Well seismic survey

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a well seismic survey method which involves detecting seismic vibrations at receiving points lying in a fixed depth interval, exciting vibrations from excitation points lying in different azimuths from the projection on the earth's surface of the centre of the depth interval at distances from the projections that are comparable with the depth interval. Excitation and detection of vibrations is carried out before and after hydraulic fracturing in the depth interval. Detection of vibrations after hydraulic fracturing is carried out with a probe with tool determination of spatial orientation of seismic receivers contained therein. Vibration excitation points are installed on a circle, the centre of which is the projection of the centre of the depth interval on the earth's surface. Configuration of non-uniformity is determined from the azimuthal change in kinematic and dynamic seismic parameters determined in the depth interval before and after hydraulic fracturing.

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining the extent of a fractured zone lying in the vicinity of the investigated depth interval.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of downhole seismic and can be used to study the changes of state of the borehole environment, in particular to determine the stretch zone of fracture after the implementation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking), aimed at increasing oil recovery and enhanced oil recovery.

The essence of fracturing is that through the injection of fluid under high pressure is disclosure of a natural or the formation of artificial fractures in the reservoir, and further pumping sand-liquid mixture rasklinivanie educated cracks preserving their high-bandwidth after the end of the process and relieve the excess pressure. High throughput is achieved by filling the formed cracks coarse sand (proppant)deposited from sandy-liquid mixture.

In addition to the formation of cracks in the implementation of hydraulic fracturing is a redistribution stressed zones, interconnected with the generated cracks. With the orientation of the fractured and stressed zones associated spatial distribution of seismic parameters in the vicinity of the downhole intervals, within which the conduct of operations.

It is known that the height of the fractures affects heterogeneous lithological the th layer. The height of the most common fracturing vertical cracks propagate within the layer. Changes in the mechanical properties of the reservoir, due to its anisotropic, leads to a change in crack width and height of the strike. It was found theoretically and confirmed experimentally that the maximum opening width steeply dipping fractures is not their "mouth", and at some distance.

The results of experimental study of the mechanism of formation of the cracks showed that the orientation of hydraulic fractures is determined by the principle of energy balance of the process liquid into the layer and coincides with the planes of maximum elastic tension in the area of hydraulic fracturing (Gray et al., 2012). The length of the fractures reaches hundreds of meters and is determined by technical and technological support of the process, the properties of fracturing fluid, and the pace and volume of injection. The width of the cracks fracturing depends on the elastic deformation of the rocks of productive strata, technical and technological support of the process and can be several centimeters.

This implies that information about the property of the cracks obtained by conducting geophysical study wells (GIS), is not reliable because it gives detail is rmatio about the properties of rocks at a distance from the borehole wall, not exceeding the first tens of centimeters. In addition, significantly deviated wells is such an effective method of GIS, the acoustic log (AK), fails to work in the study of anisotropic section intervals (Bauch and Ryzhkov, 2010). It is also significant that in those cases when the well does not intersect the crack located in its vicinity, the method AK, unlike the method of VSP, generally fail to detect them (Maultzsch, S., Nawab R., Yuh, S., M. Idrees, 2009).

Modification of the downhole seismic method of vertical seismic profiling (VSP)), applied to the study of borehole environment, devoid of the above disadvantages of GIS methods.

The closest prototype to the invention is a method of downhole seismic, including registration of seismic vibrations at the point of reception located in a fixed depth interval, and the excitation of vibrations of the shot points located on a circle in different azimuths from the projection on the earth's surface to the center of the depth interval and determination of seismic parameters in the depth interval (Horne S. and R. Bale Method of processing geophysical data. US 7474996B2, 06.01.2009). Modification of the VSP method, which is used, is called the azimuthal VSP (walkaround VSP). This modification is used to study the orientation of cracks located in the cristesti wells.

The main disadvantage of the prototype, rightly pointed out by one of the authors (S. Home, 2003), it is limited only simple geological conditions environments with flat boundaries. The presence of structures, complicating the geometry of seismic boundaries, significantly reduces the accuracy of determining the parameters of cracks on the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of seismic waves. To increase task makes a significant curvature of the wellbore in which work is underway.

