurry of particles of sand, clay, siltstone, Sandstone, claystone, limestone, marl, glauconites and other rocks.

The density of particles of species within 2,40-2,90 g/cm3the porosity of 20-30%.

The liquid phase BSH is formed by adsorption of a certain number of drilling mud and waste water when washing equipment.

Jus the properties BSH Salym fields in the table.

IndicesThe average value for the overall sampleThe scale values on individual samples, min-max
Density, g/cm31,701,60-1,80
The density of solids, g/cm31,1321,11-1,40
Humidity, %50,2840 60
The density of soil particles, g/cm32,752,40-2,90
PH, pH units9,207,40-9,95
Shear strength the shear resistance, kg/cm20,030-0,05

Granulometric composition of the solid phase BSH:

- the content of particles with a diameter less than 0.071 mm60-65%
- sand content35-40%
- the content of linistea phase 20-50%
The average content of oil and oil productsfrom 0.01 to 0.60%
The average salinity level1,0-2,4%
the density must have values in the rangeof 1.30 and 1.80 g/cm3
- the humidity must be within the30-70%

With less moisture content BS enters plastilinovye status and poorly mixed, at a higher water content ready SPSG has a fluid consistency and unsuitable for sealing.

As evidence for the possibility of the claimed group of inventions is to provide the above single technical result are examples of specific compositions SPSG and description of the implementation of the claimed method.

Example 1

The composition SPSG I for reclamation lower layer,%:

- cuttings - 65

- sand - 16

- peat - 15,5

- phosphogypsum - 3

- sorbent (based on lost ash) aluminosilicate on THE 2164-001-47666880 0.5 in.

Example 2

The composition SPSG II for upper layer reclamation, vol.%:

- cuttings - 40

- sand - 27

- peat - 30

active neutralizing and reclaiming supplements, including:

- gypsum - 2

- sorbent (based on lost ash) aluminosilicate on THE 2164-001-47666880 - 0,3

- diammonium phosphate (fertilizer) - 0,05

- humus - 0,65.

Processing of drill cuttings in SPSG includes the following process steps:

after preliminary training ABOUT, and bring them to the required parameters, BSH stirred for averaging composition throughout the volume of the store or on separate partitions;

- development of sludge and loading;

- transportation to the place of processing;

- developing, loading and transportation of the prepared peat and sand or finish tortoishell mixture;

- unloading of the components of the mixture to the working area with the formation of 1). shafts or 2). layers (with stirring mills).

Possible pre-processing BSH for its removal (if necessary) with the introduction of chemicals and supplements. This produces the dispensing and distribution of drugs, mixing and curing in the barn or stack within 1-2 months. The main processing ameliorant (gypsum, phosphogypsum) should be performed after the introduction of a slurry of sand before finally mixing with peat.

In the first case, the unloading is carried out in the "clamp" with the formation of three close series (stacked) components.

In the second case, pre-importation of soil preparation and the spreading of tortoishell mixture layer of 15-20 cm with a bulldozer on the casting section, complete with a length of 100 m with a bandwidth of 2.0-2.5 m BSH levelled by a bulldozer and together with tortoishell roll the mixture with partial mixing.

Then made the final stirring the mixture, followed by sampling for test and confirm the suitability of the material for use.

Optionally, introduction of amendments and distributed to bring the hazard class to the desired (IV)to give the required properties (for mixture type II). Then collect the prepared mixture from a hook in the piles-piles, maturation and storage.

SPSG is a homogeneous gruntovalnoy the mixture is crumbly consistency. Humidity freshly prepared material is in the range of 40-70%. SPSG is explosion and fireproof material that does not emit volatile toxic substances, not pilot.

The above common effect for object "method" is due to the fact that the method of reclamation of open pits and disturbed lands includes the preparation of two soil samokrutov mixtures (SPSG), their patience for the passage of physico-chemical reactions of coagulation and adsorption and neutralization of toxins, and layer-by-layer stacking in such a way that on top of the bottom layer reclamation SPSG I (component content,%: drill cuttings - 50-65, sand or sandy loam soil - 16-25, the Orff - 15-23, the rest of the active neutralizing and reclaiming additives, including gypsum or phosphogypsum in the amount of 2-3% of the volume of the mixture) stack reclamation upper layer SPSG II (component content,%: drill cuttings - 35-50, sand or sandy loam soil - 20-30, peat - 27-32,5, rest - active neutralizing and reclaiming additives, including gypsum or phosphogypsum in the amount of 1,5-2% of the volume of the mixture).

In the proposed method the drilling sludge contains not only lower, but in the reclamation upper layer.

For reclamation lower layer of any thickness and for backfilling quarries and other excavations applied SPSG type I - claustrophobia with the content of peat 15-23% by volume. While the lower layers with the maximum content (50-65% by volume) clay slams perform the role of parent rocks and contain adsorbents for binding of adverse components of the sludge and indigenous microflora for the degradation of hydrocarbons.

As the top soil recultivation layer is applied srednestogovaya SPSG type II with the content of peat 27-32,5% of the volume.

Adding BSH reclamation in the upper layer provides the destruction and disposal of petroleum products in aerobic conditions, under the influence of microorganisms (biological phase in the upper layer are applied planting legumes, cornewall system are activated by the nitrogen-fixing nodule bacteria, enhancing plant growth and decomposition of hydrocarbons). In addition, BSH reclamation in the upper layer provides an advantage over "pure" tortoishell mixture (the top layer in the prototype), as it helps to conserve moisture, prevent wind erosion that creates the best conditions for seed germination and establishment of herbaceous plants for biological reclamation. Also the introduction of slams, having a pH of 7.5-9% (alkaline environment) in the upper layer neutralizes the peat, which has in Western Siberia pH 4-5 units, thereby increasing the fertility of the mixture.

The inventive method provides for the application of SPSG with increased structuring and improved fertile properties due to use in their composition as the main reclaiming additives gypsum or phosphogypsum.

SPSG I used to liquidation (backfill) developed pits, sludge pits, code of slopes of embankments of roads and earthworks, laying a layer of 0.5-1.0 meters of This type of mixture is prepared by mixing components (BSH, sand, peat based improver, the sorbent (microdamage)) in one step.

SPSG II is used for surface reclamation of disturbed and contaminated land, when laying the top layer thickness of 0.2-0.5 m In the first stage is mixed with sand and mixing BSH order predni the Oia staff. Processing the main improver, it is advisable to carry out after the introduction of a slurry of sand, before mixing with peat. In the next step, after laying the intermediate mixture, the introduction of fertilizers, sorbents, biologics and other mindanawon on the area of cultivated land.

In the process of elaboration and storage of the mixture, with stirring and exposure to air within 1-30 days is balanced humidity in the sample mixture, the material becomes friable or viscoplastic consistency. Immediately before laying the moisture content of the mixture is brought to values close to the optimal when the seal (20+/-5% to 40+/-10%).

Delivered to the place of use of the material is deposited in the structural layers of a thickness of 0.3-0.5 m layer-by-layer seal for reclamation of quarries or layer of 0.2-0.3 m for revegetation. After packing and distribution in the structural layer material is compacted to reach the value of compacting factor of not less than 0.9 at a depth location to 1.0 m from the ground surface and not less than 0.8 at a depth of laying more than 1.0 m from the ground surface.

As a result of implementation of the claimed method, a new minicaseruma with the ability to heal itself, binding, neutralization and decomposition of toxic compounds BSH in aerobic conditions, as well as adaptation to the external (macro) environment.

1. The mixture of soil and sludge-soil for remediation of pits and disturbed lands containing tortoisehg mixture, cuttings, active neutralizing and reclaiming additives, characterized in that as the main reclaiming additives use gypsum or phosphogypsum in the amount of 2-3% of the volume of the mixture, the content of components in the mixture is about.%:

cuttings50-65
sand or sandy loam soil16-25
peat15-23
active neutralizing and reclaiming supplementsrest

2. The mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of lowland and peat in the mixture is 1:2.

3. The mixture according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that it further comprises aluminosilicate sorbent at a rate of 0.5 kg per 1 kg of contained in the drilling mud oil.

4. The mixture of soil and sludge-soil for remediation of pits and disturbed lands containing tortoisehg mixture, cuttings, active neutralizing and reclaiming additives, characterized in that as the main reclaiming additives used g the COA or phosphogypsum in the amount of 1,5-2% of the volume of the mixture, the content of the components is about.%:

cuttings35-50
sand or sandy loam soil20-30
peat27-32,5
active neutralizing and reclaiming supplementsrest

5. The mixture according to claim 4, characterized in that the ratio of fen and raised bog peat is from 1:1 to 2:1.

6. The mixture according to any one of claims 4 and 5, characterized in that it further comprises aluminosilicate sorbent in the amount of 0.5 kg per 1 kg of contained in the drilling mud oil.