A significant disadvantage of this method is its limitation to the study of cracks resulting from fracturing. The state of the environment prior to fracturing in the vicinity of the interval, which was scheduled fracturing, remains unknown. Thereby it becomes difficult to identify changes in the environment occurring after the fracture with fracture. In addition, using the known method of seismic rays, not vectors of the mixture at the front of the seismic waves to determine the direction of approach of the waves to the receiving points located in the well leads to obvious inaccuracies. The reason is that in the case of anisotropic media, the direction of the seismic beam and the direction of displacement of the particles in the environment can vary significantly. The spatial position of salmoria the nicks and orientation of the three plants in a well defined however, the assumption of coincidence of the displacement of the particles and the length of the beam on the approach to the installation of seismographs. However, it is at the point of reception located in the vicinity of hydraulic fracturing, the fracturing of the environment leads to anisotropy, with a pronounced anomalous character.

Significantly, however, that the direction of the cracks is associated with the azimuthal anisotropy not only kinematic, and dynamic seismic parameters of the studied depth interval. And if the prototype for identifying the kinematic parameters as the velocity of propagation of longitudinal and transverse waves, is not so essential to determine the exact spatial position of the geophones comprising a three-component balance at each point of reception, to identify such subtle dynamic parameters, such as the polarization of the waves and the direction of displacement of the particles of the medium at the point of reception, knowledge of the spatial position of the geophones is very important. However, in terms of anisotropic models, the direction of displacement of the particles of the medium may be substantially different from the direction of approach of seismic rays from the source to the receiver hesitation. Identification in the prototype of these two directions of polarization of the direct longitudinal wave, inevitable in the conditions of registering vibrations of the probe without tools is analnogo determining the spatial orientation contained geophones, can lead to gross errors in the calculation of the required component of the wave field.

The purpose of the invention is to improve the accuracy of determining the spatial position of the discontinuities formed within the depth interval in the result of hydraulic fracturing.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of the borehole seismology, including registration of seismic vibrations at the point of reception located in a fixed depth interval, the excitation of vibrations of the points of excitation, located on a circle in different azimuths from the projection on the earth's surface to the center of the depth interval, the excitation and registration of oscillation is carried out before and after fracturing. About the configuration of the heterogeneity judged by the azimuth change of kinematic and dynamic seismic parameters defined in the depth interval before and after frac. In one of the embodiments of the invention the registration of oscillations performed by the probe with the instrumental determination of the spatial orientation contained geophones. Thus, according to the records of three-component geophones with known spatial orientation component determines the direction of the displacement of the particles of the medium at the point of reception, on the model of the near-wellbore determine the direction of approach of the teaching points of reception, and the difference of directions of displacement and direction of the beam coming into the point of reception, judge anisotropy of the medium between points of reception, due to the busy state of the medium before and after hydraulic fracturing.

Figure 1 schematically shows the implementation of the method when registering seismic vibrations from one of the points of excitation (RO), located on the circle in the center of which is the projection on the earth's surface to the centre of the investigated depth interval, located in the well.

Figures Fig.1 shows: the point of excitation (PV) 1; well 2; point 3 reception in the borehole; modified after fracturing interval layer 4; the boundary 5 between modified after fracturing part of the layer and an unmodified part 6; beam 7 direct wave connecting PV 1 and the receiving point 8 located on the roof of the layer 4; the beam is refracted wave 9, passing through the boundary point 10 of the amended part 4 of the layer and the receiving point 3; the locus of the direct wave 11; anomalous plot of the locus of the 12 that occur after fracturing.

The method is as follows.

After working well along the entire vertical profile of the PV, which are located at different azimuths from the well, determined by known methods tolstolisto and (or) thin-layered velocity model of the environment (Shechtman, 2011). Then, in the depth interval scheduled for sleduushego holding within it of hydraulic fracturing, put the probe VSP that overlaps this interval at least in two points. The probe VSP, at least after hydrofracturing, should be provided by the system of the instrumental determination of the spatial orientation contained by geophones, for example, gyroscopic devices of a known type (Mentukov A.A., Suzdalnitski F.M., 1987). The quality of contact of each of the devices of the probe with the borehole wall should be high enough to prevent spurious rotational vibrations of the instrument housing on the contact (Schechtman GA, Nara, NV, 2011). This is achieved through the use of downhole devices, shoes, rigidly attached to the housing of each device (Schechtman GA, Kasimov ANO, Redekop, VA, 2012).