7. The mixture according to any one of claims 4 and 5, characterized in that as the active neutralizing and reclaiming additives used humic preparations or natural humanitarias organic fertilizer in an amount up to 1% of the volume of the mixture.

8. The mixture according to claim 6, characterized in that as the active neutralizing and reclaiming additives used humic preparations or natural humanitarias organic fertilizer in an amount up to 1% of the volume of the mixture.

9. The mixture of soil and sludge-soil for remediation of pits and disturbed lands, including the preparation of two is Mesa, characterized in that used as the lower layer reclamation mixture contains, vol.%:

cuttings50-65
sand or sandy loam soil16-25
peat15-23
active neutralizing and reclaiming supplements
including gypsum or phosphogypsum
in the amount of 2-3% of its volumethe rest,

and used as the top layer reclamation mixture contains, vol.%:
cuttings35-50
sand or sandy loam soil20-30
peat27-32,5
active neutralizing and reclaiming supplements
including gypsum or phosphogypsum
in the amount of 1,5-2% of its volume rest

10. Method of reclamation of open pits and disturbed lands, including the preparation of two soil sludge-soil mixtures, their patience and layer-by-layer stacking, characterized in that on top of reclamation lower layer of the mixture with the component content,%:

cuttings50-65
sand or sandy loam soil16-25
peat15-23
active neutralizing and reclaiming supplements
including gypsum or phosphogypsum
in the amount of 2-3% of its volumerest

stack reclamation upper layer of a mixture with component content,%:
cuttings35-50
sand or sandy loam soil20-30
peat27-32,5
active neutralizing and reclaiming supplements
including gypsum or phosphogypsum
in the amount of 1,5-2% of its volumerest



 

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to the field of treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes, in particular, to joint stacking of domestic solid waste products and the bioadditives produced on the basis of the settling sewage, the surplus active sludge of sewage treatment plants and the filling agents - composts from the factories for the domestic solid wastes processing. The technical result is an increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes and increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination. The method includes introduction of the bioadditives produced on the base of a mix of sludge of waste waters of the sewage treatment plants and composts from a factory on processing of the domestic solid wastes. At introduction of bioadditives in amount of 5-7 % of the total mass of the placed waste products, the contamination of which by microflora - decomposer makes 108 - 1010 cells/g. Intensification of the process of decomposition of organic components of placed waste products takes place and due to that increased their sedimentation. At that the value of sedimentation of the layers of the placed waste products is determined by formula: , where Hsed - a value of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; h - initial value of height of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; τ - time of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in day; Т - time constant of the process of sedimentation of the layers of the placed solid domestic solid wastes, in days. The time of a maximum sedimentation is determined by the formula: t = 3 ·T, where t - time during which the sedimentation process falls into a zone of 5 % from the value of maximum sedimentation of the layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, that is the time of termination of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of the introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes, increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination.

3 ex

FIELD: equipment for neutralizing range proving grounds for storage of solid domestic wastes by extracting of biogas for further utilization thereof.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has collector, perforated gas collecting pipes, condensate collector, flow rate meter, sampler, switching-off device, conveyance pipeline, and compressor station. Branches of perforated gas collecting pipes are connected to collector through flexible inserts. Stoppers are located at free ends of gas collecting pipes and collector. Condensate collector, flow rate meter, sampler and switching-off device are mounted on collector which is connected by conveyance pipeline through compressor station to cogenerator. Conveyance pipeline is equipped with compressed gas outlet.

EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency of biogas collecting apparatus.

2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: dumping solid waste.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises trenching during the period of the beginning of soil freezing and laying heat and hydraulic insulation on the trench bottom and over the trenches during the period of the beginning of defrosting soils. The trenches are then filled with solid waste, and during the next period of freezing, the trenches filled with solid waste are trenched from both sides.

EFFECT: improved environmental protection.

5 dwg

FIELD: protection of environment, in particular, disinfection of industrial and domestic dumps, including shaft rock dumps and piles of other kinds.

SUBSTANCE: method involves leveling dump surface; placing onto leveled dump surface the following materials: clay in volume sufficient for constructing of low-permeable 0.5 m thick shield; sand in volume sufficient for constructing of drainage and leveling layers of 0.5-0.6 thickness; clay layer having thickness of at least 0.1 m; bird dung layer kept for at least one year and meeting sanitary and microbiological norms, said bird dung layer having thickness of at least 0.1 m; providing biological recultivation process, with top layer being preliminarily mixed through depth of 0.3 m.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in disinfecting of various kinds of dumps.

1 tbl

FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.

5 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: methods for temporary or constant disposal of sewage water sediment, in particular, for preservation of toxic bottom oil sludge and other kinds of sludge from storage pools in oil refining and chemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves sequentially laying and compacting water-and-oil impermeable screen formed from drilling sludge and wastes which had been preliminarily dehydrated to residual moisture content of 5-30%; covering said sludge and wastes with water-and-oil impermeable screen, compacting, spilling layer of soil-plant ground thereon and planting. Dehydration of said sludge and wastes to residual moisture content is provided by evaporation in open air.

EFFECT: simplified disposal of toxic industrial wastes.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl

Insulating material // 2271882

FIELD: the invention refers to insulating materials.

SUBSTANCE: it may be used at burial places of toxic industry wastes of the third and the fourth degree of danger including solid domestic wastes. The material contains clay, sediment of staked lime or sludge of chemical water purification in quality of used lime waste material, bottom, floating oil-slime or soil polluted with mineral oils in quality of oil-slime at the following content of components, mass%: clay- 1-60, used lime waste- 15-40, oil-slime- 25-50.

EFFECT: allows to improve quality of insulating material and expand resources of raw materials.

6 tbl

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in mixing of the "tuilings" of the concentrating mill with carbonates with a subsequent storage of them without construction of a dam. Crumbs of brucite, as well as products of wood chemical processing of wood - lining are additionally introduced in the mixing, the place of storage is coated with a layer of an isolating water-proof film, 2 mm thick, withstanding without any rupture the action of the wheeled and caterpillar machinery. Shower and snowmelt waters are discharged by a water - way trench to the underlying area of the valley with a subsequent cleaning of them.

EFFECT: reduced danger of contamination of the ecosystems in the process of assimilation of mineral resources.

3 ex

FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the environmental protection, in particular, to the methods of decrease of the soil, ground and atmosphere pollution in the places of formation of the uncivilized dumps of the domestic and the industrial wastes and the adjoined territories and may be used at realization of the nature- protective and nature conservation measures. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and quality of the environmental protection: the soils, the ground and the aerosphere from pollution caused by the domestic and industrial wastes at liquidation of the uncivilized dumps due to prevention of propagation of contaminants on the territory adjacent to the dumps, permeation into the ground and the underground water-carrying layers and propagation in the air. The substance of the invention consists that prior to the beginning of the process of the dumps liquidation conduct the pilot survey of the territory abutting to the uncivilized dump and determine the character and the degree of pollution of the soils and the deep ground layers, as well as the availability and the parameters of the water-carrying layer; then they form the protective barrier around the dump in the soil and on the surface; at that in the soil the protective barrier is made to the depth of the of the penetrated pollution, and at availability of the water-carrying layer - up to the water confining layer, and on the surface - up to the height equal to the height of the dump. Then conduct removal of the wastes by their loading with the help of the loading mechanisms into the garbage trucks with the subsequent transportation to the garbage-processing works or to the civilized polygon of the solid wastes. Then the polluted soils and the ground of the dump territory is cut and removed into the depth of the pollution and their transportation to the special polygon remote from the habitation settlements, the rivers and basins for stacking, or to the operational civilized polygon of the solid waste for utilization as the intermediate insulating layer. Then the upper part of the indicated barrier is removed.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and quality of environmental protection.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: environmental protection; decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the environmental protection, in particular, to the decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes and may be used for collecting and withdrawing of the biogas formed in the depth of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW) polygon. The technical result of the invention is expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the DIW and decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment due to reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts in the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap. For this purpose on the polygon of the solid domestic and industrial wastes perform the preparation of the foundation, mounting of the system of the vertical gaseous drain from the net of the located on the polygon area wells with the perforated walls and the external filtrating earth-bank formed with the help of the sliding sheathing, the layer-by-layer placing of the wastes with the intermediate insulating layers, raising the wells in height of each layer of scrap; withdrawal of the biogas from the wells of the vertical gaseous drain is realized using the tubular drains of the horizontal drainage in the foundation of the DIW polygon. At that the lower links of the tubes of the wells of the of the vertical gaseous drain connect with the drainage wells of the horizontal tubular drains, and the upper ends of the wells of the vertical gaseous drainage shut by the plugs, which are installed after each cycle of the raise on the upper end of the sliding sheathing.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW), decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment, reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts into the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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