PV dispersed evenly around the circumference whose center coincides with the projection on the earth's surface to the centre of the investigated depth interval, and the radius of the circle take commensurate with the depth of the center of the depth interval. This location PV in drilling deviated wells with sub-horizontal bedding of the sediments overlying strata, characterized by, for example, in Western Siberia, will allow to minimize the distorting effect of wellbore inclination on the results of seismic observations.

The number of PV, it is recommended to take at least six to ensure reliable is th definition of azimuth fractured zone, located in the vicinity of well-to frac and formed after the meeting. Within the sectors of greatest interest, described a circular profile, it is sensible to work with a small step. For this purpose, the vibration source is moved along the circumference of such a step, which is adopted in the study area for detailed ground-based seismic observations. At the stage of processing that will allow by averaging observations to obtain a more stable azimuthal radiation pattern. The excitation of vibrations from each shot point at a fixed depth interval (it may not be one) carry out at least twice: before fracturing and after it.

Processing the retrieved records is the definition of each PV kinematic and dynamic parameters. Thus take into account the orientation of the three detector arrays located in each of the downhole tools, and data to the directional wells. As kinematic parameters define the interval velocity of longitudinal and transverse waves. Comparison of wave fields that are registered within the depth intervals, with the wave fields, registered from individual PV along the entire wellbore, allows us to judge the type of the waves, which determine speed. As dynamic parameters determine the trajectory of the displacement of the particles of the medium, the prevailing direction of displacement of the particles of the medium, the attenuation of seismic waves within the depth interval, and ratio of seismic energy recorded at a tangential component to the energy recorded on the radial component. The last of these dynamic parameters are most preferred because it is characterized by a relative value, not dependent on changes in excitation conditions in the transition from one PV to another.

For each of the specified parameters build the chart, similar to the rose of fracture.

At the initial stage of VSP data processing mapping vertical locus obtained prior to fracturing and after that we can identify anomalous areas; the corresponding modified zone layer, in which the fracture. Figure 1 shows such a bizarre plot 12. The lowest point of the abnormal area on the locus corresponds to a receiving point 3 located under the sole layer 4. Knowing the geometry (coordinates px and reception points in the borehole) and the velocity model we have studied to fracturing by using optimization to obtain the coordinates of the point 10, located on the border 3 of the modified zone 4 and unmodified zone 6 with the HHS in which carry out hydraulic fracturing.

Interpretation of azimuthal charts consider the example of the energy parameter, which is the ratio of energy on the tangential and radial components. In these diagrams the direction of stretch of cracks and orthogonal to it direction will be characterized by minimum values of this parameter. On the diagram of the interval of the longitudinal velocity, the direction of fracture is characterized by maximum values (along the plane of fracture), while orthogonal to the crack direction will have a minimum value. For shear wave splitting in the fractured area, there are two waves: one, with a maximum speed of polarized along the planes of fracture, and the other, the minimum speed that is polarized orthogonal to the plane of fracture. The integrated use of various seismic parameters allows you to more reliably determine the spatial location of fractured zones.

Comparison of the radiation patterns obtained before and after fracturing, allows us to judge the direction of fracturing in the well vicinity prior to hydraulic fracturing and after him. In addition, the pattern can be judged on the distribution of elastic the stress in the near-well space within the investigated depth interval. The direction corresponding to the maximum elastic strain coincides generally with the strike of the fracture. Along this direction, the speed of propagation of longitudinal waves within the fractured zone maximum (or, equivalently, the time of wave propagation is minimal), and two split quasiperiodic waves wave, experiencing fluctuations along the crack has a higher velocity, and wave, experiencing fluctuations across cracks (more pliable), has a lower rate. When using an array of seismic sources basic information about transverse waves, experiencing a break down fractured reservoirs of hydrocarbons, contain exchange passing wave type PS, which are exchanged with the longitudinal to transverse wave occurs at a sharp seismic boundaries located above the investigated depth interval.

Definition according to VSP parameters such as young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio σ and flexibility (values back to hardness) ZNdirected normal to the direction of maximum tension elastic, allows to quantify the relative importance of horizontal elastic stress (OGUN state) by the following formula (D. Gray, 2012):

OGUN=(E ZN/(1+EZN+σ)).

This value is a very important parameter when p is Agroservice, in what direction can develop the hydraulic fracture. In the case when OGUN is of great importance, the development of cracks is parallel to the direction of maximum stress. On the contrary, when the value of OGUN is small, the hydraulic fracture developing in many directions, having a tendency to overlap. Such a network of cracks is preferred to increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon recovery from reservoirs.

The positive effect of the application of the invention is provided sverhsummarny effect, achieved through a new combination of known features.

The application of the present invention allows to obtain more reliable and accurate results in drilling deviated wells in the study of fractured zones containing hydrocarbon accumulations.

SOURCES of INFORMATION

1. Bauk ACTING, V. Ryzhkov, 2010. Determination of the parameters of the cracks and pores of carbonate reservoirs according to wave acoustic logging: seismic Technology, 3, 32-42.

2. Mentukov A.A., Suzdalnitski F.M. Method of obtaining seismic records, oriented in azimuth in a borehole: USSR Author's certificate No. 1325393, CL G01V 1/40, 1987.

3. Shechtman G.A. Ways to improve the accuracy in the study of seismic velocities using the method of vertical seismic profiling: Technology seymores the caustic, 2, 23-31, 2011.

4. Shechtman GA, Kasimov ANO, Redekop VA Downhole seismic device: RF Patent №2444030, 2012.

5. Shechtman GA, Nara, NV, 2011, Factors affecting the quality of the data, vertical seismic profiling: seismic Technology, 2, 59-69 (in Russian).

6. Usachev PM Hydraulic fracturing. - M.: Nedra, 1986, 165 S.

7. Economides M.J., K.G. Nolte Reservoir stimulation. - Prentici Holl, 1989.

8. Gray D., P. Anderson, J. Logel, F. Delbecq, Schmidt D., Schmid R., 2012, Estimation of stress and geomechanical properties using 3D seismic data: First Break, 3, 59-68.

9. Home S.A., 2003, Fracture characterization from walkaround .vsps: Geophysical Prospecting, 51,493-499.

10. Home S. and R. Bale Method of processing geophysical data. US 7474996 B2, 06.01.2009 (prototype).

11. Maultzsch, S., Nawab R., Yuh, S., M. Idrees, 2009, An integrated multi-azimuth VSP study for fracture characterization in the vicinity of a well: Geophysical Prospecting, 57, 263-274.

1. The way the borehole seismology, including registration of seismic vibrations at the point of reception located in a fixed depth interval, the excitation of vibrations of the points of excitation, located on a circle in different azimuths from the projection on the earth's surface to the center of the depth interval, characterized in that, to improve the accuracy of determination of the spatial position of the discontinuities formed within the depth interval in the hydraulic fracturing, stimulation and recording vibrations carried out before and after fracturing, the configuration number is agnosti, formed as a result of hydraulic fracturing, judged by the azimuth change of kinematic and dynamic seismic parameters defined for each point of excitation in the depth interval before and after frac.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least after fracturing registration of oscillations performed by the probe with the instrumental determination of the spatial orientation contained geophones.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the records of three-component geophones with known spatial orientation component determines the direction of the displacement of the particles of the medium at the point of reception, on the model of the near-wellbore determine the direction of approach of the beam to the receiving points and the difference of directions of displacement and direction of the beam coming into the point of reception, judge anisotropy of the medium between points of reception, due to the state of the environment before and after hydraulic fracturing.



 

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7 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention discloses coated particles for extracting oil, a proppant which contains the coated particles and a method for oil field development using said particles. The coated particles contain aggregate particles and an oil-permeable and water-impermeable film which coats the aggregate particles; the film is formed by at least two oleophilic and hydrophobic resins, an oil-permeable and water-impermeable epoxy resin, an oleophilic and hydrophobic phenol-aldehyde polymer, an oleophilic and hydrophobic polyurethane, with the weight ratio of the two types of oleophilic and hydrophobic resins of 1:0.1-10. The method for oil field development employs said particles. The invention is developed in subclaims.

EFFECT: high efficiency in reducing volume of produced water and high oil extraction.

10 cl, 15 ex, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

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